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Le Corbusier's grandiose vision of the 'Ville Contemporaine' (1922) (Fondation Le Corbusier, 2014). 

Le Corbusier's grandiose vision of the 'Ville Contemporaine' (1922) (Fondation Le Corbusier, 2014). 

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Despite the ongoing discussion of the recent years, there is no agreed definition of a ‘smart city’, while strategic planning in this field is still largely unexplored. Inspired by this, the purpose of this paper was to identify the forces shaping the smart city conception and, by doing so, to begin replacing the currently abstract image of what it...

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... and work as effortlessly as machines. In 1922 Le Corbusier produced his plans for the 'Ville Contemporaine' (contemporary city) for a population of three million. In the city's heart lied a group of sixty-story skyscrapers for residential and office use, built with steel and glass -the latest revolution in the construction industry at that time (Fig. ...

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... A position supported by [125] who argues, that this access gap has the potential to further widen and reenforce income gaps for some segments of the population, and between the wealthy and poorer populations in smart urban environments. Yet to date, governments have become increasingly reliant on technology vendors and consultancies (e.g., IBM, CISCO, and KPMG etc.), who have a growing appetite for active involvement in a sector that they perceive to be growing rapidly, and that offers huge financial potential for them [126,127]. ...
... When considering smart cities and corporations, commentators [126,127] argue that these private actors (i.e., IBM, CISCO, and KPMG etc.), often promote and overemphasise the role and importance of ICT, data and software technology(ies), to make urban environment(s) smarter through the creation of smart city(ies). However, these solution(s) do not necessarily equate to a reduction in and or resolution of the challenges associated with broader urban inequality problems. ...
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The UN predicts that by 2050, 72% of the world’s population will be urban dwellers, a global migration and human shift that will ultimately lead to a significant social, economic and environmental transformation of urban environments. Not surprisingly, such a prediction has led to an increased interest in the growth of smart city(ies). Literature suggests that these ecosystems, that is smart city(ies), increase productivity and grow social, human and economic capital, and have the potential to reduce inequality(ies) amongst its citizens. This chapter will argue, that such expectations of inequality reduction, may not be the case. That current technocentric approaches fail to address urban problems associated with inequality, including urban sprawl, poverty, higher rates of unemployment, growing urban costs, and housing affordability. Recommendations will be made for the use of alternative mechanisms in the design of these ecosystems, to achieve the ultimate goal of reduced inequality, while simultaneously creating more liveable, vibrant and social, economic and sustainable city(ies) and community(ies) of the future.
... Sustainable cities aim at achieving a balance between the needs of social, economic, and environmental urban development in order to ensure that no burdens are left to future generations (Hiremath et al. 2013;Squires 2013). Smart cities rely on innovations in information and communication technology (ICT) and their potentials to optimize citizen's lives through the intelligent management and linking of urban infrastructures of various kinds (Angelidou 2015;Townsend 2013). Both concepts represent a positive vision of an urban future; however, the (possible) relations between them need to be better understood (Ahvenniemi et al. 2017;Bibri and Krogstie 2017;Bifulco et al. 2016;Höjer and Wangel 2014;Kunzmann 2014). ...
... Defining what smartness means and what constitutes a smart city is more difficult than defining sustainability and the sustainable city. Indeed, a commonly accepted definition does (still) not exist for a smart city (Ahvenniemi et al. 2017;Angelidou 2015;Bibri and Krogstie 2017;Hollands 2008). Vanolo (2016: 27) summarized that, currently, the most common understanding of a smart city "relies on the implicit assumption that urban infrastructures and everyday life are optimized and 'greened' through technologies provided by ICT-companies." ...
... Indeed, the sustainable and the smart cities aim at no less than a "better" life in the city of tomorrow. However, beyond this understandable criticism, it needs to be emphasized that sustainability can be explained in one or two sentences or with the help of a simple illustration such as a triangle, while there is still no commonly accepted definition of a smart city (Ahvenniemi et al. 2017;Angelidou 2015;Bibri and Krogstie 2017;Hollands 2008). The classic sustainability definition formulated in the Brundtland Report in 1987 (WCED 1987: 42) -"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"can basically be translated into all aspects of human life, the system of a city included. ...
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Both the smart and the sustainable cities represent a positive vision of future urban development. This chapter analyzes and discusses definitions and notions of both concepts, as well as their emergence, establishment, and development. Both concepts share similarities, such as the far-reaching and integrative claim to bring positive change to cities or the notion to operationalize the terms sustainable and smart by defining subcategories. However, the differences between both concepts far outweigh the similarities. Indeed, sustainability and the sustainable city, on the one hand, and the smart city, on the other hand, are distinctly different in terms of their development history, the main driving forces behind, and the theoretical scope. The understanding of (urban) sustainability was strongly influenced and brought forward by the ideas and commitments of intellectuals, leading politicians, and environmental movements, whereas multinational technology companies mainly coined the development of the smart city concept. Besides, the significantly more comprehensively defined term sustainability had a consistent underlying idea from the beginning onward, whereas the smart city concept still lacks terminological and content-related clarity as well as a generally accepted definition.
