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List of some hyperaccumulator plants. 

List of some hyperaccumulator plants. 

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The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and hu...

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... most commonly postu- lated hypothesis regarding the reason or advantage of metal hyper- accumulation in plants is elemental defense against herbivores (by making leaves unpalatable or toxic) and pathogens (Meharg, 2005;Prasad, 2005;Dipu et al., 2012). Table 4 gives a list of some metal hyperaccumulators. ...

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Due to different activities by the human being like ore extraction and application of different processes causing the heavy metal mobility which leads to the addition of these elements in the environment. As we all know that nature of heavy metal is non-biodegradable hence accumulating in the surroundings and enters in food chain causing the impuri...

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... In recent decades, non-essential heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr are the most serious disaster affecting humans, plants, and the environment negatively (Mohebbi et al. 2012) since they are nonbiodegradable (Ali et al. 2013). The conventional remediation methods cause high cost, intensive labor, irreversible changes in soil properties, and disturbance of native soil microflora. ...
... Thus, researchers obtain a novel approach called phytoremediation, which is an economically feasible and sustainable option to clean up heavy metal-contaminated fields. Phytoremediation refers to a green technology that uses plants and associated soil microbes to reclaim HM and radionuclides from contaminated soil by various mechanisms including phytoextraction, rhizofltration, phytostabilization, phytodesalination, photodegradation, and phytovolatilization; Mohebbi et al. 2012;Ali et al. 2013;Liu et al. 2013). ...
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The deficiencies of micronutrients known as hidden hunger are severely affecting more than one-half of the world’s population, which is highly related to low bioavailability of micronutrients, poor quality diets, and consumption of cereal-based foods in developing countries. Although numerous experiments proved biofortification as a paramount approach for improving hidden hunger around the world, its effectiveness is highly related to various soil factors, climate conditions, and the adoption rates of biofortified crops. Furthermore, agronomic biofortification may result in the sedimentation of heavy metals in the soil that pose another detrimental effect on plants and human health. In response to these challenges, several studies suggested intercropping as one of the feasible, eco-friendly, low-cost, and short-term approaches for improving the nutritional quality and yield of crops sustainable way. Besides, it is the cornerstone of climate-smart agriculture and the holistic solution for the most vulnerable area to solve malnutrition that disturbs human healthy catastrophically. Nevertheless, there is meager information on mechanisms and processes related to soil-plant interspecific interactions that lead to an increment of nutrients bioavailability to tackle the crisis of micronutrient deficiency in a nature-based solution. In this regard, this review tempted to (1) explore mechanisms and processes that can favor the bioavailability of Zn, Fe, P, etc. in soil and edible parts of crops, (2) synthesize available information on the benefits and synergic role of the intercropping system in food and nutritional security, and (3) outline the bottlenecks influencing the effectiveness of biofortification for promoting sustainable agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on this review SSA countries are malnourished due to limited access to diverse diets, supplementation, and commercially fortified food; hence, I suggest integrated research by agronomists, plant nutritionists, and agroecologist to intensify and utilize intercropping systems as biofortification sustainably alleviating micronutrient deficiencies. Graphical Abstract
... These tissues, like vessels, joints, skeletons and muscles are damaged through the substitution method. Toxic metals can be deposited in many areas, responsible for local allergy and other toxic impacts (Ali et al., 2013). They can also give support growth of micro-organisms infections those are complicated or not possible to eliminate until this reason is eliminated. ...
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... It is also considered a clean, cost-effective, simple, and environmentally friendly remediation strategy [44]. Phytoremediation via mechanisms like phytoextraction, phytodegradation, phytovolatilization, phytostabilization, photodegradation, hemofiltration and phytodesalination remediate contaminants from different polluted media [45]. Table 1 shows the summaries of the descriptions of the phytoremediation process. ...
... The plants with higher root biomass and high accumulating capacity of heavy metal and tolerance to contaminants possess high efficiency of contaminant removal from the soil [67]. 5 Phytodesalination utilizes halophytic plants salts from salt-affected soils [45]. Halophytic plants are considered well adapted to tolerate heavy metals compared to glycophytic plants [68]. ...
