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Likelihood Categories for Pedestrians (P1 to P4)

Likelihood Categories for Pedestrians (P1 to P4)

Source publication
Conference Paper
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Like many large cities Auckland's busy and high-risk arterials carry the bulk of traffic flows and include a mix of active/vulnerable road users (cyclist / motorcyclist / pedestrian). Auckland Transport is adopting Vision Zero and understanding vulnerable road user crash risks on such routes can be difficult due to the wide variety of factors that...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... likelihood the risk band depends on the facilities provided along a section. The raw score for likelihood is derived using the facilities specified in Tables 2 and Table 3 . Further refinement of these criteria is likely as experience with the tool occurs. ...

Citations

... Many pedestrians engage in spatial violations while crossing to save time and reduce the walking distance (8). Nevertheless, pedestrians' decisions on whether to violate or not vary significantly depending on many factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to understand the impact of a variety of factors on the frequency and severity of pedestrian-vehicle collisions that involve pedestrian spatial violations at mid-blocks. To that end, the historical collision records of the City of Hamilton between 2010 and 2017 were obtained, and collisions that had occurred at mid-blocks were filtered out. A Bayesian structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was developed to investigate the impact of a wide range of factors on such collisions. First, a classical SEM was developed to group the different factors into sets of latent variables. Four latent variables were defined, including location amenities and attractions, pedestrian/road network characteristics, exposure parameters, and location/collision-specific factors. The Bayesian SEM was then implemented to investigate the relationship between the latent variables and collisions. The results showed that the amenities and attractions of a location (e.g., parks, schools, bike-share stations, and bus stops) were the most influential factor on the frequency of collisions that involve spatial violation, followed by pedestrian network characteristics. Pedestrian network characteristics and location/collision-specific factors were found to be the most influential factors on the severity of collisions. The location of bike-share stations, pedestrian network connectivity, exposure to walkers, and the number of lanes were the four observed variables that explained the highest percentage of the variance in each latent group, respectively. The results of this study should assist engineers and planners to develop better design concepts to mitigate collisions that are caused by pedestrian spatial violations in urban areas.
... Several studies (Hamed, 2001;Yannis et al., 2013;Lue and Miller, 2019) evaluated the safety of pedestrians from an operational perspective, including the effect of traffic conditions and road environment (i.e., gap acceptance, vehicle speed, waiting times). Others (Keall, 1995;Lassarre et al., 2007;Lam et al., 2014;Turner and Smith, 2019) measured it through the exposure to crash risk such as time spent walking, the number of traffic lanes and volume to be crossed. However, fewer studies attempted to investigate the motivational factors of this behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrians crossing roads at unprotected mid-block sections is a common behaviour associated with traffic accidents. It is a calculated risk that pedestrians take based on prevailing traffic conditions and their motivation. However, there is limited understanding of these factors. This paper investigates the motivational factors associated with pedestrians' risky crossing behaviour at unprotected, urban mid-block road sections. An on-site survey is conducted at four different locations in Auckland, New Zealand. It includes questions related to the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, habit and their relationships considering the effects of gender. Motivational factors are analysed using factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results show that pedestrians' intention to cross a road at mid-block sections is mainly driven by habit and attitude. Some pedestrians , however, internalise the belief that risky crossing behaviour is an acceptable act in society from friends and important referents which is mediated through habit. Women's decisions are highly influenced by their attitude while men's' risky behaviour is influenced by their friends' perceptions. Crossing at mid-block sections is also perceived as a necessary risk worth taking, which is mentally linked to convenience gain, including saving travel time and reducing walking distances. The paper offers some insights into pedestrians' motivation to cross at mid-block. Findings are expected to assist in developing effective measures to reform the social acceptance of such behaviours and compliment engineering practices to reduce traffic accidents at unprotected mid-block sections.