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1 -Left: the first aerial bombardment in history, performed with UAV balloons by the Austrians to the city of Venice, July 1849. Center: SMS Vulcano ship, acting as the balloon carrier. Right: sketches of the balloons (F. von Uchatius).

1 -Left: the first aerial bombardment in history, performed with UAV balloons by the Austrians to the city of Venice, July 1849. Center: SMS Vulcano ship, acting as the balloon carrier. Right: sketches of the balloons (F. von Uchatius).

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Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis addresses the study of autonomous Aerial Vehicles (AVs) actively interacting with the surrounding environment, with particular attention to the development of modeling and design techniques, and suitable control strategies for these systems. Due to the intrinsic difficulty and the novelty associated with the study of these systems, new...

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... weight and a decreased bar payload. Furthermore, when the arm extends, the force disturbances from the load side may generate large destabilizing moments on the aerial vehicle. To tackle this issue, the OT-Hex is designed with a non-regular frame arrangement, introducing a consistent aperture between the two front propellers (see Fig. 6.10 and Fig. 6.11), hence the denomination Open. In particular, the frontal aperture of δ A = 85 deg guarantees the possibility to safely manipulate a cylindrical bar with a maximum diameter of d B, max = 255 mm, as shown in Fig. 6.10. This configuration has been preferred over the regular hexagonal positioning of the actuation units (like the one of the ...
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... (the field of complex numbers), is related to the properties of the material in contact with the sensor. The trajectory of w(t) allows recognizing features like a crack, variations of the metal composition, etc. For a more detailed and exhaustive explanation, we refer the interested reader to [GarcíaMartín-2011]. An example of signal is shown in Fig. 10.11, where the signal path relative to contact-free flight and weld detection are ...
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... overall experiment is composed of three parts: i) approach to the pipe (arm folded and sensor not in contact); ii) contact-based inspection; and iii) departure from the pipe. Here, we focus our analysis on the most interesting part ii)). For this part, Fig. 10.9, Fig. 10.10 and Fig. 10.11 show the behavior of the robot and the sensor data, from right before contact (time 25 s) to right after contact (once the inspection is over, time 144 ...
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... force to its handle and reversely the haptic interface can apply forces to the human operator, called "haptic cues" or "haptic feedback." Haptic feedback is used to provide the human operator with information about the state of the remote system. In our testbed, we used an Omega.6 haptic device, manufactured by force dimension 3 , as shown in Fig. 11.1, which has six Degrees of Freedom ...
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... large amount of possible data to be shown, we have chosen to set up a hierarchical user interface, which allows the user to choose the level of detail. The operator is informed about the status of the system and sub-systems by means of color-changing indicators. Each detailed sub-window can be folded to reduce the visual load on the screen, see Fig. ...
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... Tele-MAGMaS first experiments were showcased at the Hanover Fair 2017, as part of the finals of the KUKA Innovation Award, see Fig. 11.3. The demonstration presented the main features of the system and a proof-of-concept application. During the fair week, the demonstration was running every hour (or more), thus demonstrating the high reliability of the proposed system and control architecture. Videos highlighting the key features of the demonstration, i.e., ...
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... SAM actuation system has been enhanced with three cables, attached to the platform frame as shown in Fig. 11.4. Each cable is actuated by a winch, i.e., is a mechanical device that can control the length of the wire rope. While winches are used to compensate for slowly-varying displacements of the manipulator CoM, due to the manipulation task, the propulsion units can be used to reduce dynamic deviations. Such a strategy allows to reduce the ...
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... displacements of the manipulator CoM, due to the manipulation task, the propulsion units can be used to reduce dynamic deviations. Such a strategy allows to reduce the amount of energy consumption since no continuous torque is required from the propulsion units. Each winch consists of a DC-motor with installed guided spool and cover (see Fig. 11.5). The wire rope is wound on the spool. Due to the presence of the brakes, no energy is required to keep the rope winding angle during operation work. The SAM contains three Maxon 8 motor-based winches which help to maintain the CoM below the hanging point via controlling three DoFs, i.e., the roll, pitch, and height dynamics of the ...
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... exclude aerial carrier from the aerial manipulation. Optical fiber sensing system from Keyence 9 is used in order to remain within the operational point of the guided spool and to calibrate winches. By sensing light beam interruption and reflection, this system allows to detect an approaching rope to a reflection fiber unit (light source), see Fig. 11.5 (right). In the calibrated configuration, wire rope is located in the middle between two light sources. The total length of the winch wire rope in the workspace of the spool is about 1.5 meter. Finally, it is very interesting to remark that the high control authority around the yaw axis, obtained as a result of the optimization of ...