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Phytoremediation is an in situ application by planting crops in areas of contaminated soil. The contaminated media treated by phytoremediation are soil, sediment, sludge, ground, surface, and wastewater. It is a potential method to prevent toxic contaminants from entering the food chain and conserves biological diversity. This innovative technique uses plant species with good biomass yield to alleviate contaminant toxicity in various polluted media in an ecosystem, and harvestable parts of the plants will turn up into bioenergy. This sustainable and cost-effective technology is a fast emerging alternative as compared to conventional remediation methods. Based on literature obtained from different search engines, this review will be beneficial in gathering and critically analyzing the earlier published data for making a new milestone in the field of phytoremediation.
... ecological implications, including effects on herbivores and other plants (Boyd 2004;Boyd and Martens 1998;Mohiley et al. 2020;Rascio and Navari-Izzo 2011), as well as environmental significance, due to the potential use of metal hyperaccumulators in phytoremediation practices (Ali et al. 2013;Pilon-Smits 2005;Yan et al. 2020). ...
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Background Metal hyperaccumulators are plant species that can uptake and store high concentrations of heavy metals in their aboveground tissues, while maintaining high vigor. Hyperaccumulation of metals was suggested to provide defense against natural enemies such as herbivores. However, heavy-metal uptake can incur physiological and ecological costs, suggesting that, like other anti-herbivore defenses, it might be induced by herbivore attack. Nevertheless, this idea has been scarcely studied. Methods We tested the hypothesis that herbivory could induce enhanced metal uptake in Helianthus annuus, which can accumulate high amounts of heavy metals in its aboveground tissues and is commonly used for phytoremediation of heavy-metal contaminated soils. In a greenhouse experiment, H. annuus plants were grown in low or high soil cadmium (Cd) concentration and subjected to control or herbivory treatments. Herbivory was simulated using both leaf damage and exogenous application of jasmonic acid, which activates anti-herbivore defenses in plants. Results Simulated herbivory increased Cd concentration in the leaves of H. annuus by 24 and 39% under low and high soil Cd availability, respectively. Moreover, while simulated herbivory decreased shoot biomass of H. annuus it resulted in increased total Cd uptake. These results demonstrate that hyperaccumulation of heavy metals might be a facultative trait, whose extent can be enhanced in response to herbivore damage. Conclusions This study provides first evidence that simulated herbivory can enhance total heavy metal uptake in plants that are used for remediation of contaminated soils, which can have important implications on the optimization of phytoremediation practices.
... Translocation factor (TF) is the capability of the plant to relocate the metalloid content from roots to aboveground tissues (Ali et al., 2013). The translocation factor (TF) of paddy plant was calculated using the following equations, Eqs. ...
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Paddy plants (Oryza sativa) contaminated with metals could be detrimental to human health if the concentrations of metals exceed the permissible limit. Thus, this study aims to assess the risk of the concentrations of As, Se, Cu, Cr, Co, and Ni and their distributions in various parts (roots, stems, leaves, and grains) of paddy plants collected from Sekinchan, Malaysia. Both soil and plant samples were digested according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3050B and the metal concentrations were determined by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest mean translocation factor (TF) was from soil to roots (TF roots/soil ranged from 0.12 to 6.15) and the lowest was from leaves to grain (TF grain/leaves ranged from 0.06 to 0.87). Meanwhile, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for all metals was less than 1.0 indicating that paddy plants only absorb metals from the soil but do not accumulate in the grains. The average daily intake for As (1.15 ± 0.25 µg/kg/day) has exceeded the limit proposed by ATSDR and IRIS USEPA (0.30 µg/kg/day). Target cancer risk (TR) of 1.10 × 10–3 for As through rice consumption indicates that the potential cancer risk exists in one out of 1000 exposed individuals. The results from this study could serve as a reference for researchers and policymakers to monitor and formulate strategies in managing As and other metals in paddy plants, especially in Southeast Asian countries.
... In addition, HMs slowly contaminate varieties of land which can be used for commercial purposes such as agriculture, forestry, nursery, horticulture, etc. However, these metals and metalloids slowly enter the food chain and result in oxidative stress, enzyme disruption, chronic anemia, endocrine disruption, autoimmune and carcinogenic diseases, allergic dermatitis, etc. in humans [1][2][3]. ...
... From time to time, there has been comprehensive reviews reported every year on the progress of research on phytoremediation such as [2,[9][10][11][12][13][14]. Most of the reviews were focused on the search of plants-hyperaccumulators and the mechanism involved in metal transfer from soil to plant. ...
