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Levels of crash severity 

Levels of crash severity 

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To assess the factors affecting the severity of motor vehicles traffic crashes involving young drivers in Ontario. Ontario young drivers, aged 16 to 20, involved in traffic crashes resulting in injury, between 1 January 1988 and 31 December 1993, on public roads in Ontario. Population based case-control study. Cases were fatal injury, major injury,...

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... that involved no injury and/or property damage alone were not included because such data were not available for this study. Case and control status was determined by crash severity, that is cases were fatal, major, or minor injury crashes and controls were mini- mal injury crashes (see table 1 ...

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... A road traffic crash implies a situation in which there is a collision that involves a vehicle(s) on the road and causes damage or injury to either a person, an animal, or a property (Law and Martin, 2009). Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) can be differentiated in their degree of severity -fatal, major, minor, and minimal injuries (Mao et al., 1997). According to WHO (2021), RTCs cause approximately 1.3 million deaths and 50 million injuries making it a leading cause of death of children and young people worldwide. ...
... RTCs can result in different levels of severity (Mao et al., 1997). Severity is the intensity or level of destruction to a property or an injury (Soltani and Askari, 2017). ...
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... Fatalities and serious injuries are related to crash severities (24). Some of the key factors that affect crash severities in MVAs include drinking and driving, overspeeding, reckless driving, non-usage of seat belt, absence of traffic controls at intersections, poor weather conditions, traffic volume, and the period of time of day (25,26). ...
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... Increasing seatbelt use among those engaging in AID is particularly important because alcohol not only increases the risk of a crash but also increases the risk of injury or death in a crash. [23][24][25] Promising strategies that have shown effectiveness in other countries, when implemented, could decrease AID and subsequent crash deaths. The National Transportation Safety Board recommended lowering the BAC limit in the USA for drivers from 0.08 to 0.05 to reduce crashes, injuries and deaths caused by AID. 26 A meta-analysis estimated that 1790 lives would be saved each year if all US states adopted a 0.05 BAC limit. ...
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... Aspects related to the area can affect the severity of an accident, the travelling speed being one of the most determining factors (e.g. [31,48,49]). Since this work discriminates between two types of areasurban and rural-where driving behaviours have very different characteristics, it is appropriate to consider accidents of different degrees of severity separately. ...
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... Other studies also showed that driving experience [13,15,21,25], socioeconomic context, and monthly salary [4], drivers' level of education [9], distance (number of kilometers (km/miles driven per specific time) [26], smoking and alcohol drinking [19,24,[27][28][29][30], drivers' physical and mental abilities, and psychological factors, like personality type, emotions, and distraction by outside or inside stimuli [4,23,25,[31][32][33] are among the factors that predispose the experiences of risky driving behavior. ...
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Background Road traffic injury is one of the persistent public health challenges in most regions of the world, representing substantial human and economic losses. Annually, about 1.25 million lives are lost, whereas 50 million suffer from road traffic injuries globally. It has been shown that over 60% of the reasons for traffic injuries are a risky driving behavior (RDB). Despite the problem’s pervasiveness, there is a paucity of information about level and factors influencing RDB among professional car drivers in Bahirdar city, northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2016. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 376 participants. A self-administered driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ) was used for data collection. We performed a binary logistic regression analysis to investigate the associations of variables. Potential confounders were controlled using a multivariable logistic regression model. We ascertained the significance at < 0.05 p value and evaluated strength of associations using crude odds ratios (COR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results A total of 361 drivers participated (response rate, 96%). The mean age was 34 (standard deviations ± 7.97) years. The majority, 98.9% (N = 357), were males. The level of risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes were 79.4% (95% CI 75.92, 83.97) and 16.3% (95% CI 15.91, 24.84), respectively. Average monthly salary [AOR 2.04; 95% CI (1.23, 2.74)], driving experience [AOR 2.72; 95% CI (1.07, 6.89)], distance driven per year [AOR 2.06; 95% CI (1.13, 4.10)], and previous history of involvement in traffic crashes [AOR 2.30; 95% CI (1.15, 7.35)] were significantly associated with risky driving behavior. Conclusions The study shows that risky driving behavior is common among professional car drivers in the study setting. Therefore, it is strongly advisable for policy makers and other stake holders to devise strategies that consider working conditions, like monthly salary and driving experiences. The study also suggests that it is often advisable to reduce the distance driven per year and learn from implications of previous history of involvement in traffic crashes.
