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Language and print-related skills that contribute to word reading and spelling 

Language and print-related skills that contribute to word reading and spelling 

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Context 1
... awareness is sensitivity to word structure and ability to manipulate morphemes (smallest unit of meaning; Carlisle, 1995), and is S p o k e n L a n g u a g e W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e particularly helpful for multisyllabic word reading and spelling in languages with different writing systems ( Abu-Rabia, 2007;Cho, McBride-Chang, & Park, 2008;McBride-Chang et al., 2008;Taha & Saiegh-Haddad, in press). As shown in Figure 4, the student's journey to reading starts by learning to map orthographic symbols to sounds, and progresses to accurately sounding out words and to fluently reading them. (Crouch, Korda, & Mumo, 2009*;17 Davidson & Hobbs, 2013*;DeStefano, Slade, & Korda, 2013*;Dixon, Schagen, & Seedhouse, 2011;EDC, 2013EDC, *, 2014Dunlop, 2015*;Falconer-Stout, Messner, & Wedekind, 2015*;Mitton, 2008*;Gebreanenia, Sorissa, Takele, Yenew, & Garjardo, 2014*;Karki & Dowd, 2013*;Mungoi, Mandlante, Nhatubve, Mahanggue, Fonseca, & Dowd, 2010*;Nag-Arulmani, Reddy, Buckley, 2003;Pinto, 2010*;Piper, Jepkemei, & Kibukho, 2015;Piper & Korda, 2011a;Piper, Jepkemi, & Kibukho, 2015;Pallante & Kim, 2013 Sahin, 2006*;Spratt, King, & Bulat, 2013;Wagner, D. A., & Spratt, 1987;Wagner, D. A., Spratt, & Ezzaki, 1989;World Bank, 2016*). ...
Context 2
... awareness is sensitivity to word structure and ability to manipulate morphemes (smallest unit of meaning; Carlisle, 1995), and is S p o k e n L a n g u a g e W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e particularly helpful for multisyllabic word reading and spelling in languages with different writing systems ( Abu-Rabia, 2007;Cho, McBride-Chang, & Park, 2008;McBride-Chang et al., 2008;Taha & Saiegh-Haddad, in press). As shown in Figure 4, the student's journey to reading starts by learning to map orthographic symbols to sounds, and progresses to accurately sounding out words and to fluently reading them. (Crouch, Korda, & Mumo, 2009*;17 Davidson & Hobbs, 2013*;DeStefano, Slade, & Korda, 2013*;Dixon, Schagen, & Seedhouse, 2011;EDC, 2013EDC, *, 2014Dunlop, 2015*;Falconer-Stout, Messner, & Wedekind, 2015*;Mitton, 2008*;Gebreanenia, Sorissa, Takele, Yenew, & Garjardo, 2014*;Karki & Dowd, 2013*;Mungoi, Mandlante, Nhatubve, Mahanggue, Fonseca, & Dowd, 2010*;Nag-Arulmani, Reddy, Buckley, 2003;Pinto, 2010*;Piper, Jepkemei, & Kibukho, 2015;Piper & Korda, 2011a;Piper, Jepkemi, & Kibukho, 2015;Pallante & Kim, 2013 Sahin, 2006*;Spratt, King, & Bulat, 2013;Wagner, D. A., & Spratt, 1987;Wagner, D. A., Spratt, & Ezzaki, 1989;World Bank, 2016*). ...

Citations

... Research specifically examining the role that technology can play in enhancing reading outcomes is consistently indicating that comprehensive methods in which computer and non-computer based instruction is integrated, and where teachers are provided with professional development, result in greater gains in reading (Cheung & Slavin, 2012;Cheung & Slavin, 2013;Kim et al., 2016;. While technology-based interventions allow for individualization, integration is essential in ensuring that there is no misalignment between what is learned in the game and what is instructed in the classroom (Muralidharan et al., 2019). ...
