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| Layout of repeated sprint exercise with changes of direction (COD) on a basketball court.

| Layout of repeated sprint exercise with changes of direction (COD) on a basketball court.

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This study investigated the impact of repeated-sprint (RS) training with voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (VHL) on RS ability (RSA) and on performance in a 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT). Over 4 weeks, 17 basketball players included eight sessions of straight-line running RS and RS with changes of direction into their usual...

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... first session of the week always included COD and was conducted on an indoor basketball field. Participants started in the middle of the basketball court facing the baseline, and after a countdown they had to touch one sideline after the other and finish where they started (Figure 1). At each repetition, the start was in the other direction. ...
Context 2
... indicates a better reoxygenation capacity between sprints (Billaut and Buchheit, 2013) after VHL training. Such local adaptation in active locomotor muscles is reported here for the first time in the scientific literature and may explain the greater systemic VO 2 observed during recovery phases between repeated sprints after VHL training (Woorons et al., 2019b). Alternatively, the greater muscle reoxygenation could be the consequence of greater cardiac output and arterial inflow to the muscles purported to occur after VHL ( Woorons et al., 2019b). ...

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Verbal encouragement (VE) and listening to preferred music (PM) are considered effective ergogenic methods in strength and conditioning, but studies examining the effectiveness of these two methods simultaneously are lacking. This study analyzed the influence of PM and VE on repeated change-of-direction performance (R-CoD) in elite young basketball...

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... Regarding longer-term breath-holding interventions, studies reported null to moderate positive effects on physical sport performance (Brocherie et al., 2022;Fornasier-Santos et al., 2018;Lapointe et al., 2020;Trincat et al., 2017;Tyutyukov et al., 2015;Woorons et al., 2020;. The results indicate moderate heterogeneity, almost entirely due to sampling error (see I² = 0%; Tau² = 0). ...
... The main focus of longer-term breath-holding interventions was repeated-sprint ability training realised with breath-holding at low lung volume, also referred to as hypoventilation at low lung volume (Brocherie et al., 2022;Fornasier-Santos et al., 2018;Lapointe et al., 2020;Trincat et al., 2017;Woorons et al., 2020;. Repeated-sprint ability was chosen as the main focus given that short-duration sprints (< 10 s), interspersed with brief recoveries (<60 s), are common in many individual (e.g. ...
... For the practical methodological implementation, the question arises about the difference between holding the breath at high vs. low lung volume (i.e. after maximal inhalation or exhalation). Although breath-holding at high lung volume may help to simulate, to some extent, hypoxic conditions (Guimard et al., 2018;Joulia et al., 2003), only breath-holding at low lung volume creates fast physiological changes (i.e. a fast drop in arterial oxygen saturation) best mirroring hypoxic conditions to perform repeated sprints in hypoxia (Lapointe et al., 2020;Trincat et al., 2017;Woorons et al., 2007Woorons et al., , 2010Woorons et al., , 2017. Training repeated-sprint ability in hypoxia was found to provide better performance improvements in comparison to normoxic conditions . ...
Breathing techniques are predicted to affect specific physical and psychological states, such as relaxation or activation, that might benefit physical sport performance (PSP). Techniques include slow-paced breathing (SPB), fast-paced breathing (FBP), voluntary hyperventilation (VH), breath-holding (BH), and alternate- and uni-nostril breathing. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was conducted in April 2022. Participants included were athletes and exercisers. In total, 37 studies were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, and 36 were included in the five meta-analyses. Random effects meta-analyses for each breathing technique were computed separately for short-term and longer-term interventions. Results showed that SPB and BH were related to improved PSP, with large and small effect sizes for longer-term interventions, respectively. In short-term interventions, SPB, BH, and VH were unrelated to PSP. There was some evidence of publication bias for SPB and BH longer-term interventions, and 41% of the studies were coded as having a high risk of bias. Due to an insufficient number of studies, meta-analyses were not computed for other breathing techniques. Based on the heterogeneity observed in the findings, further research is required to investigate potential moderators and develop standardised breathing technique protocols that might help optimise PSP outcomes.