... Closer to urban policy topics, some critiques arise about the very meaning of the "smart" aspect and the important societal issues it may be hiding (Roche 2017). Some have attempted to operationalize and give further focus to the concept of smart city (Caragliu et al. 2011;Batty et al. 2012;Roche 2014Roche , 2015, others have critically assessed the smart city paradigm and, for example, warned about preferring a city label without clear policy goals (Hollands 2008), about an overemphasis of the technological over the sustainable (Yigitcanlar et al. 2019), about the influence of large corporates and service supply industries (Söderström et al. 2014, Angelidou 2015Hollands 2015) over public objectives or citizen participation, or about ethical and power issues and risks with personal data (Zuboff 2019). We observe a lot of discussions about smartness with no convergence. ...
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We argue that there is no one-fits-all “smart city” recipe to address the sustainability and socio-economic challenges of our ever-urbanizing world. If smartness is the ability to deliver useful information to citizens and urban actors in order to adapt their behaviors and policies dynamically and interactively in view of a particular social, economic or environmental objectives, we here suggest that each city should not prioritize the same type of information and infrastructure. Because large cities are often seen as centers of innovation and modernity, it is very tempting for urban investors to propose, and for policy makers to follow these investment paths and develop information systems irrespective of the characteristics and size of the city. This potential mismatch may limit the uptake or the most relevant and useful information needed for a city to develop more sustainably and equally. We suggest that smart cities cannot ignore scaling effects nor the evident deviations to these laws. We hence propose to cross tabulate a smart city typology of infrastructure and information with a set of urban archetypes based on key dimensions of cities, including their spatial forms and extents but also their relative positioning within their regional setting, within the urban hierarchy and within their path-dependent trajectories. We see this cross-tabulation as a first step to anchor (big) data realities and smart city practices in geographic knowledge and urban complexity theory. We advocate that tailor-made smart city policies are necessary to monitor and manage cities given their geodiversity.KeywordsUrban diversityMulti-scalar typologyPath dependent urban trajectoriesTailor-made adaptive pathway
... Urban agglomerations and buildings have played an essential part in human civilization, advancement of life, and economic development (Angelidou, 2015;Choi, 2009;Fang & Yu, 2017). The United Nations (UN) predicts that 60% of the world population will live in cities by 2030 (Cer on-Palma et al., 2012). ...
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... birokrasi. Transformasi ini membuka pintu interaksi antara pemerintah dan masyarakat yang menjadi kunci utama pelayanan publik online (Angelidou 2015). Upaya transformasi Sistem Pemerintahan Berbasis Elektronik (SPBE) dikukuhkan dengan Perpres RI Nomor 95 tahun 2018 tentang Sistem Pemerintahan Berbasis Elektronik yang menjelaskan bahwa untuk mewujudkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang bersih, efektif, transparan, dan akuntabel serta pelayanan publik yang berkualitas dan terpercaya diperlukan SPBE. ...
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... Additionally, the last two definitions in Table 4 use metaphors to emphasize the impact of UBD in predicting and managing cities in this big data era. Utilizing UBD through appropriate analytics can yield "a better management of urban functions" (Angelidou 2015). UBD is also defined as the potential to discover urban dynamics and predict social phenomena (Moon et al. 2014), undoubtedly enabling city leaders to make more informed decisions and allow citizens to enjoy better city lives (Steenbruggen et al. 2015). ...
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... This vision of smart largely comes from researchers working in the domains of computer science and engineering, as well as corporate companies that develop, produce, and help municipal governments implement smart technologies and datafication processes like Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing and Big Data [12,17]. For instance, a highly cited paper by Zanella et al. [26] on IoT sees the realization of smart city concept through exploitation of advanced technologies for management and optimization of public services and for increasing the transparency and evidence based strategizing of cities. Angelidou [27] notes that such visions promote a smart city product economy where ICT infrastructures are pushed in a market of smart city products and solutions to pull the demand of cities seeking to address urban problems. For Zanella et al. [26], deployment of IoT system is at the core of smart city initiatives and critical factors for successful deployment are twofold: the technological complexities of integrating and standardizing heterogenous systems to support a dynamic urban IoT system, and a sustainable market mechanism that allows steady investment and commercial demand of smart technological systems. ...
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... Dos documentos selecionados para a análise completa alguns apresentaram um conceito próprio do(s) autor(es) ou uma revisão da literatura seguida das percepções ou das definições mais aceitas pelo(s) autor(es). Se verifica que há concordância entre muitos autores de que o conceito de cidades inteligentes ainda está em construção, não sendo um conceito bem definido devido às muitas variações conceituais expressas na literatura 11 (Angelidou, 2015;Bakici, Almirall & Warehan, 2013;Ben Letaifa, 2015;Mora, Bolici & Deakin, 2017;Vanolo, 2016;Yigitcanlar et al., 2018) "Atualmente, dezenas de descrições diferentes do que é uma cidade inteligente podem ser encontradas na literatura" 12 . "Essa diversidade de ideias cria certos problemas conceituais na discussão de cidades inteligentes, uma vez que diferentes escritores invocam aspectos bastante variados em sua definição do termo" 13 . ...
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La vida se idealiza cada vez más en espacios salubres que cuenten con condiciones decalidad ambiental. Surge la terminología “ciudad inteligente”. Este artículo tiene comoobjetivo general estudiar el concepto de “ciudades inteligentes” y sus variantes, buscandodar respuesta al siguiente problema: ¿es posible construir un concepto de gestión pública“inteligente” a partir de la concepción de ciudades inteligentes considerando la seguridadhídrica, saneamiento, cambio climático y desastres a través del prisma de la gestiónpública? Se trata de una investigación cualitativa-documental, utilizando la plataformaScopus® para el análisis bibliométrico. Se utilizaron revisiones sistemáticas paracomprender las tendencias en la terminología. Los resultados mostraron que tiene unagran restricción de su aplicación al área de tecnologías. Sin embargo, tiene un alcancemás amplio. Se observó que los estudios sobre ciudades inteligentes deben avanzar enla dirección de la seguridad hídrica, el saneamiento, el cambio climático y los desastres.Palabras-clave: medio urbano, gestión ambiental, calidad ambiental.