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Levels of inactivity in children by age and sex 12 .

Levels of inactivity in children by age and sex 12 .

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... In addition, outdoor exercise can be a viable alternative to indoor exercise; exposure to a natural environment is linked to triggering a higher amount of PA among residents, and a lower mortality rate [21][22][23]. Some studies have showed that long-term adherence to exercise initiatives conducted in an outdoor natural environment or urban green space may be superior to that of indoor exercise interventions [16,24,25]. Despite several pieces of evidence on the health benefits of parks, they are generally underutilized, and visitors are often engaged in low levels of PA during their park visits [19,26]. ...
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Many benefits of physical activity (PA) are observed with weekly average volumes of 150–300 min at moderate intensity. Public parks may be an attraction for many people living in the city and could help to achieve the recommended dose of PA. The present study aims to understand the motivation that drives people to a park and evaluate the amount of PA practiced by park-goers. A questionnaire was anonymously administered to 383 voluntary visitors to the Arcoveggio park (Bologna), aged 18–70 years. Sixty-one percent of participants practiced outdoor PA. Differences in park use between sexes and age groups were found. PA was higher in men than in women and in the 18–30 age group than in other age groups. Most participants travelled to the park in an active way (86.4%), resulting in easier attainment of the recommended amount of PA (64.5%). The main motivations for using the park were related to relaxation, performing PA, or both. According to a multiple regression model, the time per week spent at the park, the method of getting there, and the kind of PA were significant explanatory variables of the amount of PA practiced. In particular, the highest number of minutes of PA was achieved by those who travelled to the park by running, while those using vehicles presented the lowest number. All initiatives to promote active commuting and activities in the urban park represent an important strategy to improve health, supporting adults to lead an active lifestyle.
... Urban parks represent perfect examples of highly managed and well-maintained urban ecosystems and thus a typical type of UGS. Physical activities and the flow of benefits and ecosystem services increase with safe and well-kept parks within close distance from people's home (Bird 2004, Toftager et al. 2011, Schipperijn et al. 2013, Langemeyer and Connolly 2020. Several guidelines and thresholds have been provided by researchers and city planners suggesting UGS within 250-300 m from people's place of living (Barbosa et al. 2007, Toftager et al. 2011, Stadt Leipzig 2017b. ...
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Now, and in the future, the majority of the world's population is and will be living in cities. Thus, efficient urban green spaces (UGS), such as urban parks providing ecosystem services, are essential for human well-being. Besides their location, the characteristics of UGS, for example, size, availability of facilities (such as sports infrastructure or benches), and green characteristics, can determine the benefits derived or disturbances and disservices perceived by visitors. Knowing which components of UGS contribute to which benefits can help to meet the various demands of urban dwellers. The objective of this research is to present positive and negative aspects (benefits and disturbances/disservices, respectively) of UGS that people perceive and the difference in these perceptions across age groups and UGS. We surveyed more than 1700 users of 18 urban parks and 18 brownfields in Leipzig, Germany. Benefits related to natural elements and landscape aesthetics were most important especially for older age groups. Younger people placed more importance on size, availability, and location as well as sports facilities. The most frequently mentioned disturbance/disservice in urban parks was litter followed by the undesirable activities of other users. Tree cover, sports facilities, seating possibilities, and inhabitant density in the neighborhood influenced the perception of parks providing regulating services (noise mediation and shade provision) and social and cultural interactions. Brownfields were often appreciated as additional UGS close to people's homes and for their wilderness aspects. Implementing specific facilities and varying tree cover can influence perceived benefits from UGS. Adapted management measures can therefore increase multiple benefits and minimize trade-offs between UGS users and uses, for example, the integration of wild areas into UGS including low or near-natural management areas.
... Regular PA has long been shown to enhance both physical and mental health and wellbeing (Knapen et al, 2014;Alves et al, 2016). Findings also suggest that outdoor exercise has better adherence rates than indoor options (for example walking in man-made facilities such as shopping precincts, or working out in a gym), and that outdoor exercisers related more to emotions and feelings such as enjoyment, being less tense, less depressed, having more energy and being revitalised compared to people working out in an indoor setting (Coon et al, 2011); further, they were also more likely to be repeat exercisers than their indoor counterparts (Bird, 2004;Plante et al, 2007). In recent years, a plethora of GE options including gardening, horticulture and conservation work has been noted by numerous researchers as having a positive impact on mental and physical health (Pretty et al, 2005;Clatworthy et al, 2013;Page, 2008;Fieldhouse, 2003;Natural England, 2016). ...