... ( Table 6). Alcohol consumption and driving had a clear effect on injury severity as reported by previous studies from Philippines, United States and Canada [26][27][28]. ...
... ( Table 6). This finding is consistent with other studies conducted in the developing and developed theworld [14,17,26,27,36]. ...
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Background Globally, about 1.25 million people die annually from road trafficcollisions. Evidence from global safety report shows a decreasing trend of road traffic injury indeveloped countries while there is an increasing trend in many developing countriesincluding Ethiopia. This study is aimed at assessing factors affecting injury severity levels of road traffic collision victims referred to selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa based on the Haddon Matrix. Methods Ahospital-based cross-sectional study designwas implemented to randomly select a total of 363 road traffic collision victims. The collected data was cleaned andentered into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS Version 21 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logisticregression models were used to examine the association between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 363 individual sustained road traffic injuries were included to the study. Theprevalence of severe injury among road traffic accident victims was 36.4%. The following variables were significantly associated with increased injury severity: motorbike rider or motorbike passenger without helmet, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7(95% CI: 1.04–21.09); driving under the influence of alcohol, crude odds ratio (COR) 2.64(95% CI;1.23–5.64); victim with multiple injuries, AOR 3.88(95% CI: 2.26–6.65); vehicle size, AOR 2.14(95% CI: 1.01–4.52); collision in dark lighting condition, AOR 1.93(95% CI: 1.01–3.65); collision in cross city/rural, AOR 1.95(95% CI: 1.18–3.24) and vehicle occupant travelling unrestrained on the back of a truck, AOR3.9 (95% CI: 1.18–12.080). On the other hand, victims extricated at the scene by health care professional, AOR 0.33(95% CI: 0.13–0.83); victims extricated at the scene by police AOR 0.47(95% CI: 0.24–0.94); strict traffic police control at the scene of the collision, AOR 0.49(95% CI: 0.27–0.88) were significantly associated with less severe injuries. Conclusions Findings reported in this paper suggest the need forimmediate and pragmatic steps to be taken to curb the unnecessary loss of livesoccurring on the roads. In particular, there is urgent need to introduce road safety interventions.
... While a recent simulator study could not identify any effect of driver mood (happy/sad) on careless driving behaviour, 12 experimental testing has demonstrated a strong relationship between driver mood (feeling bad-feeling good) and risky driving. 13 Given the importance of risky driving in the definition of road trauma and severity of crashes in general, 14 research exploring the relationship between driver mood and risky driving is warranted. ...
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Issues addressed This paper investigates the influence of mood while driving, advocates for identifying high‐risk groups, and detects associations between mood while driving and risky driving behaviours. While commensurate studies regarding aggressive driving have confirmed significant detriments in driving performance, little scholarly research has studied the gaps and opportunities at the intersection of mood and risky driving in young drivers. Methods A cross‐sectional design was implemented using 660 young drivers (17‐25 years) from Australia (34.7%) and Colombia (65.3%), who completed the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS). Cluster analysis differentiated young drivers across two groups: high risk and low risk driving whilst influenced by mood. Hierarchical segmentation analysis explored the relationship between driver mood and self‐reported risky driving behaviour. Results Young drivers reported frequent driving whilst influenced by mood. The typical risky driving behaviours of young drivers who are emotion‐affected are transient violations (e.g., speeding) and risky exposure (e.g., driving tired). Conclusions Risky driving behaviours that have been found to increase the risk of road injury (speeding, fatigued driving) and to decrease the survivability of road crashes (speeding) are inextricably intertwined with the influence of driver mood upon driving behaviour at an international level. Driver mood is a neglected issue in health promotion programs for young drivers. So what? Current health promotion interventions for young drivers safety such as Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) may not prevent driving whilst influenced by mood. Additional strategies are required to minimise the exposure to driving whilst affected by negative mood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Prior studies show that wearing seat belts is one of the most efficient ways to decrease the number and severity of fatalities and injuries in traffic collisions [6][7][8]. However, many studies show lower seat belt use among young drivers [9][10][11]. The primary aim B Khaled Shaaban kshaaban@qu.edu.qa 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar of this study is to assess and investigate seat belt use among young drivers in Qatar. ...
