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Leapfrogging Causal Loop Diagram showing automobilization and deautomobilization pathways

Leapfrogging Causal Loop Diagram showing automobilization and deautomobilization pathways

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This paper combines the concept of leapfrogging with systems-thinking approaches to outline the potentials for and barriers to enabling systemic shifts to strong sustainable consumption in the emerging economies of China and India. New urban consumers in China and India have the potential to “lifestyle leapfrog” the high impact lifestyle models of...

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Food package labels can be used to influence consumers’ evaluation and purchasing behaviour, fostering sustainable consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand consumers’ emotional reaction to food package labels that convey sustainable information. The aim of the present research is to get a better understanding of the relation between co...

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... Segundo Bughin et al., (2011), a aposta no CSR é o maior ganho de investimento a longo prazo que uma empresa pode ter. Falamos de uma correlação linear entre duas variáveis: quanto mais a par da situação o indivíduo estiver sobre o tema da sustentabilidade alimentar, estará também mais propenso a adotar práticas positivas que diminuam o seu desperdício pessoal (Schroeder & Anantharaman, 2017). ...
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The article presents and characterizes the relationship between the motives of customer loyalty and the attitudes adopted by them and the achieved level of efficiency and growth in corporate value. The purpose of the publication is to present the author's model of the impact of customer loyalty on the company's value. The article is a conceptual study based on: results of an in-depth literature search, experience from cooperation with the small and medium-sized enterprises sector, results of research in the field of customer capital relationship management in the small and medium-sized enterprises sector (grant from the National Science Centre) and experience gained in the course of business activities. The arguments presented in the literature search and the developed model of the impact of customer loyalty on the sustainable value of the company support the thesis of the positive impact of customer loyalty motives on value creation through an increase in the level of efficiency index. The publication presents, in the form of recommendations, the most important actions that can be taken by a company to stimulate consumer behavior, which are the result of proper identification and understanding of customer loyalty motives.
... However, those countries will garner critical positions in the global circular value chains in the future, considering that they are currently major generators of natural resources and producers of manufactured goods and will soon experience significant consumption levels [34][35][36]. In turn, this aspect emphasizes the pivotal role of CE to ensure that the growing production and consumption systems in the GS are sustainable, resources are used efficiently, and there is an investment in low-carbon economies [33,37,38]. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the role of CE can be materialized in the GS context [32,39]. ...
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Circular Economy (CE) is a concept that stems from the need to address environmental degradation, social unrest and inequalities, institutional instability, resource scarcity, and economic challenges caused by the linear nature-society-nature systems that the large portion of society operates on. The dissemination of the concept and its implementation has been taking place in several nations and institutions globally, mainly in high-income countries, otherwise known as the Global North (GN). Nevertheless, it remains unclear how the role of CE can be materialized in the low-income contexts, also referred to as the Global South (GS), despite the region being the center of production and starting to experience an expansion towards driving global consumption. Some critical issues include the lack of data, analysis, surveys, discussions, and practical contributions of the CE in the GS. Moreover, compared with the GN and the People’s Republic of China specifically, little is known about the status of research conducted and case studies focusing on the GS. This study presents a bibliometric analysis to provide an overview of where and how scientists address the CE concept related to the GS. The findings clarify the most and least explored research themes, thus contributing to the current knowledge on the CE concept’s advances and presenting potential relevant research and practice avenues for future focus regarding the GS.
... As low-income consumers rapidly shift into middle-and upper-class consumption patterns, and countries that are classified as 'low-income' and yet still are home to large numbers of high-income consumers, they will need to address the environment impacts of consumption. Particularly countries such as China and India have the opportunity for "lifestyle leapfrogging" where they skip the carbon-intensive lifestyles of the industrialized countries, but improve their quality of life [39]. ...
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Current commitments in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are insufficient to remain within the 2-degree climate change limit agreed to in the Paris Agreement. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that lifestyle changes are now necessary to stay within the limit. We reviewed a range of NDCs and national climate change strategies to identify inclusion of low-carbon lifestyles. We found that most NDCs and national climate change strategies do not yet include the full range of necessary mitigation measures targeting lifestyle change, particularly those that could reduce indirect emissions. Some exceptional NDCs, such as those of Austria, Slovakia, Portugal and the Netherlands, do include lifestyle changes, such as low-carbon diets, reduced material consumption, and low-carbon mobility. Most countries focus on supply-side measures with long lag times and might miss the window of opportunity to shape low-carbon lifestyle patterns, particularly those at early stages of development trajectories. Systemic barriers exist that should be corrected before new NDCs are released, including changing the accounting and reporting methodology, accounting for extraterritorial emissions, providing guidance on NDC scope to include the menu of options identified by the IPCC, and increasing support for national level studies to design demand-side policies.