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Workplace health is becoming a major consideration for employers, not simply due to ongoing legislative requirements from a health and safety perspective, but because of the business-related costs resulting from ill health at work-with lost productivity, absenteeism, presenteeism, low morale, damage to reputation and reductions in turnover all detrimental factors for businesses. This study utilised an ethnographic methodology to investigate the health and wellbeing benefits to staff (n=7, mean age 53.3; F=5; M=2) engaging with a specific 'green exercise' 1 project 'Green Minds' at a university campus in the UK. Specifically, the research sought to 'unearth' the underpinning mechanisms behind reported benefits to health and wellbeing reported by participants, a significant gap in the research within the domain of green exercise more generally (Gladwell et al, 2013; Pretty et al, 2017; Rogersen et el, 2020; Clatworthy et al, 2013; Glackon & Beale, 2018). The two researchers thus adopted an ethnographic approach by fully immersing themselves with the group and the gardening activities over six months prior to collecting data as part of a significant time-phased familiarisation process, and can thus be categorised as 'active participants' with an 'insider perspective'. The study sought to explore the engagement of participants in the specific context (corporate setting) and its cultural impact as part of a broader corporate health strategy. Each participant was engaged in the gardening activities for 30-45 minutes during the interview phase. In addition, researchers kept reflective fieldwork notes and took photographs as part of the ethnographic nature of inquiry, with repeat interviews conducted at a later date with each participant. The research revealed five main themes. 1) Nature based activity was seen as a useful and necessary escape from work-related stressors; 2) social connectedness was enhanced as a result of participation in the project; 3) beneficial impacts upon individual physical and mental health and wellbeing were revealed, related to 4) enhancements to personal agency; 1 Green exercise, as defined by Pretty et al (2005) as: any physical activity conducted in the presence of nature', for example: gardening, conservation work, running, cycling, walking, horse-riding. 2 and 5) access issues were acknowledged. The transparent benefits of participation in this form of nature-based activity suggest employers should consider creating green exercise related physical activity group-based opportunities for employees that not only benefit the employee, but also contribute to corporate goals in terms of higher productivity, better morale in the workforce, lower rates of absenteeism, less presenteeism and a happier, healthier corporate environment. Significant cost savings may be made as a result, although this paper did not attempt to quantify such wide-ranging impacts; instead, it focused on understanding the participant experience in workplace interventions.
... Çeşitli çalışmalar kentsel yeşil alanlar ile sağlık arasındaki ilişkiyi göstermiştir (Brown ve Grant, 2005;Bird, 2004;. Newton'a (2007) göre doğal çevre; sinerjik, fiziksel, mental ve sosyal esenlik faydaları sağlamaktadır. ...
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The purpose of this study is to reveal the breaking points which are effective in the emergence of health inequalities by using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale in Mersin province, Mezitli District. As the result of 1083 questionnaires in total applied to the population aged 18 years and over by considering neighborhood population, age group, and gender it was observed that all the variables determining the social class status of the individuals have a determinative effect on the quality of life scale in terms of physical, psychological, social and environmental field scores. On the other hand, there is no direct effect of neighborhoods on quality of life scales. However, when neighborhoods are not considered to be homogeneous areas, spatial quality differences within the same neighborhood (easy access to health care services, adequate green space availability, adequate sheltering assets) affect the quality of life scores. Also, some housing conveniences (ownership of the house, the type of heating used in the house, the number of rooms in the house, the source of drinking water at home, the duration of use of the house) have an influence on the quality of life scores. Thus, the individual’s class position influences the quality of life scores both directly and indirectly such as convenience of the home and environmental facilities.
... Çeşitli çalışmalar kentsel yeşil alanlar ile sağlık arasındaki ilişkiyi göstermiştir (Brown ve Grant, 2005;Bird, 2004;. Newton'a (2007) göre doğal çevre; sinerjik, fiziksel, mental ve sosyal esenlik faydaları sağlamaktadır. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to reveal the breaking points which are effective in the emergence of health inequalities by using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale in Mersin province , Mezitli District. As the result of 1083 questionnaires in total applied to the population aged 18 years and over by considering neighborhood population, age group and gender it was observed that all the variables determining the social class status of the individuals have a determinative effect on the quality of life scale in terms of physical, psychological, social and environmental field scores. On the other hand, there is no direct effect of neighborhoods on quality of life scales. However, when neighborhoods are not considered to be homogeneous areas, spatial quality differences within the same neighborhood (easy access to health care services, adequate green space availability, adequate sheltering assets) affect quality of life scores. In addition, some housing conveniences (ownership of the house, the type of heating used in the house, the number of rooms in the house, the source of drinking water at home, the duration of use of the house) have an influence on the quality of life scores. Thus, the individual's class position influences the quality of life scores both directly and indirectly such as convenience of the home and environmental facilities.