... The only possible and most effective method is to sequester them into the plant and use harvest to extract metals from plant parts [9,30,31]. However, the ability to accumulate HMs varies significantly between species and cultivars within a species [2,7,32]. This technology can be applied to both organic and inorganic pollutants present in soil (solid substrate), water (liquid substrate) or the air [31] and can be used for the removal of toxic metals from the biosphere [33][34][35]. ...
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... Among environmental pollutants, metals are considered highly toxic elements. Metals are not biodegradable; therefore, they persist and accumulate in the environment (Ali et al. 2013). Also, in their bioavailable fraction, metals can accumulate in the tissues of organisms (bioaccumulation) since they are easily absorbed through biological membranes. ...
... The present results support the potential of D. viscosa to be considered for soil phytoremediation because (a) D. viscosa is an accumulator species for essential (Cu, Zn, Fe) and non-essential (Cd, Cr, Pb) metals. Accordingly, a plant can be considered an accumulator if its TF is ≥ 1 (Olguín and Sánchez-Galván 2012; Ali et al. 2013). ...
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Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. is a plant with a wide distribution that expands throughout almost all Mexican territory and is used in traditional medicine to treat many ailments. This species has been found associated with polluted areas, including mine tailings. Huautla, Morelos, Mexico, was a metallurgic district where mining activities generated 780,000 tons of waste rich in metals, deposited at 500 m from the town without any treatment; this situation has been related to different environmental threats and human health risks. The study was carried out for 18 months on seedlings developed under greenhouse conditions in two treatments: control substrate and mine tailings substrate. The concentration of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) was measured through atomic absorption spectrophotometry in plant tissues, roots, and leaves. Effects of metal exposure were analyzed by size, micro-morphological character changes, and genetic damage in foliar tissue using the comet assay. The results showed significantly higher metal concentrations in the roots and leaves of individuals growing on the mine tailing substrate in comparison to the same plants tissues growing on control substrate. Positive and significant relationships between exposure time and metal concentration in roots and leaves, and between metal bioaccumulation in leaves and genetic damage were registered. Four out of six micro-morphological and size characters evaluated decreased significantly in exposed plants, except for stomatic index and root biomass. The most important metals in terms of the number of significantly affected micro-morphological and size characters showed the next pattern: Fe > Cd = Cr = Pb > Cu > Zn. D. viscosa is an efficient accumulator of Cu, Cd, Fe, Pb, and Zn in its root and leaf tissues. Overall, metal translocation factors in exposed D. viscosa plants showed the following pattern: Zn > Cu > Cd. We conclude that D. viscosa has the potential to phytoextract (Zn, Cu, and Cd), and phytostabilize (Cu, Cd, Fe, Pb, and Zn) metals from polluted soils, and along with its abundance, natural establishment in mine tailings, high levels of metal translocation, and bioconcentration factors, without affecting plant development, it can be an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.
... Many phytoremediation techniques for alleviating soil pollution includes phytodegradation, phytovolatilization, rhizodegradation, and phytoextraction. Bioremediation is anticipated to provide a variety of benefits, including production of fiber or biofuel, soil organic carbon sequestration, soil stabilization, and microbial activity stimulation (Abhilash et al., 2009;Ali et al., 2013). The major drawback of phytoremediation is that it typically takes years, or sometimes even decades, to produce positive results. ...
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Modern industrialization is progressively degrading soil quality due to heavy metal contamination. Heavy metal (HM) contamination of agricultural soil has gained considerable attention due to its rapidly increasing levels. Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique physicochemical properties that make them effective stress relievers. Material science has recently been emphasizing “green” synthesis as a reliable, environmentally friendly, and sustainable method of synthesizing different kinds of materials, such as alloys, metal oxides, hybrids, and bioinspired materials. Therefore, green synthesis can be viewed as an effective tool to reduce the detrimental effects of the traditional nanoparticle synthesis methods commonly used in laboratories and industries. The review briefly describes the biosynthesis of NPs, the use of nanobiotechnology to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soil, the effect that NPs have on growth and development of plants, the behavior of NPs within plants when exposed to pollutants and the mechanisms used to alleviate HM stress. In addition, a broad overview of the major types of nanomaterials used so far in bioremediation of toxic heavy materials, recent advances regarding HM stress and the possible mechanisms by which NPs and HM interact in the agricultural system are also discussed.