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Background In 2018, it was found that only a quarter of Grade 3 children in India were reading at grade level. A growing demand for English education has further limited children's literacy achievement. Despite a strong evidence base in favour of using systematic phonics for building English literacy skills, many teachers in India continue to use rote‐methods of literacy instruction. Objectives We aimed to examine the efficacy of GraphoLearn (GL) English Rime, a computer‐assisted reading intervention, in improving the foundational literacy skills of 1st and 2nd grade students who were attending an English medium school in India. Methods A total of 136 students across 6 classrooms were randomly allocated to play either GL or a control math game over a 5‐week intervention period. Students were pre‐ and post‐tested on various English literacy skills using tasks built into the GL software as well as through oral and paper‐based tasks. Results and Conclusions Students who played GL showed significantly greater and faster development on in‐game measures of letter‐sound knowledge, rime unit recognition, and word recognition as compared to students who did not play GL. In addition, GL resulted in greater effects on these measures for students with stronger English literacy skills prior to the start of the intervention. No differences were found between groups on the oral and paper‐based tasks. Implications GL was able to quickly and effectively teach critical sub‐skills for reading. However, a lack of effects on the out‐of‐game measures opens the door for further discussion on the successful implementation of such interventions.
... Esta investigación toma como punto de partida el enfoque de lectoescritura inicial (LEI) con que se abordó la revisión sistemática de Kim et al. (2016), y el enfoque llamado Simple View of Reading (SVR) cuyo soporte teórico se encuentra en los fundamentos cognitivos de la lectura (CFRA) (Hoover & Stone, 2018;Tunmer & Hoover, 2019). ...
... Se ha evidenciado que el currículo nacional no se ajusta a las recomendaciones que dicta la evidencia, tanto para la enseñanza de la lectura (Arlington, 2002;Guardia, 2018;Hoover & Stone, 2018;Kim et al., 2016;Tunmer & Hoover, 2019), como para el desarrollo de procesos sistemáticos efectivos en la modalidad multigrado (Ames, 2004a(Ames, , 2006Montero et al., 2001;Pridmore, 2007;Taole, 2017). Pridmore (2007) explica que en los países en desarrollo se emplea casi de forma universal el modelo cuasi-multigrado, lo que coincide con los hallazgos del caso de Nicaragua. ...
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El estudio analiza el currículo nacional en lo referido a las formas en que orienta la enseñanza de la lectura en aulas multigrado; así como las formas en que el profesorado lo aplica para ofrecer una instrucción efectiva. Se diseñó una investigación cualitativa de tipo exploratorio, con dos etapas: a) análisis documental para conocer las orientaciones del currículo sobre la enseñanza de la lectura, con énfasis en las particularidades para multigrado; b) un estudio de casos para analizar cómo los docentes contextualizan el currículo a esta modalidad. Para este segundo punto, se visitaron seis escuelas multigrado ubicadas en zonas rurales del país. Se realizaron entrevistas a docentes, así como observaciones de aula para determinar las influencias del currículo en las prácticas educativas de maestras/os. Como resultado, se han identificado márgenes de mejora en el currículo nacional referidos a la enseñanza de la lectura en la modalidad multigrado. Se identifica un currículo que parece limitar las posibilidades de una enseñanza efectiva en estas aulas.
... As a result, greater numbers of scalable and sustainable programs to improve students' basic skills are being implemented in low-resource contexts. Early-grade reading is a foundational skill for all future learning and has received much attention (Kim, Boyle, Zuilkowski, & Nakamura, 2016). ...
... One advantage of scripted approaches to literacy, such as the approach used in Read to Learn, is that they allow for the incorporation of elements commonly associated with effective literacy interventions in contexts of poverty. The 5Ts of program design and implementation that have been shown to have a positive impact on literacy outcomes globally are teaching, time, texts, tongue, and test (Kim et al., 2016). ...
... Effective programs promote scaffolded instruction and a gradual release of responsibility (Duke & Pearson, 2002;Pearson & Gallagher, 1983). They often adopt some form of the "I do, we do, you do" model (Kim et al., 2016). Teachers use scripted guides to help prepare lessons and integrate principles of effective literacy instruction (Tilson et al., 2013). ...