... Given that the non-specific training programme used in the Czuba et al. [10] study was effective at improving aerobic performance in basketball athletes, we hypothesize that a more specific training programme that accounts for the workto-rest ratios of the higher paced 3 × 3 basketball game may prove beneficial at improving anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance, both of which are required in the 3 × 3 game. Indeed recently, Lapointe et al. [26] showed that more sport-specific training on 5 × 5 basketball athletes (repeated sets of 6 s sprints with a 24 s recovery) under hypoxic conditions likely improved repeated sprint ability compared to normoxic controls [26]. To date, very little research on the effects of hypoxic training in female athletes exists, and no research using IHT has been conducted on female 3 × 3 basketball players where repeated running ability, anaerobic power, and aerobic endurance play a substantial role in game performance. ...
... Given that the non-specific training programme used in the Czuba et al. [10] study was effective at improving aerobic performance in basketball athletes, we hypothesize that a more specific training programme that accounts for the workto-rest ratios of the higher paced 3 × 3 basketball game may prove beneficial at improving anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance, both of which are required in the 3 × 3 game. Indeed recently, Lapointe et al. [26] showed that more sport-specific training on 5 × 5 basketball athletes (repeated sets of 6 s sprints with a 24 s recovery) under hypoxic conditions likely improved repeated sprint ability compared to normoxic controls [26]. To date, very little research on the effects of hypoxic training in female athletes exists, and no research using IHT has been conducted on female 3 × 3 basketball players where repeated running ability, anaerobic power, and aerobic endurance play a substantial role in game performance. ...
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Purpose To investigate the effects of 4 weeks high-intensity interval training in hypoxia on aerobic and anaerobic performance of 3-on-3 basketball players. Methods In a randomised controlled trial, 15 female basketballers completed eight 1-h high-intensity training sessions in either normobaric hypoxia (hypoxic group n = 8, altitude 3052 m) or normoxia (normoxic group n = 7, sea-level). Results After training, the hypoxic group increased their 1-min all-out shuttle run distance by 2.5% ± 2.3% (mean ± 95% CI, d = 0.83, P = 0.04), compared to the normoxic group 0.2% ± 2.3% ( d = 0.06, P = 0.8), with the difference between groups being clinically worthwhile but not statistically significant ( d = 0.77, P = 0.1). Distance covered in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test tended to increase in the hypoxic (32.5% ± 39.3%, d = 1.0, P = 0.1) but not normoxic group (0.3% ± 24.5%, d = 0.08, P = 0.9), with a non-significant change between groups ( d = 0.9, P = 0.2). Compared to normoxia, the hypoxic group significantly increased subjective markers of stress ( d = 0.53, P = 0.005), fatigue ( d = 0.43, P = 0.005), and muscle soreness ( d = 0.46, P = 0.01), which resulted in a lower perceived training performance in the hypoxic compared to the normoxic group ( d = 0.68, P = 0.001). Conclusion High-intensity interval training under hypoxic conditions likely improved 1-min all-out shuttle run ability in female basketball 3-on-3 players but also increased subjective markers of stress and fatigue which must be taken into consideration when prescribing such training.
... Given that the non-specific training programme used in the Czuba et al. [10] study was effective at improving aerobic performance in basketball athletes, we hypothesize that a more specific training programme that accounts for the workto-rest ratios of the higher paced 3 × 3 basketball game may prove beneficial at improving anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance, both of which are required in the 3 × 3 game. Indeed recently, Lapointe et al. [26] showed that more sport-specific training on 5 × 5 basketball athletes (repeated sets of 6 s sprints with a 24 s recovery) under hypoxic conditions likely improved repeated sprint ability compared to normoxic controls [26]. To date, very little research on the effects of hypoxic training in female athletes exists, and no research using IHT has been conducted on female 3 × 3 basketball players where repeated running ability, anaerobic power, and aerobic endurance play a substantial role in game performance. ...