... At the same time, rapidly industrialising countries are projected to contribute almost all the growth in carbon emissions, with increases in household consumption driving much of that increase as the expanding middle classes in China and India reach the per capita levels of the USA and EU. This underscores the importance of what has been referred to as 'lifestyle leapfrogging': supporting sustainable lifestyles in emerging economies that side-step the high-carbon emissions pathways of Northern consumerism (Schroeder & Anantharaman, 2017). ...
... Shallow scaling also incorporates top-down infrastructural de-scaling, which curates the choice architecture through choice editing. This is achieved through the provision of services to shape behaviours in line with a desired outcome, such as reducing waste or the energy intensity of certain actions and can involve a degree of 'lifestyle leapfrogging' across contexts (Schroeder & Anantharaman, 2017). Such an approach may be effective at shifting behaviours at scale, addressing both the demand and supply-side of the economy, but will not challenge the social values, norms and practices that underpin consumption behaviours. ...
... Infrastructures, income, location and social status all have a huge bearing on peoples' ability to modify their behaviour. Almost 10% of the global population continue to live in extreme poverty (World Bank, 2020), and lack basic food, housing, energy, and transport; in this context, 'lifestyle leapfrogging' can support spiral scaling, via the adoption of more sustainable pathways, avoiding fossil-fuel lock-in in the first place (Schroeder & Anantharaman, 2017). And across the board, key intervention points lie in creating enabling environments to facilitate sustainable practices among broad sections of society. ...
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Non-technical summary. Scaling sustainable behaviour change means addressing politics, power and social justice to tackle the uneven distribution of responsibility and agency for climate action, within and between societies. This requires a holistic understanding of behaviour that bridges the 'individual' and 'systemic', and acknowledges the need for absolute emissions reductions, especially by high-consuming groups, and in key 'hotspots' of polluting activity, namely, travel, diet and housing. It counters the dominant focus on individuals and households, in favour of a differentiated, but collective approach, driven by bold climate governance and social mobilisation to reorient institutions and behaviour towards just transitions, sufficiency and wellbeing. Technical summary. Sustainable behaviour change has been rising up the climate policy agenda as it becomes increasingly clear that far-reaching changes in lifestyles will be required, alongside shifts in policy, service provision and technological innovation, if we are to avoid dangerous levels of global heating. In this paper, we review different approaches to behaviour change from economics, psychology, sociology and political economy, to explore the neglected question of scalability, and identify critical points of leverage that challenge the dominant emphasis on individual responsibility. Although politically contentious and challenging to implement, in order to achieve the ambitious target of keeping warming below 1.5 degrees, we propose urgent structural interventions are necessary at all points within an ecosystem of transformation, and highlight five key spheres for action: a 'strong' sustainability pathway; pursuing just transitions (via changes to work, income and infrastructure); rebalancing political institutions to expand spaces for citizens vis-à-vis elite incumbents; focusing on high polluting actors and activities; and supporting social mobilisation. We call for a move away from linear and 'shallow' understandings of behaviour change, dominated by traditional behavioural and mainstreaming approaches, towards a 'deep', contextualised and dynamic view of scaling as a transformative process of multiple feedbacks and learning loops between individuals and systems, engaged in a mutually reinforcing 'spiral of sustainability'. Social media summary box. Scaling behaviour change means addressing power and politics: challenging polluter elites and providing affordable and sustainable services for all. © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution and reproduction, provided the original article is properly cited.
... They are deeply afraid of getting into a technological lock-in by supporting a monopoly [62]. Indeed, the ideal condition for leapfrogging technology is being led by the market, where technological advances are driven by market demand [63]. ...
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The development of electric vehicles (EVs) is happening around the world with different goals. Many researchers have worked on various aspects of EVs from technological and supporting policy issues to the development of required infrastructures. However, arguing the proper time to realize the spreading of EVs in each region is neglected. For this purpose, the performance of two contextual factors in each region on the growth of EVs is investigated. Low carbon electricity generation and greenhouse gases emissions are the selected parameters, which are explored in the context of nine European countries, besides Luxembourg, to find their impacts on the issue. These countries have the highest shares of EVs in their energy systems. The achieved results are applied to the Luxembourg case to evaluate how different contextual factors may have hindered the growth of EVs here. In the next step, an analogy between the spreading EVs in Luxembourg and leapfrogging different technologies in the world is made to build a theory of the development of EVs. The theory defines the spreading EVs in Luxembourg as a leapfrogging energy technology to adopt new technology. It is concluded that the development of EVs has a normal priority in Luxembourg.