Article
In Haiti, 49% of students cannot read a single word in Creole by the time they start grade 3, which is reflective of a broader learning crisis in low-income and fragile contexts. Read to Learn, an early-grade literacy intervention, was implemented and evaluated from fall 2014 through spring 2016 with the aim of improving students' reading skills. Students were given learning materials in their mother tongue, teachers were provided with training and instructional coaching, and various supports for program implementation were established. In a randomized evaluation, the authors assessed students' reading skills at the beginning of grade 1 and at the end of grades 1 and 2 in treatment and control schools. The authors estimated the impact of the program at the end of grades 1 and 2 with a hierarchical linear model and found positive effects on emergent reading skills and oral reading fluency, with effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.79. The results of this study are an important contribution to knowledge about what works to improve literacy outcomes for students in Haiti and other fragile contexts.
... Most HLE studies examine developed world populations (Dickinson, Griffith, Golinkoff, & Hirsh-Pasek, 2012;Kim, Boyle, Zuilkowski, & Nakamura, 2016;Nag, Vagh, Dulay, & Snowling, 2018). Likely due to the complexity and conceptual scope of the HLE, considerable variation exists in measurements of the HLE. ...
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The developing world faces a learning crisis, wherein children fail to master basic skills despite years of primary school attendance. The literature indicates that both in-school and at-home experiences impact children’s reading development, yet most developing world studies focus on children’s in-school experiences exclusively. This current study addresses this imbalance by exploring the home literacy environment in rural Rwanda and its relationship to children’s reading development. The data come from 466 parent surveys and 466 child reading assessments. An exploratory factor analysis of the survey data yields 5 distinct factors of the home literacy environment: family literacy and learning at home, parental competency in literacy, reading materials, child interest in literacy, and religious-related reading activities. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that family learning, parent competency, and child interest significantly predict early grade reading achievement. Implications of these findings for the developing world’s learning crisis are discussed.
... Virtually all efforts to address this learning crisis in LDCs by specifically targeting children's reading development have been school-centric, focusing on teacher training, curriculum reform, textbook revisions, and other schoolbound factors (Kim, Boyle, Zulkowski, & Nakamura, 2016). Consequently, these efforts have ignored the majority of children's waking hours, which are spent outside school. ...
... In contrast, educators seeking to improve learning in the developing world focus almost exclusively on improving schooling, without paying attention to home-and community-based learning opportunities. Several reviews and meta-analyses summarizing these interventions in LDCs have found inconsistent effects but do not delve into the heterogeneity of effects (Ganimian & Murnane, 2016;Kim et al., 2016;McEwan, 2015). For example, researchers in Burkina Faso provided schools with better infrastructure and materials (e.g., separate latrines for boys and girls, textbooks) and found Lifewide or School-Only Learning improvements in enrollment and learning, yet a similar intervention in Niger did not produce a similar impact (Ganimian & Murnane, 2016). ...
... This is a critical gap in our knowledge of how we should address the learning crisis in LDCs and the broader developing world. As the recent Landscape Report on Early Grade Literacy (Kim et al., 2016) states, ''Given that school-based approaches alone have not proved sufficient to reach the goal of widespread reading proficiency among early grade children in many developing countries, broadening the scope of literacy interventions beyond the school is a necessary step'' (p. 58). ...
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This cluster randomized controlled trial tested the impact of school-only and lifewide-learning (LWL) approaches to supporting early-grade learning over 2 years in rural Rwanda. We compare school-only and LWL treatments with a business-as-usual control condition and with each other. Schools in both treatment groups received reading materials and teacher training. LWL villages also received support to enrich home and community literacy ecologies. Student reading assessments, administered across 21 sectors (analogous to U.S. school districts), showed that both treatments positively impacted learning. LWL produced a greater impact, particularly in oral comprehension, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. However, nearly one third ELLIOTT W. FRIEDLANDER is the research director of Stanford University's Literacy Boost in Rwanda: A Randomized Control Trial project,. His research focuses on ways to improve child-ren's reading achievement in the developing world through family and community engagement. NICOLE ARSHAN is a principal education researcher and evaluation methods lead at SRI International. Dr. Arshan studies the impacts of scaling strategies for interventions designed to improve teaching and learning.