... Given that the non-specific training programme used in the Czuba et al. [10] study was effective at improving aerobic performance in basketball athletes, we hypothesize that a more specific training programme that accounts for the workto-rest ratios of the higher paced 3 × 3 basketball game may prove beneficial at improving anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance, both of which are required in the 3 × 3 game. Indeed recently, Lapointe et al. [26] showed that more sport-specific training on 5 × 5 basketball athletes (repeated sets of 6 s sprints with a 24 s recovery) under hypoxic conditions likely improved repeated sprint ability compared to normoxic controls [26]. To date, very little research on the effects of hypoxic training in female athletes exists, and no research using IHT has been conducted on female 3 × 3 basketball players where repeated running ability, anaerobic power, and aerobic endurance play a substantial role in game performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To investigate the effects of 4 weeks high-intensity interval training in hypoxia on aerobic and anaerobic performance of 3-on-3 basketball players. Methods In a randomised controlled trial, 15 female basketballers completed eight 1-h high-intensity training sessions in either normobaric hypoxia (hypoxic group n = 8, altitude 3052 m) or normoxia (normoxic group n = 7, sea-level). Results After training, the hypoxic group increased their 1-min all-out shuttle run distance by 2.5% ± 2.3% (mean ± 95% CI, d = 0.83, P = 0.04), compared to the normoxic group 0.2% ± 2.3% (d = 0.06, P = 0.8), with the difference between groups being clinically worthwhile but not statistically significant (d = 0.77, P = 0.1). Distance covered in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test tended to increase in the hypoxic (32.5% ± 39.3%, d = 1.0, P = 0.1) but not normoxic group (0.3% ± 24.5%, d = 0.08, P = 0.9), with a non-significant change between groups (d = 0.9, P = 0.2). Compared to normoxia, the hypoxic group significantly increased subjective markers of stress (d = 0.53, P = 0.005), fatigue (d = 0.43, P = 0.005), and muscle soreness (d = 0.46, P = 0.01), which resulted in a lower perceived training performance in the hypoxic compared to the normoxic group (d = 0.68, P = 0.001). Conclusion High-intensity interval training under hypoxic conditions likely improved 1-min all-out shuttle run ability in female basketball 3-on-3 players but also increased subjective markers of stress and fatigue which must be taken into consideration when prescribing such training.
... In short, BH is a strong metabolic stressor similar to hypoxic training that causes accelerated muscle deoxygenation, hypercapnia, and increased muscle activity during exercise (Kume et al., 2016;Toubekis et al., 2017). BH protocols lasting 3-5 weeks reported performance gains of 3%-4% related to two acute mechanisms: increased stroke volume (up to 30%) and haemoglobin concentration (up to 10%; Woorons et al., 2016;Lapointe et al., 2020;Woorons et al., 2020). These ergogenic benefits are likely due to increased left ventricular stroke volume (Woorons et al., 2021b) and post-BH spleen contraction (Inoue et al., 2013). ...
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Running is among the most popular sporting hobbies and often chosen specifically for intrinsic psychological benefits. However, up to 40% of runners may experience exercise-induced dyspnoea as a result of cascading physiological phenomena, possibly causing negative psychological states or barriers to participation. Breathing techniques such as slow, deep breathing have proven benefits at rest, but it is unclear if they can be used during exercise to address respiratory limitations or improve performance. While direct experimental evidence is limited, diverse findings from exercise physiology and sports science combined with anecdotal knowledge from Yoga, meditation, and breathwork suggest that many aspects of breathing could be improved via purposeful strategies. Hence, we sought to synthesize these disparate sources to create a new theoretical framework called “Breath Tools” proposing breathing strategies for use during running to improve tolerance, performance, and lower barriers to long-term enjoyment.
... When combined with repeated sprints, the RSH-VHL approach has proved putative benefits in swimming, 18 cycling, 19 rugby 20 and basket-ball. 21 The mechanisms induced by RSH-VHL include higher anaerobic tolerance 18,19 and oxygen uptake, 19 two major determinants of RSA performance. 6 While it has been shown that holding breath at high lung volume during exercise could also induce severe arterial desaturation 22 and may help reduce blood acidosis and oxidative stress, 23 only the VHL technique can provoke a sufficiently fast drop in SpO 2 to perform a RSH effort. ...
... 6 While it has been shown that holding breath at high lung volume during exercise could also induce severe arterial desaturation 22 and may help reduce blood acidosis and oxidative stress, 23 only the VHL technique can provoke a sufficiently fast drop in SpO 2 to perform a RSH effort. [18][19][20][21] Due to the specific features of ice hockey (e.g. frequent shifts inducing short high-intensity sprints, partial occlusion in lower limbs occurring while skating, large neuromuscular fatigue), one may hypothesize that RSH-VHL would be particularly appropriate in ice hockey. ...
