‘Life cycle’ of modern vaccine development comprising iteration of basic research, vaccine trial, clinical study of natural infection and modeling by computational analysis. Vaccine development against HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB starts from basic research providing proof of concept for a novel vaccine candidate. Valid candidates are introduced into clinical trial, which will not only provide information about safety and efficacy but also reveal informative biosignatures. In parallel, clinical studies on naturally infected and diseased individuals can provide information about disease-related biosignatures. Computational analysis and modeling will generate new hypotheses, which can be validated by basic research. This iteration can lead to further vaccine improvement.

‘Life cycle’ of modern vaccine development comprising iteration of basic research, vaccine trial, clinical study of natural infection and modeling by computational analysis. Vaccine development against HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB starts from basic research providing proof of concept for a novel vaccine candidate. Valid candidates are introduced into clinical trial, which will not only provide information about safety and efficacy but also reveal informative biosignatures. In parallel, clinical studies on naturally infected and diseased individuals can provide information about disease-related biosignatures. Computational analysis and modeling will generate new hypotheses, which can be validated by basic research. This iteration can lead to further vaccine improvement.

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Human vaccine development remains challenging because of the highly sophisticated evasion mechanisms of pathogens for which vaccines are not yet available. Recent years have witnessed both successes and failures of novel vaccine design and the strength of iterative approaches is increasingly appreciated. These combine discovery of novel antigens, a...

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... To inform on these features, databases such as Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) and other tools are available [14]. Nevertheless, in silico-based approaches have not supported a significant increase in the total number of licensed products in the last decades and several challenges remain [9,15,16]. Our capacity to explore the vast amount of data generated by immunoinformatic algorithms is still limited to a few often web-based tools that work with different output formats. ...
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... After completion of the first 3 phases of clinical trials, in which their efficacy and toxicity were to find out. It moves to phase 4 [20]. ...
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