... Several studies have shown that physical activity carried out in protected areas is generally of a higher level than exercise done at home, with correspondingly greater physical, psychological, spiritual and social benefits (Bird 2004;Giles-Corti et al. 2005 thermore, some studies examining characteristics of visitors to PNAs have demonstrated that the types of PA available in a PNA are a key pull factor for the decision to visit the area. Studies have also shown that differences in PA intensity may reflect varieties in visitors' sociodemographic profiles, behavioural characteristics, preferences and motivations (Arnberger et al. 2019;Barić et al. 2016a;Cordente-Rodríguez 2014;Broyles et al. 2011;Farías-Torbidoni 2011;Galloway 2002;Mowen et al. 2012) and, indeed, how much they are willing to spend (Schirpke et al. 2018). ...
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In addition to being important tourism attractions that boost local economic development, protected areas also promote healthy habits through engagement in a variety of physical activities (PA). However, little is known about the extent to which PA intensity influences visitors’ spending. Drawing on results from 500 questionnaires collected from visitors in the Alt Pirineu Natural Park, Spain, this study assesses the influence of PA intensity on spending after controlling for sociodemographic, visit, motivational and opinion descriptors to assess the connection between these two factors. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that PA intensity had a marginal but potentially significant effect on respondents’ expenditure during their visits. When looked at separately, the results indicated that trip and motivational descriptors explained the highest degree of variation in visitor spending. More research is necessary to confirm whether these findings are applicable broadly.
... Louv (2006) aponta como resultados, entre outros os distúrbios de concentração, problemas de comportamento, obesidade, limitação da criatividade. Bird (2004) faz uma relação direta entre a existência de espaços verdes e a expectativa de vida e a redução de problemas de saúde. Em um ambiente urbano favorável as pessoas tendem a levar um estilo de vida mais ativo, o que pode resultar em longevidade. ...
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Este ensaio visa uma abordagem analítica da provisão e acesso aos espaços livres de domínio público (parques, jardins, praças, ruas, etc.) ao mesmo tempo que questiona e avalia aspetos socioculturais, técnico-urbanísticos, ecológicos, económicos, e de política urbana. Os espaços públicos estão no cerne de diversas disciplinas, o que adiciona uma visão transversal à discussão sobre as suas caracte-rísticas, funções, benefícios e significados. Os sistemas político-sociais e o modelo de produção de cidades em diversos países têm por resultado uma enorme desigualdade social que também se reflete em aspetos de acessibilidade, convivialidade e agrada-bilidade dos espaços públicos. Ao observar a relação destes com o contexto onde estão inseridos levanta-se a hipóteses sobre o uso destes espaços como um indicador da qualidade de vida e da sua representatividade como manifestação da segregação espacial e da iniquidade em meio urbano. Embora os espaços públicos formem um con-junto essencial do património urbano, sejam um forte elemento no desenho, na morfologia e na estética urbana, em muitas cidades este património está mal cuidado, inexplorado ou é inexistente. Eles podem, porém, ser um elemento distintivo de uma cidade ou bairro, desempenhar um papel educacional e cultural importante para o desenvolvimento da comunidade, exercendo uma grande influência na qualidade de vida urbana. Este trabalho discute o espaço público além de ser somente espaço físico, bem ou mal desenhado, com bons ou maus equipamentos,mas como um possibilitador da interação social, já que é aqui que a comunidade se enche de vida, onde se fortalecem os laços entre vizinhos e onde se fomenta o sentido de permanência ao ar livre.
... Hence, positive experiences in UGS can improve life satisfaction through satisfaction in the leisure domain [71][72][73]. Numerous prior studies have shown that visiting UGS can increase satisfaction not only in the leisure domain but also in other domains, such as mental health (e.g., [4][5][6]9,72]), physical health (e.g., [1][2][3]74]), social life (e.g., [23,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][75][76][77][78][79][80]), and family [58,81,82]. Prior studies strongly suggest that UGS is critical infrastructure for sustaining the well-being of urban residents and that expanding UGS and management are valuable investments on individual, social, and national levels. ...