... 19 Likewise, basket-ball players of national level who trained for four weeks with RSH-VHL also reduced fatigue to a greater extent than the control group. 21 The 4% increase in V mean reported in the present study after five weeks of RSH-VHL is difficult to compare to previous studies using open-loop RSA tests. On the other hand, it is noteworthy that this increase is twofold lower than the aforementioned gains reported after only 3 weeks of cycling RSH-VHL. ...
Article
This study aimed to assess the effects of an off-season period of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (RSH-VHL) on off-ice re-peated-sprint ability (RSA) in ice hockey players. Thirty-five high-level youth ice hockey players completed 10 sessions of running repeated sprints over a 5-week period, either with RSH-VHL (n =16) or with unrestricted breathing (RSN, n = 19). Before (Pre) and after (Post) the training period, subjects performed two 40-m single sprints (to obtain the reference velocity (Vref)) followed by a running RSA test (12 × 40 m all-out sprints with departure every 30 s). From Pre to Post, there was no change in Vref or in the maximal velocity reached in the RSA test in both groups. In RSH-VHL, the mean velocity of the RSA test was higher (88.9 ± 5.4 vs. 92.9 ± 3.2 % of Vref; p < 0.01) and the percentage decrement score lower (11.1 ± 5.2 vs. 7.1 ± 3.3; p < 0.01) at Post than at Pre whereas no significant change occurred in the RSN group (89.6 ± 3.3 vs. 91.3 ± 1.9 % of Vref, p =0.11; 10.4 ± 3.2 vs. 8.7 ± 2.3 %; p = 0.13). In conclusion, five weeks of off-ice RSH-VHL intervention led to a significant 4% improve-ment in off-ice RSA performance. Based on previous findings showing larger effects after shorter intervention time, the dose-response dependent effect of this innovative approach remains to be investigated.
... On the other hand, other studies which investigated the effects of repeated sprints with VHL found no difference between conditions (Woorons et al. 2019a) or, if so, only towards the end of exercise ). These latter outcomes may explain why no improvement in muscle O 2 utilisation was reported after a period of repeated-sprint training with VHL (Lapointe et al. 2020;Woorons et al. 2019b). ...
... In particular, the hypoxic "dose" (i.e., degree and duration of hypoxia) under this condition is greater than what has been reported in studies using non maximal EEBH (Kume et al. 2016;Woorons et al. 2010Woorons et al. , 2017Woorons et al. , 2019a. Thus, in addition to an improved anaerobic glycolysis (Trincat et al. 2017;Woorons et al. 2016Woorons et al. , 2019b and unlike what has been reported so far (Lapointe et al. 2020;Woorons et al. 2019b), physiological adaptations favourable to muscle O 2 utilisation (e.g., improved capillarisation) may actually occur after a period of training with VHL including EEBH held up to the breaking point. ...
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Purpose: The goal of this study was to assess the effects of repeated running bouts with end-expiratory breath holding (EEBH) up to the breaking point on muscle oxygenation. Methods: Eight male runners participated in three randomized sessions each including two exercises on a motorized treadmill. The first exercise consisted in performing 10-12 running bouts with EEBH of maximum duration either (separate sessions) at 60% (active recovery), 80% (passive recovery) or 100% (passive recovery) of the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV). Each repetition started at the onset of EEBH and ended at its release. In the second exercise of the session, subjects replicated the same procedure but with normal breathing (NB). Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR) and the change in vastus lateralis muscle deoxy-haemoglobin/myoglobin (Δ[HHb/Mb]) and total haemoglobin/myoglobin (Δ[THb/Mb]) were continuously monitored throughout exercises. Results: On average, the EEBHs were maintained for 10.1 ± 1.1 s, 13.2 ± 1.8 s and 12.2 ± 1.7 s during exercise at 60%, 80% and 100% of MAV, respectively. In the three exercise intensities, SpO2 (mean nadir values: 76.3 ± 2.5 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %) and HR were lower with EEBH than with NB at the end of the repetitions whereas the mean Δ[HHb/Mb] (12.6 ± 5.2 vs 7.7 ± 4.4 µm) and Δ[THb/Mb] (- 0.6 ± 2.3 vs 3.8 ± 2.6 µm) were respectively higher and lower with EEBH (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that performing repeated bouts of running exercises with EEBH up to the breaking point induced a large and early drop in muscle oxygenation compared with the same exercise with NB. This phenomenon was probably the consequence of the strong arterial oxygen desaturation induced by the maximal EEBHs.