... Historically, there was little research on teacher development, perhaps due to the belief that no specific knowledge, skills, or preparation is needed to become a teacher, particularly in the early grades, or to train students to become teachers (Hwang, 2014). This was especially true in developing country contexts (Kim, Boyle, Zuilkowski, & Nakamura, 2016). While this has begun to change in recent years, with greater interest from international donors and nongovernmental organizations in pre-service training, particularly in the context of early-grade reading programs Mekonnen, Fesmire, Barnes, Backman, & Ramos-Mattoussi, 2018, for example), TEs are a particularly neglected group in terms of continuous PD and training to become reflective practitioners. ...
Article
Teacher educators in Nigeria receive limited professional development, particularly regarding the instruction of early grade reading skills. As part of the USAID-funded Northern Education Initiative Plus project, Florida State University faculty provided intensive teacher educator professional development to staff at four Teacher Education Institutions in northern Nigeria. Positive impacts on teacher educator knowledge, skills, and attitudes were observed related to content and pedagogical knowledge, use of participatory teaching and learning activities in the college classrooms, and improvement in student teacher engagement and learning. Continued success of the implemented model for training will be dependent upon national adoption and scale up.
... Although the bulk of the reading research has been generated by and for the developed world, the findings and recommendations are pertinent in the context of developing countries and where English is not mother tongue or a dominant language. The recent USAID landscape report (Kim, Boyle, Zuilkowski, & Nakamura, 2016) emphasizes the applicability of a range of specific findings to the English literacy instruction in the multilingual or second/foreign language learning contexts. One of these is a need for providing sufficient instruction in mother tongue of young learners to help develop cognitive skills, which then facilitates acquisition of a new language literacy (for instance, Ball, 2010). ...
... Such intervention is tailored to students' level of knowledge and skill, tied to the curriculum and lastly, it provides teachers with training and ongoing support on how to integrate the specific technology in their teaching (Evans & Popova, 2016). Kim et al. (2016) add that an effective technology-based instruction is aligned with sound pedagogical practice and can be expected only after extensive training and support on the pedagogy and use of devices and software to allow teachers developing capacity to implement the intervention meaningfully. ...
... Moreover, the exposure to the software may diminish the gap between the high and low readers, contrary to the well-known "Matthew's effect" (Stanovich, 2009) where the differences between high-and low-ability students increase as they progress through school. This is particularly promising in the context of evidence suggesting that in developing countries it might be students with stronger literacy skills who gain more from literacy software than their peers with weaker initial reading skills (Kam, Kumar, Jain, Mathur, & Canny, 2009;Kim et al., 2016). ...
Article
This two-phase study was designed as a quasi-experiment to learn about the impacts of the interactive early literacy software and the library of digital books and stories on primary students’ reading abilities and reading instruction in Kenyan schools. For more than a term 1899 students from 48 classes learnt to read with the software. A standardized test detected significantly higher reading gains for the experimental students’ than for the control group. Experimental students also outperformed control students on the end-of-year exams. The system of training and support coupled with the software implementation yielded some positive albeit modest shifts in reading instruction. Building the capacity of schools and teachers will enable students to benefit from the inputs of the software after the research ceases.
... Before discussing projects aimed directly at children's learning, it is important to acknowledge that those aimed at promoting adult literacy also have great potential to assist in raising children's literacy levels; it is well known that when parents and communities participate in their children's literacy learning, for example by reading to them and modelling reading practices, there are many benefits ( Nonetheless, it is acknowledged that more research evidence is needed on the impact of home reading practices on the literacy achievement of children in LMI countries (Kim, Boyle, Zuilkowski, & Nakamura, 2016). ...
