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Layer Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Solution

Layer Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Solution

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Conference Paper
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In this paper, we introduce an integrated smart parking system. The proposed integrated smart parking system brings multiple parking service providers together under a unified platform aiming to provide one-stop parking information services to the commuters in a smart city. However, the adaptation of such a system is prone to tempering while a mass...

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... architecture consists of four layers: application layer, network layer, transaction layer, and physical layer. An illustration of the layered architecture is provided in Figure 2. ...

Citations

... In [32], the authors proposed a smart parking service. The proposed parking system provides an application for the parking service providers together to provide a one-stop parking smart city service. ...
Article
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The increased density of the urban population and frequent transportation movement has to lead to parking issues in these areas. Many efforts have been made to efficiently utilize the existing parking facilities. Most of these solutions target the large-scale private and public parking facilities; however, the individual parking facilities are not much explored and exploited for reducing the parking issues. In the last few years, the Online-to-Offline (O2O) model has witnessed huge attention from the research community due to its versatile applications in many domains. The main objective of the O2O model is to create service awareness online, allowing potential users to review different offers and then visit local physical places for purchasing. The security of the users' data has always been considered a crucial factor in any public sharing platform. The blockchain model has been regarded as a solid security platform for many public sharing platforms. This work designed a blockchain framework with a novel data verification and role-based Access control method for securing the parking service data. Several experiments are performed using the sawtooth blockchain tool to investigate the performance of the proposed blockchain framework against the baseline approach concerning latency, meantime testing (MTT), throughput, transaction sending rate (TPS), and average response time (ART). The obtained results confirm that the proposed approach is scalable and feasible for smart parking and other IoT-based applications.
... Similar to other sectors, IoT-and cloud-based solutions have also been largely deployed for transportation systems, including SP systems, which has thereby enabled smart connectivity and the management of numerous resources, data storage, and computation [1,9,13]. For a massive centric IoT-cloud platform, fog computing is an effective solution to address the limitations of computational latency and throughput, and blockchain is a proven solution to combat the notable security challenges, such as, but not limited to, authentication and data integrity [8,24]. In this study, we examined, in depth, the main limitations (i.e., computational latency, efficiency, privacy, and security) of the existing IoTcloud-based developments for SP systems [11][12][13][14][15][16][17], and then proposed an SAVP system that deploys fog nodes as an extension to the centric cloud-computing platform that functions with blockchain capabilities to circulate and manage a massive amount of vehicular parking data in an IoT network to achieve better overall system latency, throughput, privacy, and security. ...
Article
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With the advent of modern technologies, including the IoT and blockchain, smart-parking (SP) systems are becoming smarter and smarter. Similar to other automated systems, and particularly those that require automation or minimal interaction with humans, the SP system is heuristic in delivering performances, such as throughput in terms of latency, efficiency, privacy, and security, and it is considered a long-term cost-effective solution. This study looks ahead to future trends and developments in SP systems and presents an inclusive, long-term, effective, and well-performing smart autonomous vehicle parking (SAVP) system that explores and employs the emerging fog-computing and blockchain technologies as robust solutions to strengthen the existing collaborative IoT–cloud platform to build and manage SP systems for autonomous vehicles (AVs). In other words, the proposed SAVP system offers a smart-parking solution, both indoors and outdoors, and mainly for AVs looking for vacant parking, wherein the fog nodes act as a middleware layer that provides various parking operations closer to IoT-enabled edge devices. To address the challenges of privacy and security, a lightweight integrated blockchain and cryptography (LIBC) module is deployed, which is functional at each fog node, to authorize and grant access to the AVs in every phase of parking (e.g., from the parking entrance to the parking slot to the parking exit). A proof-of-concept implementation was conducted, wherein the overall computed results, such as the average response time, efficiency, privacy, and security, were examined as highly efficient to enable a proven SAVP system. This study also examined an innovative pace, with careful considerations to combatting the existing SP-system challenges and, therefore, to building and managing future scalable SP systems.
... A rider is a person who requests parking the vehicle. This system provides multiple interfaces for carrying out communications [40]. ...
