Lauric acid inhibits the proliferation of breast and endometrial cancer cells. (a, b) Chemical structures of lauric acid (LA) and capric acid (CA). (b-d) MTT growth assays in SkBr3 (c), Ishikawa (d) and MCF-10A (e) cells treated for 48 h with vehicle ( − ) or increasing concentrations of LA and CA, as indicated. Cell viability is expressed as the percentage of cells upon treatments respect to cells treated with vehicle. Values shown are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (○) indicates Po 0.05 for cells receiving vehicle versus treatments. 

Lauric acid inhibits the proliferation of breast and endometrial cancer cells. (a, b) Chemical structures of lauric acid (LA) and capric acid (CA). (b-d) MTT growth assays in SkBr3 (c), Ishikawa (d) and MCF-10A (e) cells treated for 48 h with vehicle ( − ) or increasing concentrations of LA and CA, as indicated. Cell viability is expressed as the percentage of cells upon treatments respect to cells treated with vehicle. Values shown are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. (○) indicates Po 0.05 for cells receiving vehicle versus treatments. 

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The saturated medium-chain fatty-acid lauric acid (LA) has been associated to certain health-promoting benefits of coconut oil intake, including the improvement of the quality of life in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. As it concerns the potential to hamper tumor growth, LA was shown to elicit inhibitory effects only in colon cancer cel...

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... the basis of previous findings showing that MCFAs may elicit apoptosis in certain cancer cells 17,20 and considering that in our 1 recent investigation LA exerted antiproliferative activity in diverse types of tumor cells, 21 we began the present study evaluating whether LA (Figure 1a) and a further MCFA namely capric acid (CA) (Figure 1b) may affect the viability of SkBr3 breast and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells, which were used as model system. Only LA inhibited the viability of both cancer cell types (Figures 1c and d) without altering the growth of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells (Figure 1e), thus suggesting its specific potential to trigger antiproliferative effects in malignant ...
Context 2
... the basis of previous findings showing that MCFAs may elicit apoptosis in certain cancer cells 17,20 and considering that in our 1 recent investigation LA exerted antiproliferative activity in diverse types of tumor cells, 21 we began the present study evaluating whether LA (Figure 1a) and a further MCFA namely capric acid (CA) (Figure 1b) may affect the viability of SkBr3 breast and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells, which were used as model system. Only LA inhibited the viability of both cancer cell types (Figures 1c and d) without altering the growth of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells (Figure 1e), thus suggesting its specific potential to trigger antiproliferative effects in malignant ...
Context 3
... the basis of previous findings showing that MCFAs may elicit apoptosis in certain cancer cells 17,20 and considering that in our 1 recent investigation LA exerted antiproliferative activity in diverse types of tumor cells, 21 we began the present study evaluating whether LA (Figure 1a) and a further MCFA namely capric acid (CA) (Figure 1b) may affect the viability of SkBr3 breast and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells, which were used as model system. Only LA inhibited the viability of both cancer cell types (Figures 1c and d) without altering the growth of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells (Figure 1e), thus suggesting its specific potential to trigger antiproliferative effects in malignant ...
Context 4
... the basis of previous findings showing that MCFAs may elicit apoptosis in certain cancer cells 17,20 and considering that in our 1 recent investigation LA exerted antiproliferative activity in diverse types of tumor cells, 21 we began the present study evaluating whether LA (Figure 1a) and a further MCFA namely capric acid (CA) (Figure 1b) may affect the viability of SkBr3 breast and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells, which were used as model system. Only LA inhibited the viability of both cancer cell types (Figures 1c and d) without altering the growth of MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells (Figure 1e), thus suggesting its specific potential to trigger antiproliferative effects in malignant ...