... While Fullan (2016) also argued that there are limitations to an overly prescriptive approach to pedagogy, the evidence from 3ie (Snilstveit et al. 2016), McKinsey and Company's theoretical model (Mourshed et al. 2010), and the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID's) Landscape Report on Early Grade Literacy (Kim et al. 2016) indicates that developing countries trying to improve very low-functioning education systems should focus on introducing highly specific approaches to instructional change and putting in place the supports needed for that change to be realized across large numbers of classrooms. In Kenya, examined the relative impact on learning and cost-effectiveness of training, coaching, 1:1 literacy materials for children, and structured teachers' guides. ...
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Many successful piloted programs fail when scaled up to a national level. In Kenya, which has a long history of particularly ineffective implementation after successful pilot programs, the Tusome national literacy program—which receives funding from the United States Agency for International Development—is a national-level scale-up of previous literacy and numeracy programs. We applied a scaling frame- work (Crouch and DeStefano in Doing reform differently: combining rigor and practicality in implementation and evaluation of system reforms. International development group working paper no. 2017-01, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2017. https://www.rti.org/publication/doing-reform-differently-combining-rigor-and-practicality-implementation-and-evaluation) to examine whether Tusome’s implementation was rolled out in ways that would enable government structures and officers to respond effectively to the new program. We found that Tusome was able to clarify expectations for implementation and outcomes nationally using bench- marks for Kiswahili and English learning outcomes, and that these expectations were communicated all the way down to the school level. We noted that the essential program inputs were provided fairly consistently, across the nation. In addition, our analyses showed that Kenya developed functional, if simple, accountability and feedback mechanisms to track performance against benchmark expectations. We also established that the Tusome feedback data were utilized to encourage greater levels of instructional support within Kenya’s county level structures for education quality support. The results indicated that several of the key elements for success- ful scale-up were therefore put in place. However, we also discovered that Tusome failed to fully exploit the available classroom observational data to better target instructional support. In the context of this scaling framework, the Tusome literacy program’s external evaluation results showed program impacts of 0.6–1.0 standard deviations on English and Kiswahili learning outcomes. The program implemented a functional classroom observational feedback system through existing government systems, although usage of those systems varied widely across Kenya. Classroom visits, even if still falling short of the desired rate, were far more frequent, were focused on instructional quality, and included basic feedback and advice to teachers. These findings are promising with respect to the ability of countries facing quality problems to implement a coherent instructional reform through government systems at scale.
... The role of text access in learning to read is central: While students can learn letters and words from a blackboard or slate, children cannot truly become fluent readers without exposure to a variety of reading material (Kim, Boyle, Zuilkowski, & Nakamura, 2017). Teachers in resource-poor contexts greatly value textbooks as pedagogic tools (Lee & Zuilkowski, 2015). ...
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Several rigorously evaluated programs have recently shown positive effects on early literacy and numeracy outcomes in developing countries. However, these programs have not been designed to evaluate which ingredients of the interventions are most essential to improve literacy outcomes. Policy makers therefore lack evidence as to whether program ingredients such as teacher professional development (PD), instructional coaching, learner materials, teachers' guides, community support, or technology are required for program impact. The Kenya Primary Math and Reading Initiative was a randomized controlled trial that compared three treatment groups with specific ingredients and a control group. Using literacy and numeracy outcome measures for grades 1 and 2, we evaluated the benefits of the following ingredients: (1) teacher PD and teacher instructional support and coaching; (2) revised student books in literacy and numeracy, at a 1:1 ratio, added to PD and instructional support; and (3) structured teacher lesson plans added to student books, PD, and instructional support. We found that two of the three combinations of ingredients had statistically significant positive impacts on learning outcomes. The results showed that the third combination-PD, teacher instructional support and coaching, 1:1 student books, and structured teacher lesson plans-was most effective. A cost-effectiveness analysis on the ingredients showed that the option of PD and instructional support, 1:1 revised books, and teachers' guides was the most expensive, but that the additional impact on learning made this the most cost-effective intervention. This study rigorously analyzes which ingredients for literacy and numeracy improvement would be most effective for overall impact, and suggests to policy makers that careful decisions regarding program ingredients will lead to more effectively designed and implemented interventions to improve learning in developing countries.