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... architecture of the SAM is presented in Fig. 11.6. As it can be seen, three different computers are installed onboard: robot control computer, machine vision computer, and flight control computer. The flight control computer is responsible for the control of the winches and propulsion units. Also, it is directly connected to the set of sensors for estimation of platform state during ...
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... in terms of power consumption. As a battery pack, SLS 10 12S 21000 mAh is used. In the view of increasing the operational time, additional power could be provided by the main aerial carrier. The SAM represents one of the high-TRL aerial manipulator platforms delivered by the Aeroarms project. Actually still under development and integration, see Fig. 11.7 and Fig. 11.9, it could reach the market in the next years for the fulfillment of many manipulation task, as shown if Fig. 11.8, which depicts a preliminary telemanipulation test for inspection and maintenance with contact of ...
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... consumption. As a battery pack, SLS 10 12S 21000 mAh is used. In the view of increasing the operational time, additional power could be provided by the main aerial carrier. The SAM represents one of the high-TRL aerial manipulator platforms delivered by the Aeroarms project. Actually still under development and integration, see Fig. 11.7 and Fig. 11.9, it could reach the market in the next years for the fulfillment of many manipulation task, as shown if Fig. 11.8, which depicts a preliminary telemanipulation test for inspection and maintenance with contact of ...
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... additional power could be provided by the main aerial carrier. The SAM represents one of the high-TRL aerial manipulator platforms delivered by the Aeroarms project. Actually still under development and integration, see Fig. 11.7 and Fig. 11.9, it could reach the market in the next years for the fulfillment of many manipulation task, as shown if Fig. 11.8, which depicts a preliminary telemanipulation test for inspection and maintenance with contact of ...
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... 13 and has recently been awarded by the EU Innovation Radar Price 2017 14 . The aerial robot underwent extensive validation experiments, with more than 200 flights, both in an outdoor testing scenario and also in a real refinery. Photos of the AeroX performing ultrasonic thickness measurements in a refinery located in Germany are depicted in Fig. 11.10, while a video is available online 15 . Before performing any outdoor experiment, it has been necessary to properly assess the aerial manipulator resilience to the typical disturbance effects that could arise during the contact and the manipulation phase. In order to do this, preliminary indoor tests have been performed at the CATEC ...
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... contact a vertical surface with its end-effector, localizing itself w.r.t. the point of interest without relying on any Motion Capture System (MoCap) or GPS measurements. At the same time, the platforms has been perturbed with lateral pulling forces with an intensity up to 200 N. The telemetry of AeroX during one of these experiments is shown in Fig. 11.11. The perturbations induced sudden changes in the attitude of AeroX in the x axis, as can be clearly noticed top-left plot. To compensate for such disturbances, the controller generated responses with high torques in the x direction and lateral forces in in the y one. On the other hand, the plots on the left column of Fig. 11.11 show ...
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... is shown in Fig. 11.11. The perturbations induced sudden changes in the attitude of AeroX in the x axis, as can be clearly noticed top-left plot. To compensate for such disturbances, the controller generated responses with high torques in the x direction and lateral forces in in the y one. On the other hand, the plots on the left column of Fig. 11.11 show the relative position components of the robot w.r.t. the surface contact point computed by the developed method and also the ones obtained by the ground truth distance. As can be appreciated, the robot estimation error in the position has been smaller than 1 cm in all axes, while the 3D position estimation errors were lower than 4 ...
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... design, control, localization and navigation techniques can be found in [Trujillo-2019] To conclude, it is important to point out that this and the other aerial manipulators delivered to the market by the AeroArms project can be employed in many other applications like, e.g., inspection and maintenance of general infrastructures, as shown in Fig. 11.12, which illustrate a bridge-inspection ...
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... weight and a decreased bar payload. Furthermore, when the arm extends, the force disturbances from the load side may generate large destabilizing moments on the aerial vehicle. To tackle this issue, the OT-Hex is designed with a non-regular frame arrangement, introducing a consistent aperture between the two front propellers (see Fig. 6.10 and Fig. 6.11), hence the denomination Open. In particular, the frontal aperture of δ A = 85 deg guarantees the possibility to safely manipulate a cylindrical bar with a maximum diameter of d B, max = 255 mm, as shown in Fig. 6.10. This configuration has been preferred over the regular hexagonal positioning of the actuation units (like the one of the ...