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Exposure to green spaces can reduce the negative effects of stress. This study examines how frequency of visits and time spent in urban green spaces (UGS) affect urban dwellers’ subjective well-being. We also investigated the numbers of respondents visiting UGS, their primary motivation, and constraints on their ability to visit. Using quota sampling, an online survey was conducted of 400 residents of Daejeon City, South Korea. ANOVA results indicated no significant interactions between visit frequency and time spent in UGS. Respondents who had visited UGS within the past two weeks expressed higher positive and lower negative emotions than did non-visitors, regardless of visit frequency, and regular visitors showed higher general life satisfaction levels. These positive effects were confirmed by estimated structural equation models. However, the time spent in UGS did not affect emotions or life satisfaction in general. Heavy users mostly visited UGS to walk, and light/non-users cited the lack of urban green spaces near their home as the major constraint on visiting UGS. The estimated structural equation models clearly show positive effects from motivation and negative effects of constraints and access time to UGS on visit frequency. To improve urban dwellers’ subjective well-being, UGS should prioritize good walking environments and accessibility.
... The protective effect of physical activity against depression and suicidal ideation has been shown to be mediated by self-esteem and social support not the activity per se [16]. Additionally, outdoor physical activity shows higher adherence rates [17], and the outdoor environment seems to promote physical activity [18]. By building a personal bond to individual mountain sides the positive impact of the outdoor environment on mental well-being is enhanced [19]. ...
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Objective: Physical activity (PA) in an outdoor environment has been shown to exert positive effects on mental well-being beyond those found for PA indoors. The specific effect of an alpine environment has not been investigated so far. Here we evaluate the association of PA in an alpine environment with resilience and quality of life (QOL) in patients with psychosomatic disorders and controls. Methods: 194 patients with psychosomatic disorders (mostly somatoform disorder and major depressive syndrome) and 326 healthy controls were included in this web-based cross-sectional study. PA was scored using an adapted version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire including the environmental aspect (indoor, outdoor, alpine environment). Resilience was assessed using the Resilience Scale-13, QOL using the WHOQOL-BREF. Group comparisons, correlation and mediation analyses were performed. Results: Patients showed significantly lower levels of resilience (p < 0.001) and QOL (p < 0.001) compared to controls. PA in an alpine environment was associated with resilience (patients: r = 0.35, p < 0.001; controls r = 0.18, p < 0.001). There were no significant associations between PA in other environments (outdoor or indoor) and resilience. PA in all three environments correlated with subcategories of QOL. The effect of PA in an alpine environment on QOL was partly mediated by resilience in patients (68% of total effect mediated, p < 0.001) and controls (49% mediated, p = 0.006). Conclusion: There is a positive effect of PA in an alpine environment on mental health beyond that of physical activity itself. Preventive and therapeutic programs should thus include physical activity, but also take additional benefits of natural environments into account.
... 48 Early exposure to outdoor activities leads to children following these habits during their adulthood, ensuring that they can become responsible future stewards of the environment. 49 Increased contact with nature can also improve mental well-being, which is a crucial aspect of a child's physical development. 50 However, many environments where children live either do not offer access to healthful green spaces or may be hazardous, polluted, or overgrown. ...
Article
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This paper evaluates an approach for strengthening environmental rights for children to safeguard child health. We focus on children as beneficiaries of environmental rights on account of their vulnerability to environmental impacts on their physical and mental health. Current legal frameworks, unless explicitly identifying children as beneficiaries, arguably tend to be adult-centric. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive rights-based framework to ensure that children are protected against adverse environmental impacts. We argue that approaches that safeguard children's rights to life, health, and education should include environment-related issues, standards, and protections for those rights to be fully implemented. We propose employing sustainable development as a framework under which to develop an international treaty to promulgate the environmental rights of the child, thereby promoting health, environmental stewardship, and quality of life for children and future generations. We further argue that children's environmental rights extend beyond basic "needs"-such as clean air, clean water, sanitation, and a healthful environment, among others-to include the right to benefit from access to nature of a certain quality and the wealth of educational, recreational, developmental, and health benefits that come with ensuring protection of the environment for children.