... Asimismo, Brocherie et al., (2015) evalúa una prueba RSA por primera vez con valores de la SmO2 y los comparo con electromiografía, los autores fundamentaron el vínculo entre la capacidad de sprints repetidos y el cambio en la activación neuromuscular, así como en las tasas de desoxigenación y reoxigenación muscular pueden afectar o mejorar el rendimiento. Asimismo, el estudio de Lapointe et al., (2020), midió la adaptación de la mejora de SmO2 en jugadores de baloncesto con entrenamiento de hipoventilación y RSA, lo que podría ser relevante para el éxito del jugador de baloncesto. Esta ganancia puede atribuirse a una mayor reoxigenación muscular, estrategias mejoradas de reclutamiento muscular y una mejor regulación del K + para atenuar el desarrollo de la fatiga muscular, especialmente en las fibras musculares de tipo II. ...
... En este sentido, el protocolo utilizado por Brocherie et al. (2015) se centra más en la medición de la capacidad anaeróbica con una prueba RSA más corta, porque es menos específico para observar cambios en las vías metabólicas. Una limitación del sprint de alta velocidad se evidencia en la desaturación y re-saturación, cuando el sistema energético se vuelve dependiente del metabolismo oxidativo (fosforilación oxidativa) dentro del músculo (Lapointe et al., 2020). Durante este proceso metabólico, la diferencia en la respuesta interindividual de los sujetos será Dependen de la capacidad del sistema cardiovascular, la hemodinámica y los lechos capilares para mantener el suministro de oxígeno en el músculo . ...
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Introducción: El desarrollo de dispositivos portátiles de espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano no invasivo (NIRS) ha permitido que las mediciones de oxígeno muscular se realicen fuera de un entorno de laboratorio para investigar cambios musculares locales en pruebas campo para guiar el entrenamiento. En general, durante el ejercicio los NIRS portátiles utiliza la saturación de oxígeno muscular (SmO2) como parámetro principal para el estudio de la hemodinámica porque proporciona información sobre el rendimiento y el metabolismo muscular durante el ejercicio. Un uso novedoso de NIRS portátil, es la medición de la oxigenación muscular en reposo a través del método de oclusión arterial (AOM). AOM consiste en realizar breves oclusiones arteriales para conocer el consumo de oxígeno muscular en reposo (mVO2). En la actualidad, AOM es una técnica para obtener información de la capacidad oxidativa del músculo en reposo, lo cual significa que el atleta no realiza ningún esfuerzo físico. Sin embargo, existe poca literatura científica de cómo está implicado el mVO2 en el proceso de entrenamiento. Por otro lado, el monitoreo de la acumulación de fatiga pre y post competencia es importante dentro de la planificación del entrenamiento. Uno de los roles de los científicos del deporte es conocer el perfil de fatiga y recuperación con el fin de optimizar los procesos de entrenamiento para buscar un mejor rendimiento deportivo. Pero existen limitaciones, debido a que el estudio de la fatiga es un fenómeno multifactorial que envuelve diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. En cuanto a la relación que pueda tener NIRS portátil y la medición de SmO2 con la fatiga dentro de un contexto deportivo se desconoce, debido a que es una variable que no se ha puesto en práctica en el deporte, pero con un gran potencial. En el contexto de la salud, existen numerosas investigaciones que han asociado la SmO2 a enfermedades cardiovasculares, respiratorias y metabólicas como el sobrepeso y obesidad, que son patologías que afectan la entrega de oxígeno durante la actividad física. Uno de los factores claves para prescribir el ejercicio físico es conocer las zonas de metabólica, es decir la intensidad de ejercicio donde existen cambios metabólicos y que se aplica según el objetivo de la sesión de entrenamiento en personas que realizan actividad física para la salud. Por último, existen algunos vacíos científicos de la aplicación de NIRS portátil en contextos de fatiga, rendimiento y salud. Por lo tanto, con esta tesis podemos brindar nuevos aportes científicos del metabolismo muscular a través de la medición de la SmO2 en reposo y durante el ejercicio, necesario para conocer estados de condición física de un deportista, fatiga, recuperación y la prescripción de ejercicio de ejercicio físico. Objetivos: La tesis presenta como objetivo general: Utilizar la saturación de oxígeno muscular y estudiar su implicación en la fatiga, rendimiento y salud. Para realizar el objetivo general se llevó a cabo los siguientes objetivos específicos: 1. Examinar la relación de la saturación de oxígeno muscular en reposo con marcadores de fatiga en futbolistas femeninos. 