Context 19
... (the field of complex numbers), is related to the properties of the material in contact with the sensor. The trajectory of w(t) allows recognizing features like a crack, variations of the metal composition, etc. For a more detailed and exhaustive explanation, we refer the interested reader to [GarcíaMartín-2011]. An example of signal is shown in Fig. 10.11, where the signal path relative to contact-free flight and weld detection are ...
Context 20
... overall experiment is composed of three parts: i) approach to the pipe (arm folded and sensor not in contact); ii) contact-based inspection; and iii) departure from the pipe. Here, we focus our analysis on the most interesting part ii)). For this part, Fig. 10.9, Fig. 10.10 and Fig. 10.11 show the behavior of the robot and the sensor data, from right before contact (time 25 s) to right after contact (once the inspection is over, time 144 ...
Context 21
... force to its handle and reversely the haptic interface can apply forces to the human operator, called "haptic cues" or "haptic feedback." Haptic feedback is used to provide the human operator with information about the state of the remote system. In our testbed, we used an Omega.6 haptic device, manufactured by force dimension 3 , as shown in Fig. 11.1, which has six Degrees of Freedom ...
Context 22
... large amount of possible data to be shown, we have chosen to set up a hierarchical user interface, which allows the user to choose the level of detail. The operator is informed about the status of the system and sub-systems by means of color-changing indicators. Each detailed sub-window can be folded to reduce the visual load on the screen, see Fig. ...
Context 23
... Tele-MAGMaS first experiments were showcased at the Hanover Fair 2017, as part of the finals of the KUKA Innovation Award, see Fig. 11.3. The demonstration presented the main features of the system and a proof-of-concept application. During the fair week, the demonstration was running every hour (or more), thus demonstrating the high reliability of the proposed system and control architecture. Videos highlighting the key features of the demonstration, i.e., ...
Context 24
... SAM actuation system has been enhanced with three cables, attached to the platform frame as shown in Fig. 11.4. Each cable is actuated by a winch, i.e., is a mechanical device that can control the length of the wire rope. While winches are used to compensate for slowly-varying displacements of the manipulator CoM, due to the manipulation task, the propulsion units can be used to reduce dynamic deviations. Such a strategy allows to reduce the ...
Context 25
... displacements of the manipulator CoM, due to the manipulation task, the propulsion units can be used to reduce dynamic deviations. Such a strategy allows to reduce the amount of energy consumption since no continuous torque is required from the propulsion units. Each winch consists of a DC-motor with installed guided spool and cover (see Fig. 11.5). The wire rope is wound on the spool. Due to the presence of the brakes, no energy is required to keep the rope winding angle during operation work. The SAM contains three Maxon 8 motor-based winches which help to maintain the CoM below the hanging point via controlling three DoFs, i.e., the roll, pitch, and height dynamics of the ...
Context 26
... exclude aerial carrier from the aerial manipulation. Optical fiber sensing system from Keyence 9 is used in order to remain within the operational point of the guided spool and to calibrate winches. By sensing light beam interruption and reflection, this system allows to detect an approaching rope to a reflection fiber unit (light source), see Fig. 11.5 (right). In the calibrated configuration, wire rope is located in the middle between two light sources. The total length of the winch wire rope in the workspace of the spool is about 1.5 meter. Finally, it is very interesting to remark that the high control authority around the yaw axis, obtained as a result of the optimization of ...
Context 27
... architecture of the SAM is presented in Fig. 11.6. As it can be seen, three different computers are installed onboard: robot control computer, machine vision computer, and flight control computer. The flight control computer is responsible for the control of the winches and propulsion units. Also, it is directly connected to the set of sensors for estimation of platform state during ...
Context 28
... in terms of power consumption. As a battery pack, SLS 10 12S 21000 mAh is used. In the view of increasing the operational time, additional power could be provided by the main aerial carrier. The SAM represents one of the high-TRL aerial manipulator platforms delivered by the Aeroarms project. Actually still under development and integration, see Fig. 11.7 and Fig. 11.9, it could reach the market in the next years for the fulfillment of many manipulation task, as shown if Fig. 11.8, which depicts a preliminary telemanipulation test for inspection and maintenance with contact of ...
Context 29
... consumption. As a battery pack, SLS 10 12S 21000 mAh is used. In the view of increasing the operational time, additional power could be provided by the main aerial carrier. The SAM represents one of the high-TRL aerial manipulator platforms delivered by the Aeroarms project. Actually still under development and integration, see Fig. 11.7 and Fig. 11.9, it could reach the market in the next years for the fulfillment of many manipulation task, as shown if Fig. 11.8, which depicts a preliminary telemanipulation test for inspection and maintenance with contact of ...