Article
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Global urbanization has vastly enhanced the quality of people’s lives in various domains. Nevertheless, the global rise in urban dwellers is often accompanied by additional difficulties and challenges such as traffic jams, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste production. The term ‘Smart City’ is introduced to address these challenges by pushing residents to concentrate on the innovative solutions for economic growth of their cities as well as enhancing people’s standard of living. The distributed ledger technology, also known as Blockchain, is best known for its instrumental role in forming the cryptocurrency space (e.g. Bitcoin and Ethereum). Due to features that include decentralization, transparency, democracy, security, and immutability; the deployment of Blockchain technologies in smart cities drastically improves data integrity, openness in city maintenance, and fosters the execution of reliable, transparent, safe, and democratized services and applications. In this survey, we perform an exhaustive study of research works that include the use of Blockchain technologies for smart city services and applications. First, we will examine the brief history of smart cities and Blockchain. We will then delve into the various ways that Blockchain technologies can be integrated into various smart city domains that include smart governance, smart transportation, smart grids, smart management, trade & finance, smart healthcare, smart home, e-commerce, and others that have a scope of development. Finally, this paper will provide areas of interest where Blockchain can be analyzed further to promote the development of smart cities application and services using Blockchain.
... A consortium blockchain is used by the drivers to store rating transactions that anonymously rate the parking service and contribute to the reputation of the parking service provider. Ahmed et al. [12] describe the details of Parking-as-a-Service, which provides distinct application interfaces for each type of participants, such as parking owner, driver, and blockchain node. Multiple service providers can utilize Parking-as-a-Service to offer their parking services to drivers. ...
Preprint
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Cybersecurity is an inherent characteristic that should be addressed before the large deployment of smart city applications. Recently, Blockchain appears as a promising technology to provide several cybersecurity aspects of smart city applications. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the existing blockchain-based solutions for the cybersecurity of the main smart city applications, namely smart healthcare, smart transportation, smart agriculture, supply chain management, smart grid, and smart homes. We describe the existing solutions and we discuss their merits and limits. Moreover, we define the security requirements of each smart city application and we give a mapping of the studied solutions to these defined requirements. Additionally, future directions are given. We believe that the present survey is a good starting point for every researcher in the fields of cybersecurity, blockchain, and smart cities.
... • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sensors and receivers that increase safety in inland sailing (Feriol et al. 2020;Heßelbarth et al. 2020), • blockchain technology (Ahmed et al. 2019;Al Amiri et al. 2020), • mathematical models for optimizing the location of mooring facilities (Wang et al. 2019), • storage and management of data used for Marine Spatial Planning (Flynn et al. 2021), • geographic information system (GIS) tools for harbor management (Elbeih et al. 2019;Akyrek and Bolat 2020;Nur et al. 2020). ...
Article
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The sailing market continues to develop rapidly and has a high growth potential. Sailing is one of the most popular types of recreational activity in Poland due to an abundance of lakes, including the Great Masurian Lakeland Trail which received a special mention from UNESCO. The development of nautical tourism requires effective organizational and technical solutions. The absence of a public mooring information system in Poland's inland harbors has prompted the development of the Global Yacht Positioning System (GYPS) for mobile devices. The design process was preceded by a survey of sailors and marina operators to identify their needs and expectations, as well as an inventory of marinas in the Polish region of Mas-uria. The developed prototype system is a mobile application that relies on data transmission, communication and satellite technologies. The proposed solution is a convenient tool that will facilitate the operations of inland harbors and improve navigation safety.
... Our choice of the platform is also supported by the literature, as the IBM IoT platform was selected for the airport smart parking application in the system introduced by Ullah et al. [58]. In addition, the IBM IoT platform supports the integration with the IBM blockchain security technology, which has the capability of working with IoT devices, to track payment histories and automatically fulfil invoices and payments requirements [1]. Furthermore, the IBM IoT platform can also be deployed in private clouds, which is an airport security requirement. ...