2. Interpretar el rol de la saturación de oxígeno muscular como un marcador de rendimiento deportivo durante una prueba de alta intensidad (sprint-repetidos) en futbolistas femeninos. 3. Evaluar los cambios de oxigenación muscular en reposo después de un periodo de entrenamiento y correlacionarlos con la composición corporal y la potencia de salto en futbolistas. 4. Comparar y correlacionar los parámetros fisiológicos en función de la saturación de oxígeno muscular por zonas metabólicas durante una prueba de esfuerzo en personas con sobrepeso/obesidad y normo-peso. Métodos: Los cuatro objetivos de esta tesis fueron investigados con cuatro estudios científicos. Los participantes fueron futbolistas femeninos y masculinos que competían en segunda y tercera división respectivamente, y mujeres con sobrepeso/obesidad y normo-peso. En todas las pruebas se utilizó un NIRS portátil marca MOXY colocado en el músculo gastrocnemio y músculo vasto lateral. El primer estudio consistió en medir marcadores de fatiga neuromuscular, escalas psicológicas y marcadores sanguíneos utilizados para medir fatiga a nivel biológico. En conjunto se midió la prueba de oxígeno muscular en reposo (mVO2 y SmO2) mediante la técnica AOM. Todas las mediciones se realizaron pre, post y post 24 h tras un partido de futbol femenino. El segundo estudio consistió en que los futbolistas femeninos realizaran una prueba de sprint repetidos, donde se evaluó la frecuencia cardiaca, velocidad y SmO2 en conjunto. El tercer estudio consistió en observar cambios de SmO2 en reposo después de un periodo de pretemporada en jugadores de futbol y relacionarlo con la composición corporal y la potencia de salto. El cuarto estudio consistió en realizar una prueba de esfuerzo incremental con detección de zonas metabólicas: fatmax, umbrales de entrenamiento VT1 y VT2 y potencia aeróbica máxima para compararlo y relacionarlo con la SmO2. Resultados y Discusión: En base a los objetivos de la tesis: Primero, en las jugadoras de futbol se encontró un aumento de mVO2 y SmO2 en reposo a las 24 h post partido oficial [(mVO2: 0.75 ± 1.8 vs 2.1± 2.7 μM-Hbdiff); (SmO2: 50 ± 9 vs 63 ± 12 %)]. Principalmente, este aumento es resultado de la correlación de la vasodilatación mediada por el flujo sanguíneo y el trasporte de oxígeno muscular que es un mecanismo implicado en los procesos de recuperación de la homeostasis del músculo esquelético y la restauración del equilibrio metabólico. El aumento del consumo de oxígeno se relacionó con la disminución de la potencia de salto (r= −0.63 p <0.05) y el aumento del lactato deshidrogenada (LDH) (r = 0.78 p <0.05) como marcadores de fatiga. Seguidamente en el segundo estudio, encontramos que la disminución del rendimiento durante una prueba de sprint repetidos, comienza con el aumento gradual de la SmO2, debido al cambio de la presión intramuscular y la respuesta hiperémica que conlleva, mostrando una disminución en la respuesta inter-individual [desaturación desde el cuarto sprint (Δ= 32%) y re-saturación después del sexto sprint (Δ= 89%)]. Además, la extracción de oxígeno por parte del músculo tiene una asociación no-lineal con la alta velocidad (r = 0.89 p <0.05) y con la fatiga mostrada el % decremento del sprint (r = 0.93 p <0.05). En el estudio 3 se encontró que la dinámica de SmO2 en reposo es sensible a cambios después de un periodo de pretemporada (SmO2-Pendiente de recuperación: 15 ± 10 vs. 5 ± 5). Asimismo, se mostró que la SmO2 en reposo está relacionado paralelamente con el porcentaje de grasa del cuerpo (r= 0,64 p <0.05) y una relación inversa con la potencia de salto a una sola pierna (r = -0,82 p<0.01). Esto significa que a través del entrenamiento se mejoró el metabolismo y hemodinámica muscular con un tránsito más rápido del oxígeno muscular, y se asoció a las mejoras del peso corporal, somatotipo, CMJ y SLCMJ. En el cuarto estudio, basado en los parámetros fisiológicos de una prueba de esfuerzo para prescribir ejercicio: se encontró una relación entre la SmO2 y el VO2max durante la zona fatmax y VT1 (r=0,72; p=0,04) (r=0,77; p=0,02) en mujeres con normo-peso. Sin embargo, en el grupo sobrepeso