Context 30
... additional power could be provided by the main aerial carrier. The SAM represents one of the high-TRL aerial manipulator platforms delivered by the Aeroarms project. Actually still under development and integration, see Fig. 11.7 and Fig. 11.9, it could reach the market in the next years for the fulfillment of many manipulation task, as shown if Fig. 11.8, which depicts a preliminary telemanipulation test for inspection and maintenance with contact of ...
Context 31
... 13 and has recently been awarded by the EU Innovation Radar Price 2017 14 . The aerial robot underwent extensive validation experiments, with more than 200 flights, both in an outdoor testing scenario and also in a real refinery. Photos of the AeroX performing ultrasonic thickness measurements in a refinery located in Germany are depicted in Fig. 11.10, while a video is available online 15 . Before performing any outdoor experiment, it has been necessary to properly assess the aerial manipulator resilience to the typical disturbance effects that could arise during the contact and the manipulation phase. In order to do this, preliminary indoor tests have been performed at the CATEC ...
Context 32
... contact a vertical surface with its end-effector, localizing itself w.r.t. the point of interest without relying on any Motion Capture System (MoCap) or GPS measurements. At the same time, the platforms has been perturbed with lateral pulling forces with an intensity up to 200 N. The telemetry of AeroX during one of these experiments is shown in Fig. 11.11. The perturbations induced sudden changes in the attitude of AeroX in the x axis, as can be clearly noticed top-left plot. To compensate for such disturbances, the controller generated responses with high torques in the x direction and lateral forces in in the y one. On the other hand, the plots on the left column of Fig. 11.11 show ...
Context 33
... is shown in Fig. 11.11. The perturbations induced sudden changes in the attitude of AeroX in the x axis, as can be clearly noticed top-left plot. To compensate for such disturbances, the controller generated responses with high torques in the x direction and lateral forces in in the y one. On the other hand, the plots on the left column of Fig. 11.11 show the relative position components of the robot w.r.t. the surface contact point computed by the developed method and also the ones obtained by the ground truth distance. As can be appreciated, the robot estimation error in the position has been smaller than 1 cm in all axes, while the 3D position estimation errors were lower than 4 ...
Context 34
... design, control, localization and navigation techniques can be found in [Trujillo-2019] To conclude, it is important to point out that this and the other aerial manipulators delivered to the market by the AeroArms project can be employed in many other applications like, e.g., inspection and maintenance of general infrastructures, as shown in Fig. 11.12, which illustrate a bridge-inspection ...

Citations

... The proposed feedback linearization control method assumes that the inpuẗ y can have any value to track a completely 6-DoF independent trajectory. Hence, this controller's limitation is that it does not account for the input saturation, which can result in motion instability when the required inputs for perfect trajectory tracking are not feasible [17]. [34] has discussed a solution to this problem by introducing a suitable scheme for systems with linear dynamics and nonlinear state and input constraints. ...
... Hence, governments and large companies have defined large projects to find reliable solutions for these applications. Authors of [17] list some ongoing and finished projects defined and funded by the European Union. ...
... The recent trend is to adopt the force control methods of fixed-based manipulators, introducing the ideas of compliant arm force control [13,27,208], parallel force/motion control [152], and hybrid force-motion control [119] for aerial manipulators. Authors of [210], [188] and [17] provide comprehensive overviews of the control methods for physical interaction and manipulation. ...
Preprint
The physical interaction of aerial robots with their environment has countless potential applications and is an emerging area with many open challenges. Fully-actuated multirotors have been introduced to tackle some of these challenges. They provide complete control over position and orientation and eliminate the need for attaching a multi-DoF manipulation arm to the robot. However, there are many open problems before they can be used in real-world applications. Researchers have introduced some methods for physical interaction in limited settings. Their experiments primarily use prototype-level software without an efficient path to integration with real-world applications. We describe a new cost-effective solution for integrating these robots with the existing software and hardware flight systems for real-world applications and expand it to physical interaction applications. On the other hand, the existing control approaches for fully-actuated robots assume conservative limits for the thrusts and moments available to the robot. Using conservative assumptions for these already-inefficient robots makes their interactions even less optimal and may even result in many feasible physical interaction applications becoming infeasible. This work proposes a real-time method for estimating the complete set of instantaneously available forces and moments that robots can use to optimize their physical interaction performance. Finally, many real-world applications where aerial robots can improve the existing manual solutions deal with deformable objects. However, the perception and planning for their manipulation is still challenging. This research explores how aerial physical interaction can be extended to deformable objects. It provides a detection method suitable for manipulating deformable one-dimensional objects and introduces a new perspective on planning the manipulation of these objects.