... A intenção de compra de um produto sustentável está ligada ao perfil do consumidor, como por exemplo, nível de escolaridade e renda familiar (COLARES; MATTAR, 2016), dessa forma, para que o consumo de produtos sustentáveis seja estimulado, é necessário que haja a oferta desses produtos para a população e que esta seja instruída a compreender a diferença entre um produto sustentável e um que não seja (HEISKANEN; MONT; POWER, 2014; SCHROEDER; ANANTHARAMAN, 2017). ...
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Resumo As preocupações ambientais no Brasil cresceram nos últimos anos. Uma dessas preocupações é em relação à destinação de resíduos das atividades extrativistas que ocorrem em todo o país. O ouriço da castanha-do-brasil, proveniente da atividade extrativista, representa um desses resíduos. Uma destinação economicamente sustentável para o ouriço é que esse pode servir de matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de um novo produto ambientalmente correto. Contudo, uma pesquisa de mercado, com base no perfil e nas percepções dos futuros consumidores, se torna fundamental para um correto posicionamento estratégico para a comercialização de um novo produto. Para isso, foi utilizada uma pesquisa na cidade de Sinop-MT, por meio de um questionário estruturado. Posteriormente, foi possível verificar o perfil dos possíveis consumidores, além de analisar os principais fatores que podem influenciar na decisão de compra do produto. A pesquisa descritiva não-probabilística contou com 316 entrevistados. Os resultados revelaram que os valores referentes à consciência ambiental demonstraram a preocupação dos entrevistados com a questão ambiental e consumo consciente, porém, apesar dessa preocupação, não existe por parte dos entrevistados a atitude de influenciar ou conscientizar pessoas próximas. Também foi verificado que o principal fator impactante na decisão de compra é o fator econômico (fator renda). Palavras-chave: Biocarvão. Renda. Resíduo. Castanha-do-Pará. Abstract Environmental concerns in Brazil have grown in recent years. One of those concerns is regarding the disposal of waste from extractive activities that occur throughout the country. "Hedgehog" of Brazil nut, from extractive activity, represents one of those residues. An economically sustainable destination for the "hedgehogs" is that they can be used as a raw material for the development of a new environmentally friendly product: the activated carbon filter of "hedgehog " of Brazil nut. However, a market analysis based on the profile and perceptions of future consumers becomes essential for a correct strategic positioning for the commercialization of a new product. Thus, a market research was used in the city of Sinop-MT, through a questionnaire to collect the information. Later, it was possible to verify the potential consumers' profile and to analyze the main factors that may influence the decision to purchase the product. The non-probabilistic descriptive research had 316 respondents. The results showed that the values regarding environmental awareness, demonstrated the interviewees' concern with the environmental issue and conscious consumption, however, despite this concern, there is no attitude when it comes to the interviewees to influence or raise awareness among close people. It was also found that the main impacting factor in the purchase decision is the economic factor (income factor). A maneira de pensar e agir tem influência na forma com que as pessoas consomem produtos (GODECKE; NAIME; FIGUEIREDO, 2012), uma crescente preocupação é estimular padrões de consumo sustentáveis pela população mundial, o que está diretamente ligado ao desenvolvimento sustentável. A intenção de compra de um produto sustentável está ligada ao perfil do consumidor, como por exemplo, nível de escolaridade e renda familiar (COLARES; MATTAR, 2016), dessa forma, para que o consumo de produtos sustentáveis seja estimulado, é necessário que haja a oferta desses produtos para a população e que esta seja instruída a compreender a diferença entre um produto sustentável e um que não seja (HEISKANEN; MONT; POWER, 2014; SCHROEDER; ANANTHARAMAN, 2017). Essa consciência ecológica vem sendo amplamente divulgada nas mídias sociais (KAMARUDDIN; AHMAD; ALWEE, 2016) e em encontros de líderes mundiais, cujo objetivo é buscar soluções para que o desenvolvimento econômico seja atrelado também a preservação ambiental (ONU-BRASIL, 2017). A educação ambiental gera a demanda por produtos ecológicos e, ao estimular o consumo sustentável por parte da população, também gera uma forte influência nas indústrias, que buscarão alternativas ambientalmente corretas em seus padrões de produção (DOMINGUES et al., 2016). A Lei nº 12.305 de 2010 (BRASIL, 2010) estabelece a
... What will be the effect on VW Group carbon emissions if new markets such as Rwanda are opened up not by selling vehicles but by offering mobility services only (VW, 2018c)? Such examples of possible "lifestyle leapfrogging", i.e. consumers in emerging economies adapting less resource-intense lifestyles than, for example, consumers in the EU (Schroeder and Anantharaman, 2017) should be included in analyses performed within the CBC method. ...