... Heavy metal pollution of the environment has received a lot of attention due to the fact that it can cause irreversible damage to human health (Chowdhury et al., 2016). Iron poisoning can be accompanied by abdominal pain and vomiting, while the accumulation of excess iron in the internal organs causes serious damage to the brain, liver, the cardiovascular system, and kidneys (Ali et al., 2013;Saleh et al., 2018). Exposure to elevated levels of Mn in drinking water during pregnancy might impair the intellectual development of children (Wasserman et al., 2006). ...
... In addition to As and Pb, Mn has also been identified as a developmental neurotoxicant. Over dosage of Zn can cause dizziness and fatigue (Ali et al., 2013). At low exposure chronic levels, As can cause skin and lung cancer, while exposure to Cd is associated with breast and ovarian cancer (Hong et al., 2014;Adams et al., 2014;Qasemi et al., 2019). ...
... Receiving arsenic through the water causes severe health problems such as cancer, gangrene, melanosis, hyperkeratosis, high blood pressure, skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, and carcinogens effects in lungs and skin (Radfard et al., 2018). Elevated levels of Cu have been found to cause brain and kidney damage, liver cirrhosis and chronic anemia, stomach and intestinal irritation (Ali et al., 2013). The presence of Ni in the water causes allergic dermatitis, hematotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive toxic, pulmonary toxic, nephrotoxic, and hepatotoxic effect, also causes hair loss (Ali et al., 2013). ...
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Severodvinsk city is the largest industrial center for the construction and repair of naval vessels in the NW Russia. The purpose of the presented study was to identify the main sources of pollution of the Severodvinsk industrial region and assess the ecological situation based on analysis of toxic metals in water and snow. Heavy metals content in water, melt snow filtrate and solid residue was measured using ICP-MS. On the urban area, there were high concentrations of Fe (up to 2843 MPC) in soluble form of snow, Al (up to 4680 MPC), Fe (up to 2807 MPC), Ni (up to 66.5 MPC), Pb (up to 44.7 MPC), Cd (up to 43.3 MPC), Cr (up to 43.2 MPC), Mn (up to 13.3 MPC), Co (up to 7.3 MPC), and As (up to 3.4 MPC) in insoluble form of snow, Fe (up to 56213 MPC) in water from wells. There were high values of mineralization (598 mg/L) and low pH values (to 5.21) in sites most susceptible to anthropogenic pollution. Statistical analysis showed that most of the metals in snow cover were linked with each other by strong correlation (r>0.9). Calculation of toxicological indices HMEI, HMPI, HMTL, HI and CR showed extremely high and dangerous for public health level of heavy metal pollution in the Severodvinsk industrial district. Studied radiation parameters of water from wells were within acceptable limits. Results obtained indicate the need to change the type of fuel in thermal power plant and reduce toxic emissions from the shipbuilding enterprises.
... From last 2-3 decades, agro-based chemicals are also a significant heavy metal contributing factor which contaminates the natural ecosystems with this slowly and steadily fertile land turning into barren land and disrupting the nature's balances. The human-based disturbance of natural biogeochemical cycles, and accentuated accumulation of heavy metals (HMs), is a problem of paramount importance for ecological, nutritional, and environmental reasons (Nagajyoti et al. 2010;Ali et al. 2013). These activities cause leaching of metals into groundwater or accumulate them on soil surface Ali 2002, 2012;Ali and Aboul-Enein 2006;Ali et al. 2009;Aydinalp and Marinova 2009;Dağhan and Ozturk 2015;Hakeem et al. 2015;Ozturk et al. 2015a, b;Basheer 2018a). ...
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In recent years, as a result of anthropogenic activities, a rise in environmental stresses has been observed. Sessile organisms such as plants make use of signalling in order to interpret and respond appropriately to environmental changes. An evolutionary conserved signal transduction module i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a component of kinase module engaged in different cellular signalling responses in eukaryotes including plants. They receive the extracellular signal and transmitted it to the nucleus for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The cascade of MAPK is based on 3 components i.e., MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPK; they are connected with each other by phosphorylation mechanism and finally transmit the signals to a particular transcription factor/s (TxFs). In plants, MAPK-based signalling can be regulated by different phytohormones. Not only cell division and differentiation, MAPK signalling plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stress by generating antioxidative mechanism within the cell. Rampant industrialization and subsequent use of various agrochemicals make soil polluted by piling the soil with different kinds of heavy metals which is not essential to human beings as well as for the plants to survive. The present review is based on the signalling mechanism of MAPK cascade of plants in response to heavy metal stress (HMs).