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Young drivers have the lowest rate of seat belt use among all age groups. The objective of this study was to investigate and assess the seat belt use behavior of young drivers by means of various methods, including observational surveys, short interviews, and self-report questionnaire surveys. The results revealed that approximately two-thirds of young drivers wear seat belts. The self-reported rates of seat belt use were slightly higher than the seat belt usage rates obtained from the observational data. The results also showed that young passengers had a much lower rate of seat belt use compared to young drivers and elderly passengers. The logistic regression model for the observational data revealed that male drivers, SUV drivers, and subjects driving at night had a higher probability of driving without a seat belt. The results of the questionnaire surveys were consistent with the results of the observational surveys. The questionnaire surveys revealed that the reasons for wearing seat belts included safety, fear of getting a traffic citation, and obedience to traffic law. The main reasons for not using seat belts included discomfort and not believing that seat belts could save lives. The logistic regression model for the questionnaire data showed that drivers who believe that seat belts can save lives and drivers who attended a prior seat belt safety campaign had a higher probability of using seat belts while driving. The results will help policymakers to develop strategies that enforce and promote safer behaviors for this age group.
... Prior studies show that wearing seat belts is one of the most efficient ways to decrease the number and severity of fatalities and injuries in traffic collisions [6][7][8]. However, many studies show lower seat belt use among young drivers [9][10][11]. The primary aim B Khaled Shaaban kshaaban@qu.edu.qa 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar of this study is to assess and investigate seat belt use among young drivers in Qatar. ...
Article
Cell phone use while driving can distract the driver and can lead to serious traffic safety problems. Similarly, not using a seat belt can increase the risk of injuries and/or fatalities in the event of a crash. The objective of this study is to identify the rate of cell phone use as well as the rate of seat belt noncompliance in Qatar and to investigate the association between the two. A total of 7,982 vehicles were observed at 40 intersections. The overall rate of seat belt noncompliance was 16.4%, and the overall rate of cell phone use while driving was 10.7%. Logit models were developed to identify the factors that affect the use of cell phones and seat belts, and a significant association was found between the two. The results of the study show that people driving sport utility vehicles are less likely to wear seat belts than those using other types of vehicles and more likely to use their cell phones while driving. In addition, male drivers are more likely than female drivers to wear seat belts and less likely to use their cell phones while driving. Furthermore, young drivers are less likely to wear seat belts than older drivers and more likely to use their cell phones while driving. The results of this study can help policy makers and public agencies to understand the profiles of drivers who use cell phones while driving and who are also noncompliant with seat belt use. This information can help in identifying the proper countermeasures and the targeted population in both Qatar and similar countries in the region.
... Safety researchers have conducted numerous studies to explore the factors affecting traffic crash severities (Chen et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2016). For example, Mao et al. (1997) assessed the factors affecting the severity of motor vehicle crashes involving young driver in Ontario, Canada, using the population based casecontrol study. It is found in this study that, the following factors can significantly increase the risk of fatal injury crashes: drinking and driving (with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3), impairment by alcohol (OR 4.8), exceeding speed limits (OR 2.8), not using seat belts (OR 4.7), full ejection from vehicle (OR 21.3), intersection without traffic control (OR 2.2), bridge or tunnel (OR 4.1), road with speed limit 70-90 kph (OR 5.6) or 100 kph (OR 5.4), bad weather (OR 1.6), head-on collision (OR 80.0), and overtaking (OR 1.9). ...
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