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Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) cause considerable amounts of CO2 emissions over the life cycle of their vehicles. They are thus contributing to global climate change. To stop climate change, all industries, including OEMs, must accomplish a major reduction of CO2 emissions. OEMs report past emissions and receive external support for setting Paris Agreement-compatible reduction targets. Though currently, OEMs do not have access to a methodology that facilitates modelling their future absolute emissions and the leverage of reduction measures at the company level. They are thus unable to develop holistic carbon reduction strategies. Here I demonstrate that current carbon management approaches remain conceptual. Based on the analysis of OEMs’ future emission drivers, requirements are developed to evaluate additional methods for their applicability in the subsequent method derivation. Quantifying the effect of integrating mobility services in OEMs’ fleets on the company’s absolute emissions is evaluated as especially important. For this reason, the Carbon Budget Compliance (CBC) method is developed by integrating and refining the analysed approaches. This method facilitates computing the impact of single reduction measures on fleet level over the life cycle of vehicles and mobility services regarding compliance with a carbon budget. The CBC method is exemplarily applied in a case study for the Volkswagen Group (VW). In scenario analyses the leverage of using renewable energy sources for battery production and electrified vehicles’ use phase is computed for fleets consisting of private vehicles and mobility services (car sharing, ride hailing, ride pooling). VW’s absolute emissions between 2015 and 2050 are modelled regarding the compliance with a 2 °C-compatible carbon budget. I show that immediate operationalisation of the two reduction measures for private vehicle and mobility service fleets is crucial for budget compliance. Due to higher load factors, ride hailing and pooling vehicles provide more person-km (p-km) during their lifetime than private vehicles. Fleet sizes in these scenarios are thus reduced. As heavier ride pooling vehicles need higher battery capacities than average Group vehicles, ensuring the use of renewable energy sources over their life cycle is crucial to attain absolute emission reduction. Otherwise, the reductive effect of smaller fleets is counterbalanced. The load factor of car sharing vehicles is similar or equal to private vehicles. By offering car sharing, OEMs can thus only reduce absolute emissions via an earlier onset of fleet electrification and the use of renewable energy sources. The high dependence on the energy sector’s decarbonisation efforts calls for OEMs to play an active role in the provision of sufficient amounts of renewable energy. The lowest modelled overshoot of the carbon budget is 5% facilitated by a combination of ride hailing and private vehicles as well as by operationalising the reduction measures. OEMs should therefore analyse additional measures tackling the supply chain and less CO2-intensive emission categories such as logistics within the CBC method. The method facilitates modelling such measures due to its modular approach. By using the CBC method, OEMs are now able to develop effective carbon reduction strategies to support achieving global climate targets and monitor their success. To improve the CBC method, future research should address the automation of data flows between data systems and the integration of micro-scale mobility models to quantify rebound effects caused by mobility services. Coupling internal carbon pricing with the CBC method could further promote its applicability in OEMs’ daily business operations.
... We take a different approach to consumers and users: one that views technologies-and their appropriation-as central to the organisation of everyday live (Spaargaren 2011;Strengers and Maller 2012). This approach, we argue, contributes to the development of more systemic perspectives on the leapfrogging concept that can attend simultaneously to technological efficiency, behaviour change, and quality of life (Schroeder and Anantharaman 2017). ...
... We do not claim that corporate-led interventions will unproblematically deliver outcomes that are socially and environmentally desirable. To the contrary, we agree with Schroeder and Anantharaman's (2017) assertion that environmental 'lifestyle leapfrogging' is likely to require strong and systematic action and interventions in policy, markets, and civil society. Nevertheless, our co-produced brief of looking to the case of the mobile phone to identify some of the mechanisms through which user led leapfrogging happens provides the context for the research on which this paper is based. ...