... These multirotors are fully or even over-actuated, having increased manipulability over their classical quadrotor-style counterparts. Other work has included morphing or flexible UAV architectures such a [35], [36]. Nonetheless as we discuss subsequently, the quadrotor robots of the early 2000s remain a popular and versatile robotics platform. ...
... This is the case in many commercial multi-rotors even if they have 6, 8, or more propellers, because when all the propellers share a common axis, there is no energy lost by propellers fighting against each other [46]. The downside of this is that the quadrotor cannot exert a force orthogonal to the local z-axis and thus for aerial interaction tasks, omnidirectional multirotors are gaining popularity [35], [36], [47]. This thesis however limits itself to quadrotor-style multirotors, therefore the wrench a single propeller exerts on F i is ...
... motor speeds) of omnidirectional UAVs removing the need for a cascading controller which allows a more complete use of the UAV's dynamic capabilities. Indeed in some cases [35], [164] Beyond its use for trajectory tracking and aerial manipulation, MPC has been identified as an attractive solution for visual control problems with robotic arms due to the ability to account for actuator, sensing, and task constraints [135], [165], [166]. This was also adapted to quadrotors, for which the predictive nature of MPC is particularly important, as the underactuated nature tends to increase the difficulty of visual servoing control by classical Compiled: 2022-05-02 methods. ...
Thesis
Bearing formation control allows groups of quadrotors to manoeuver in a desired geometry, using only visual measurements extractable from embedded monocular cameras. Prior works have treated quadrotors as single or double integrators, and as a result must operate slowly to compensate for unmodelled non-linearities. This thesis allows for faster bearing formations by developping higher-order controllers, considering the non-linear quadrotor and visual feature dynamics. A dynamic feedback controller based on second-order visual servoing and a model predictive controller are developped and tested in simulation and experiments, showing improved dynamic manoeuvering performance. The later is augmented with constraints such as field of view limitations and obstacle avoidance. All bearing formation algorithms depend on a sufficient degree of bearing rigidity to guarantee performance. This may be evaluated numerically, but as the rigidity is a function of the formation embedding, previous work could not guarantee rigidity in formations larger than a few robots. The second main contribution of this thesis is the evaluation of bearing rigidity singularities (i.e. embeddings where an otherwise rigid formation becomes flexible) by applying existing geometric analysis methods on an kinematic mechanism which is analoguous to the kinematic constraints imposed by the formation controller and robot models. This is extended to a novel classification system based on a contraction of constraint sets that can determine singular geometries for large formations, allowing for a formulation of a set of guaranteed rigid configurations without an ad-hoc kinematic analysis of individual formations.
... In a real multi-rotor platform, see [15], the maximum magnitude of the lateral force depends on the applied vertical component of the force and the applied full moment. Such lateral bound is typically larger when the requested vertical force exactly compensates for the gravity force and the total moment is zero. ...
... In all the experiments and simulations, the maximum lateral acceleration of the reference trajectory has been set at 1.5 ms −2 , jerk at 10 ms −3 , lateral velocity at 2 ms −1 , to bring the platform to its lateral motion limits. During each of the tuning experiments, the initial domains of the controller gains have been chosen such that D (1) k p = [10,30] and D (1) k v = [5,15], and each domain has been contracted N = 12 times by the inner loop in each of the N b = 2 outer loop iterations. ...
Article
Full-text available
This letter shows for the first time why it is important and how to optimize the gains of a position controller on board of a fully-actuated aerial vehicle with bounded lateral force, via an auto-tuning approach. In such vehicles, most of the control authority is expressed along a principal thrust direction, while along the lateral directions smaller forces can be exploited to achieve full-pose tracking. The nonlinear and hard to model interplay between the constraint imposed on the lateral force and the gains of the position controller is overcome employing the OPTIM-tune calibration method. Several experimental tests, performed fully autonomously during flight, clearly show the practicability and benefits of the approach.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the effect of multirotor aerial vehicle designs on their abilities in terms of tasks and system properties. We propose a general taxonomy to characterize and describe multirotor aerial vehicles and their designs, which we apply exhaustively on the vast literature available. Thanks to the systematic characterization of the designs, we exhibit groups of designs having the same abilities in terms of achievable tasks and system properties. In particular, we organize the literature review based on the number of atomic actuation units and we discuss global properties arising from their choice and spatial distribution in the mechanical designs. Finally, we provide a discussion on the common traits of the designs found in the literature and the main open and future problems.