Chapter
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Integration of artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud computing technologies in a unified system to address a real-world problem is challenging and of high demand. This chapter discusses the processes, challenges and solutions concerning designing an airport smart parking system. IoT parking sensors, Open Automatic License Plate Recognition (OpenALPR) library, and the IBM cloud-based IoT platform are integrated to tackle technical challenges, including the automatic identification of plate numbers, models, and colours of vehicles in parking spaces, in both indoor and outdoor parking environments. The chapter also addresses several issues related to the system, i.e., the system architecture design, the selection of sensing technologies and hardware and software platforms, while taking into account specific characteristics of IoT and AI technologies. Although the proposed system is developed for the airport smart parking problem, the discussion is relevant to problems in other domains from the system design and integration perspectives.
... We found, in the literature, two smart contract-based proposals that attempted to address the concept of a unified system, "A Blockchain-based Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Systems" [21], and "An Open Source Solution for Smart Contract-based Parking Management" [22]. Sabbir Ahmed, Soaibuzzaman et al. [21] proposed for each parking spot to trigger a blockchain transaction when the status changes. ...
... We found, in the literature, two smart contract-based proposals that attempted to address the concept of a unified system, "A Blockchain-based Architecture for Integrated Smart Parking Systems" [21], and "An Open Source Solution for Smart Contract-based Parking Management" [22]. Sabbir Ahmed, Soaibuzzaman et al. [21] proposed for each parking spot to trigger a blockchain transaction when the status changes. Nikolay Buldakov, Manuel Mazzara, and Salvatore Distefano et al. [22] focused on micropayments and the transparency of interactions. ...
Article
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Technological breakthroughs have offered innovative solutions for smart parking systems, independent of the use of computer vision, smart sensors, gap sensing, and other variations. We now have a high degree of confidence in spot classification or object detection at the parking level. The only thing missing is end-user satisfaction, as users are forced to use multiple interfaces to find a parking spot in a geographical area. We propose a trustless federated model that will add a layer of abstraction between the technology and the human interface to facilitate user adoption and responsible data acquisition by leveraging a federated identity protocol based on Zero Knowledge Cryptography. No central authority is needed for the model to work; thus, it is trustless. Chained trust relationships generate a graph of trustworthiness, which is necessary to bridge the gap from one smart parking program to an intelligent system that enables smart cities. With the help of Zero Knowledge Cryptography, end users can attain a high degree of mobility and anonymity while using a diverse array of service providers. From an investor’s standpoint, the usage of IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) lowers operational costs, increases service resilience, and decentralizes the network of smart parking solutions. A peer-to-peer content addressing system ensures that the data are moved close to the users without deploying expensive cloud-based infrastructure. The result is a macro system with independent actors that feed each other data and expose information in a common protocol. Different client implementations can offer the same experience, even though the parking providers use different technologies. We call this InterPlanetary Smart Parking Architecture NOW—IPSPAN.
... 1 This process of identifying an optimal space of parking in big cities is considered to contribute to about 30% of the traffic congestion. 2 Moreover, one of the reports presented that nearly 47,000 gallons of gasoline are utilized during the search of a parking space in the area of Los Angeles. This amount of mean fuel energy consumptions is considered to introduce to about 728 tons of carbon dioxide, which adds to maximized pollution in Los Angeles. ...
... 14 In specific, blockchain is essential for facilitating significant smart parking systems as it possesses the characteristics of transparent, distributed, and immutable public ledger structured as the blockchain with a managed collection of miners or validators. 2 The main contributions of this paper are listed as follows: ...