obesidad no se encontró ninguna correlación ni cambios de SmO2 entre cada zona metabólica. Conclusión: La investigación de esta tesis ha demostrado avances en la medición de la SmO2. El uso de mVO2 y SmO2 en reposo es una variable de carga de trabajo que se puede utilizar para el estudio de la fatiga después de un partido de futbol femenino. Asimismo, la SmO2 en reposo puede ser interesante tomarlo en cuenta como un parámetro de rendimiento en futbolistas. Siguiendo el contexto, en el rendimiento durante una prueba de sprint repetidos, la SmO2 debe interpretarse basado en la respuesta individual del porcentaje de extracción de oxígeno muscular (∇%SmO2). El aporte de ∇%SmO2 es un factor de rendimiento limitado por la capacidad de velocidad y soporte de la fatiga de los futbolistas femeninos. Respecto a los aspectos de salud y prescripción del ejercicio, proponemos utilizar la SmO2 como un parámetro fisiológico para controlar y guiar el entrenamiento en zonas fatmax y VT1, pero solo en mujeres normo-peso. En patologías metabólicas como el sobrepeso y obesidad se necesitan más estudios. Como conclusión general, esta tesis muestra nuevas aplicaciones prácticas de cómo utilizar la SmO2 y su implicación en la fatiga, en contraste la adaptación al entrenamiento, pruebas de rendimiento y prescripción de la actividad física para la salud.
... In this sense, the protocol used by Brocherie et al. [11] is more focused on the measurement of anaerobic capacity with a shorter RSA test, because it is less specific in observing changes in metabolic pathways. A limitation of high speed on sprinting is evidenced at desaturation and re-saturation, when the energy system becomes dependent on oxidative metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation) within the muscle [33]. ...
Article
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Muscle oxygen consumption could provide information on oxidative metabolism in women soccer players. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze muscle oxygenation dynamics during repeated sprint ability (RSA): (8 sprint × 20 s recovery) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The sample was made up of 38 professional women soccer players. To measure the external load, the best time, worst time, average time, individual speed, sprint decrement, and power were assessed. In connection with the internal load, the desaturation (sprint) and re-saturation (recovery) rates, as well as the oxygen extraction (∇%SmO2) in the gastrocnemius muscle and maximum heart rate (%HRmax) were measured. A repeated measures statistic was applied based on the inter-individual response of each subject from the baseline versus the other sprints, with linear regression and nonlinear regression analyses between variables. There was an increase in the SmO2: desaturation rate after four sprints (Δ = 32%), in the re-saturation rate after six sprints (Δ = 89%), and in ∇%SmO2 after four sprints (Δ = 72.1%). There was a linear association between the rates of desaturation and re-saturation relationships and the worst time (r = 0.85), and a non-linear association between ∇%SmO2 and speed (r = 0.89) and between ∇%SmO2 and the sprint decrease (r = 0.93). The progressive increase in SmO2 during RSA is a performance limitation to maintain a high speed; it depends on the capacity of fatigue resistance. Therefore, monitoring the muscle oxygenation dynamics could be a useful tool to evaluate the performance in women soccer players.
... Given that the non-specific training programme used in the Czuba et al. [10] study was effective at improving aerobic performance in basketball athletes, we hypothesize that a more specific training programme that accounts for the workto-rest ratios of the higher paced 3 × 3 basketball game may prove beneficial at improving anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance, both of which are required in the 3 × 3 game. Indeed recently, Lapointe et al. [26] showed that more sport-specific training on 5 × 5 basketball athletes (repeated sets of 6 s sprints with a 24 s recovery) under hypoxic conditions likely improved repeated sprint ability compared to normoxic controls [26]. To date, very little research on the effects of hypoxic training in female athletes exists, and no research using IHT has been conducted on female 3 × 3 basketball players where repeated running ability, anaerobic power, and aerobic endurance play a substantial role in game performance. ...