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... VCO could also be transformed into biodiesel and bioethanol [9,10]. Nowadays, VCO is broadly utilized for biomedical applications as antibacterial and anti-microorganism [11][12][13][14][15][16], anti-inflammatory [4,14,17,18], super-absorbent [7], protection and remineralization agent for tooth [19,20], skin protector [21][22][23], immune booster [24], cancer inhibitor [25], blood pressure reducer [4], obesity reducer [26,27], treatment agent for neurodegenerative syndrome such as Alzheimer [28,29], and covid-19 treatment [30]. The utilization of VCO as a functional material in the -----health sector is generally carried out by direct supplementation or modifications into other forms, such as composite solutions, thin films, lotions, and emulsions [7,22,31,32]. ...
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... Even though the content may be low, they can possibly contribute to health-promoting benefits including prevention of cancers, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and more through countless ways as indicated by previous studies. 20,21 The tocopherol content, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity of black raspberry seeds were also determined. 11 Based on the work of Bushman and others, the black raspberry seed is rich in αand γ-tocopherol, with contents of 8.3 and 16.3 mg/100 g seed, respectively. ...
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... Treatment of colon cancer by LA at a dose of 0.5 mM (about 100 mg/ml), could induce apoptotic changes and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and G2/M interphase and mitotic phase respectively; the treatment also elevated the intracellular reactive oxygen species with a concomitant reduction in the intracellular reduced glutathione levels [52,71] . Treatment of breast cancer using LA at a dose of 100 mM (about 20 mg/ml) was reported to induce apoptosis mediated through the phosphorylation of EGFR and Rhoassociated kinase pathway [72] . ...
... Both cell lines showed alterations such as the emergence of extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and blebbing of the cell membrane [32] . The effects of coconut water vinegar (CWV) on 4T1 breast cancer cells were studied [33] . It inhibited the growth of 4T1 breast cancer in vivo via induction of apoptosis and delayed metastasis and improves the toxicity of immune cells as well as the generation of anticancer cytokines. ...
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... Lauric acid displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human hepatocellular (HepG2) and murine macrophage (Raw 264.7) cells and also vary with the origin and nature of the cells (Sheela et al., 2019). R Lappano et al. had shown that lauric acid triggers apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells (Ishikawa) mediated through the phosphorylation events of EGFR (Lappano et al., 2017). ...
... In breast cancer cell line (Skbr3), 100 mM LA treatment has induced apoptosis moderated through the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and also Rho associated kinase pathway. Lauric acid increases ROS formation and stimulates the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and c-Jun and induces the expression of c-fos (Lappano et al., 2017) (Fig. 6). ROS signaling is responsible for activation or inhibition of numerous processes catalyzed by protein kinases, phosphatases, and many other enzymes although these reactions proceed by heterolytic (non-free radical) mechanisms (Afanas'ev, 2009). ...
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... However, given the inherently wide variation in dietary habits, fluctuations in circulating blood levels of LA are expected to be not uncommon, with higher concentrations that parallel typical hypertriglyceridemia expected to be reached in CVD. The range used in our study (50-250 µM) is thus expected to be encountered in vivo in both healthy and diseased individuals and is in line with concentrations previously used in vitro [55][56][57]. ...
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... LA could stimulate ketone body production in the KT-5 astrocyte cells, which improved brain health by providing fuel to neighboring neurons [23]. Moreover, LA has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic e cacy in colon, breast and endometrial cancer cells [24]. Firstly, we evaluated the effects of SZY-200 and LA on the proliferation of various cells in vitro using CCK-8 assay. ...
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... In present study, a novel histidine-lauric acid-based conjugate (termed "green surfactant" hereafter) was developed. The histidine moiety was envisaged to aid in endosomal escape and lauric acid moiety has shown potential to trigger anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in various cancers [21]. Further, ability of green surfactant to form supramolecular assembly with poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer i.e., green surfactant-dendrimer aggregates was explored. ...
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... Lauric acid (LA) is a primary medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) with 12 carbon atoms that exists in many natural products, particular in the coconut oil (Dayrit, 2015). In addition to its modulation of metabolic and immune functions (Dayrit, 2015;Lappano et al., 2017), LA possesses significant antimicrobial properties, which has led to its gradual use as a feed additive (Hanczakowska, 2017;Omonijo et al., 2018). Studies have shown that LA significantly increases feed intake and improves gut development and nutrient absorption, enhancing animal growth (Simo-Mirabet et al., 2017). ...
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