... (where RT (i) and RT (2) correspond to the retrieval time incurred with different number of users files and retrieval time incurred with number of user files set to 2 as the base) in order to identify the potential of the retrieval process incorporated in the proposed RS-IMTMCB-PIR scheme with respect to the number of user sizes increased in the implementation scenario. Further, Figures 10-13 present the relative proportion of retrieval of the proposed RS-IMTMCB-PIR and the benchmarked MBO-SMS, CB-SMS, and ECC-SMS approaches with different users and block sizes of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
In big cities, the drivers face a major problem in identifying an optimal vacant parking space for their vehicles as the number of vehicles has rapidly grown over the recent years. This objective of determining the available parking space results in wastage of time, air pollution, and traffic congestion. Smart parking systems facilitate the driver to book parking slots and attain real-time parking information. However, the existing smart parking solutions necessitate the disclosure of sensitive information like desired destination from the vehicle drivers. Moreover, the current smart parking solutions are highly centralized, making them vulnerable for launching privacy breaches by service providers and resulting in the issues of single-point failure. In this paper, ring signature and improved multi-transaction mode consortium blockchain-based private information retrieval (RS-IMTMCB-PIR) scheme is proposed for privacy preserving in smart parking system. This RS-IMTMCB-PIR scheme initially utilizes an improved multi-transaction mode consortium blockchain constructed by different number of parking lot owners in order to achieve maximized parking offers based on the factor of availability, transparency, and security. It incorporates an improved private information retrieval approach for protecting the location privacy of drivers and secretly retrieving the offers of parking from the improved multi-transaction mode consortium blockchain. It further utilizes the benefits of ring signature for permitting the drivers in a potential anonymous authentication process that aids in available parking slot reservation. The simulation results of this proposed RS-IMTMCB-PIR scheme portrayed a predominant performance in ensuring maximized degree of drivers' privacy with reduced computation and communication overheads.
... This research has centralization, security, and privacy issues in the parking system. Ahmed et al. (Ahmed et al., 2019) proposed architecture for integrated smart parking systems which leveraged blockchain technology. They provided single platform parking information services and mitigated the trust and performance of different parties in the system. ...
Article
In the smart city environment, parking vehicle management is an essential requirement for citizens in the current situation because every city is rapidly growing as a crowded environment. Specific planning, operation, and thinking can address this problem with the Internet of things (IoT) and Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Existing research provides various solutions and methods for parking systems in the smart city. However, smart parking has many challenges, such as centralization, communication bandwidth, energy efficiency, integrity, security, and privacy. Inspired by Blockchain and AI technology, we propose a Blockchain-enabled Secure Framework for Energy-Efficient Smart Parking in Sustainable City Environment. The transport layer implements the ECC algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the parking zones data for secure communication. The RSU-based-Blockchain network offers authentication and verification of data at the security layer in a distributed manner. Virtualization technology is used for data storage and provides an energy-efficient environment using virtual machines. With Deep LSTM networks, we analyze the parking zone's data and offer the best parking space to the drivers with the best location and timing. We evaluate the proposed architecture using quantitative, qualitative analysis and provide the driver's best parking space.
... Blockchain-based architecture for SPS: 40 The researchers have proposed a blockchain-based smart parking system. The system is composed of parking service provider, blockchain network, and user attributes. ...
Article
Parking vehicles in densely populated areas are often challenging, stressful, and sometimes it becomes a monotonous job for the drivers in jam‐packed areas. There are several reasons for the delay in finding parking spaces such as scarcity of parking slots, disordered or unmanaged parking of vehicles, lacking or unaware of parking information at the destination, which further leads to the wastage of time, fuel, energy and increase in environmental pollution. Literature has revealed a significant number of smart parking solutions based on the Internet of Things (IoT) and context‐awareness with the incorporation of routing strategies and vehicle detection techniques in a pervasive computing environment. With the rapid escalation of the smart and intelligent devices along with their applicability in a highly decentralized environment, real‐time traffic monitoring, and finding parking spaces have become quite trivial. Smart parking sensors and technologies assist drivers in finding vacant parking slots while they are on the way to their destination. Considering the needs, wants, and demands of metropolitan cities, in this article, we have reviewed the recently published articles, mostly from the last 5 years, on smart parking systems augmented with sensors, embedded systems, context‐awareness capability, and IoT which yields in saving time, fuel, energy, and reduces the stress of the drivers. To accomplish this, we have reviewed different models on smart parking solutions based on algorithmic formalisms, theoretical frameworks, formal models, smart device‐based prototypes as well as real‐time applications, and verifying the correctness properties of the system. The results shown may provide a base for the state of the art future research directions.