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The pursuit of ‘everyday climate cultures’ can mean many things, including reductions in the resource intensity of everyday life. This paper considers efforts to influence current and future patterns of water use in the Global South. This is a significant challenge for environmental policy and for companies that seek to reduce environmental impacts during the use phase of their products. Challenges such as these often give way to debates about the potential for developing countries to bypass resource intensive phases of development and ‘leapfrog’ directly to more sustainable pathways. This article contributes to the literature on environmental leapfrogging by applying social practice theory to better understand the significance of users and ‘lifestyles’. Drawing on a research collaboration with Unilever—involving a rapid review of relevant evidence—the analysis considers mobile (cell) phones as an exemplar of ‘user-led leapfrogging’. A number of lessons are drawn out of this case study that inform thinking about the task of leapfrogging to more sustainable patterns of water use in the Global South. Attention is paid to the adoption and appropriation of products, the broader societal impacts of new technologies, and alternatives to the logic of efficiency. Crucially, it is argued that technologies are limited in their ability to steer processes of positive change and that attention must be paid to existing cultural patterns, ways of doing things, and social structures. The conclusion reflects critically on the concept of environmental leapfrogging, the merits and limitations of social practice theory, and the broader implications of the analysis for understanding everyday climate cultures.
... To make the CE work for HD it will need to provide the products and services that contribute to health and well-being and enable sustainable lifestyles choices and enhanced capabilities while reducing environmental impacts. The transformation of lifestyles will be influenced by a shift from a linear economy of scale to an' economy of choice': driven by flexible production and new business models, consumers having more options (Whitney, 2015), including sustainable consumption choices for emerging consumers in developing countries that would enable 'lifestyle leapfrogging' to avoid lock-in into linear consumption patterns (Schröder and Anantharaman, 2016). Thriving CE and inclusive and diverse societies would therefore be characterised by their ability to meet societal needs, namely, that the ultimate goal of the CE would be to ensure the well-being, reduced inequality and prosperity of all its citizens, rather than simply a model allowing for economic growth, decoupled from material consumption (DiFrancesco, 2019). ...
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This paper aims to re-conceptualise and advance the existing frameworks and practical applications of the circular economy (CE) towards a broader approach to development in general and, more particularly, to combine it with the approach for Human Development (HD). The CE is an alternative to the current "take, make, waste” extractive industrial model and offers a practical solution to address global and local environmental challenges, such as resource depletion, marine plastic pollution, and for staying within planetary system boundaries. Although the CE and related concepts such as cradle to cradle provide a most promising alternative to the traditional linear economy model and its impacts on the planets eco-systems, some of the CE key elements have raised debate both in the academic community and among policy makers. One of the debates concerns the missing social or human dimensions of the CE. Likewise, the HD approach lacks considerations of environmental sustainability. Drawing on both academic and grey literature and the authorsö research observations and professional experiences in the fields of promoting the CE and international development cooperation for HD, we attempt to develop an integrative conceptual framework of the CE and HD. This framework includes social-economic elements of the transformation from linear to circular economic models, combined with HD from the social sciences and development studies. We thereby complement the technological-material focused CE model that is primarily based on principles of industrial ecology and engineering. We utilize the existing ‘circular humansphereö concept to articulate the incorporation of HD into the discussion of CE. By bringing in explicit links with HD, we pursue a double aim: First, to raise awareness and understanding among the CE research community of the missing human dimension in current CE discourse, and second, to familiarise the international development community with the approaches of CE. This will advance the options for adopting CE practices in international development programmes and for the process of implementing the social SDGs concerning HD such as SDG 1, 3, 4, 5, and 10. Finally, we hope that this CE and HD framework can contribute to the resolution of environmental and developmental issues.
... In research, forms of consumption more or less sustainable behaviourare associated with life satisfaction or well-being Relatively uniform product/service systems can be developed for different lifestyle groups/types whose demand is relevant for climate protection and social balance. Research is also dealing with information management for consumers (Longo et al. 2019), the potentials and limits for a shift towards more sustainable consumption, in which leapfrogging is combined with a system-thinking approach (Schroeder and Anantharaman 2017). In some cases, particular focus is placed on groups that have been characterised as open to sustainable consumption, such as forest rangers or voluntary simplifiers, i.e., people who voluntarily simplify their lifestyles by adopting sufficiency-orientated behaviour (Gubíniova et al. 2017;Häyrinen et al. 2016;Peyer et al. 2017). ...
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This assessment report identifies six key areas of sustainable consumption. Transforming those areas is associated with a significant, positive impact on sustainable development. In this way, those key areas lay the foundation to set clear priorities and formulate concrete policy measures and recommendations. The report describes recent developments and relevant actors in those six fields, outlines drivers and barriers to reach a shift towards more sustainability in those specific areas, and explores international good-practice examples. On top of this, overarching topics in the scientific discourse concerning sustainable consumption (e.g. collaborative economy, behavioural economics and nudging) are revealed by using innovative text-mining techniques. Subsequently, the report outlines the contributions of these research approaches to transforming the key areas of sustainable consumption. Finally, the report derives policy recommendations to improve the German Sustainable Development Strategy (DNS) in order to achieve a stronger stimulus effect for sustainable consumption.