... Given that the non-specific training programme used in the Czuba et al. [10] study was effective at improving aerobic performance in basketball athletes, we hypothesize that a more specific training programme that accounts for the workto-rest ratios of the higher paced 3 × 3 basketball game may prove beneficial at improving anaerobic and possibly aerobic performance, both of which are required in the 3 × 3 game. Indeed recently, Lapointe et al. [26] showed that more sport-specific training on 5 × 5 basketball athletes (repeated sets of 6 s sprints with a 24 s recovery) under hypoxic conditions likely improved repeated sprint ability compared to normoxic controls [26]. To date, very little research on the effects of hypoxic training in female athletes exists, and no research using IHT has been conducted on female 3 × 3 basketball players where repeated running ability, anaerobic power, and aerobic endurance play a substantial role in game performance. ...
Presentation
The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding hypoxia to 4 weeks of repeated sprint and high-intensity training improved explosive muscular power, aerobic performance and repeated sprint ability in 3x3 basketball players. Eleven well trained female basketball players, were randomly assigned to a hypoxia (H) (n = 5; age: 20.0 ± 1.6; height: 169.4 ± 4.6; body mass: 76.9 ± 6.5; haemoglobin: 135.8 ± 4.1) or control (C) group (n = 6; age: 20.8 ± 2.2; height: 174.7 ± 5.2; body mass: 68.0 ± 4.3; haemoglobin: 128.2 ± 11.3). The training programme applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. All subjects performed two high intensity interval training sessions per week in addition to two team trainings for a total of 4 weeks. During the interval training sessions the Hypoxic group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 3000 m (FI02 = 15.2), while the Control group performed similar training under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Players were blinded to the oxygen concentration in the chamber. Training sessions consisted of 6 sets of 30s reps with 30s rest between reps and 2 min rest between sets for a total of 60 min per training session. Approximately 1 week before and 1 week after training, explosive muscular power (counter-movement jump peak power, peak velocity and distance) aerobic performance, (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test L1) and repeated sprint ability (number of times players covered a 17 m distance in 1 min) were measured. A Student’s Paired t-test along with magnitudebased decisions was used to analyse differences between group’s pre and post training. At baseline the two groups were similar in all characteristics apart from repeated sprint ability where the control group was able to cover significantly more ground during the test (8.5 ± 5.6 m, mean ± 95% CI) and height where the control group was significantly taller than hypoxic group (5.3 ± 3.7 cm, p =0.02). Compared to the control group, the hypoxic group showed a likely increase in distance covered during the repeated sprint test (9.1 ± 9.0 m, p = 0.05), as a result of training, however, all other variables showed unclear differences between the groups. Adding hypoxia to high intensity training clearly improves repeated sprint ability in 3x3 female basketball players, however, the effect of hypoxia on muscular power and aerobic fitness is unclear.
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) dynamics during a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) protocol (8 sprints x 20 meters, 20 s recovery) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-five footballers were grouped according to the levels of body-fat percentage (level 1: <9%; level 2: 9.1–11.5%; and level 3: >11.6%) from the Spanish third division participated. During RSA, energy cost (EC), metabolic power (MP), speed and total time as external load were measured. Desaturation and resaturation rates and muscular oxygen extraction (▽% SmO2) of the gastrocnemius muscle, along with heart rate (HR) were used as indicators of internal load. ▽% SmO2 was identified as the most sensitive variable to detect the minimal change during RSA. Footballers with a lower fat percentage (level 1) achieved a higher ▽% SmO2 after the 4th sprint (Δ= –13; p= 0.001) and (Δ= 9.6; p= 0.017) vs level 2 and level 3, respectively. SmO2 was related to EC (r2= 0.57 p= 0.005), MP (r2= 0.61 p= 0.003), speed (r2= 0.59 p= 0.004) and total time (r2= 0.59 p= 0.004). Therefore, SmO2 was a better indicator of internal load than HR during RSA. The ▽% SmO2 can be used as a parameter to explore potential differences in footballers' RSA performance. Besides, we highlighted the relevance of measuring the body-fat percentage, since it is a variable that affects performance by disturbing ▽% SmO2, altering the ability to resist repeated high-speed bouts (sprints), a critical variable in football.