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Lagoons and Water Bodies in Lagos State 

Lagoons and Water Bodies in Lagos State 

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:The need for water level monitoring has increased over the years. Water level monitoring is among other things useful for oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities, and construction of ports and harbour works. The mean sea level for Lagos, Nigeria is referenced to the Lagos datum situated at the Office of the Surveyor General of the Fede...

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... Lagos lagoons lie behind the barrier beach and extend for 210 km along the coast. They are flanked by tidal wetlands and swamps. We have about ten Lagoons in Lagos State, with the Lagos and Lekki lagoons being the major lagoons among these lagoons. The other lagoons are Yewa, Badagry, Ologe, Iyagbe, Kuramo, Apese, Epe, and Mahin lagoons (Onyema, 2009b). Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the various Lagoons and Water Bodies in Lagos State. The Lagos lagoon is more than 50 km long and 3 to 13 km wide. It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a long sand spit to 5 km wide, which has swampy margins on the lagoon side. Its surface area is approximately 6,354.7sq km. With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, but by smaller barges and boats. The Lagos Lagoon averages 2-4 m deep, but is 10 m deep in the entrance at the Commodore channel. Lagos Lagoon empties into the Atlantic Ocean via Lagos Harbour. The Lagos harbour or Commodore Channel is 0.5 km to 1 km wide and 10 km long. The Lagos port is located at Apapa in a broad western branch off the main channel of the harbour. The Lagos Lagoon is tidal, water from the Atlantic Ocean moves into the lagoon during high tides and receeds during low tides. The Lagos lagoon is affected by a powerful longshore drift. It is fed by several rivers, the most important of which are the Ogun, Ona/Ibu, Oshun, Shasha and Oni. Lekki Lagoon, sometimes spelled Leeki, is located in Lagos and Ogun States in Nigeria. The lagoon lies directly to the east of Lagos lagoon and is connected to it by a channel. The Lekki lagoon is surrounded by many beaches (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lekki_Lagoon). The mean depth of Lekki Lagoon is 3.1 m, and the maximum depth is 6.4 m at low tide. The complex is isolated from the sea by the beach barrier ridges. The western channels approach to within a few dozen metres to the sea, but in the east, much of Lekki Lagoon is situated 3-4 km inland. Tidal influence is not pronounced in Lekki Lagoon. The Ologe lagoon is a brackish water body and is situated northwards of Badagry creek. River Owo is the main fresh water supply point into the Ologe lagoon (Clarke et al., 2004). Partially treated and untreated effluents from the Agbara industrial estate is also discharged into Ologe lagoon. The Ologe Lagoon opens into the Atlantic Ocean via the Badagry creeks and the Lagos harbour. The Ologe lagoon meets several socio-economic needs (aquaculture, fishing, sand dredging and drainage) of the various towns and villages bordering it. Apart from providing income for fishermen in the satellite towns and villages; it is also a sinkhole for their domestic wastes. The lagoon is bounded by heavy industries including paper and pulp, glass, plastics, breweries, pharmaceutical and beverages. These partially/largely untreated discharges coupled with domestic inputs from the Agbara residential estates and satellite communities cause significant levels of pollution (Clarke et al., 2005). The Badagry Lagoon is approximately 60 km long and 3 km wide, and lies between longitudes 3°0′and 3°45′E and latitudes 6°25′and 6°30′N. Its water depth ranges from 1 m to 3m. Most of the year, the Badagry lagoon is characterized by fresh and slightly brackish water. The lagoon is influenced by tides and floods from the Lagos Lagoon and Cotonou harbour through Lake Nokue and Lake Porto-Novo (Anyanwu & Ezenwa, 1988). Sea level monitoring activities in Nigeria started as far back as the colonial years early in the 20th century. The primary objective of sea level monitoring activities at that time was for safe navigation into the ports of Lagos, Port Harcourt and Calabar. Tidal data were observed at these stations using graduated tidal staff and later upgraded to float types. Tidal predictions at that time were very crude but were sufficient to allow ships to navigate through the shallow estuaries and creeks to the ports. The Lagos tide gauge station is a GLOSS designated station tied to a bench mark BM I. The station was located at the jetty of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR) Lagos before it was washed away by floods in July 2000. There is an international collaboration to monitor the sea level using tide gauges located all around the coastal waters of the world. This network of tide gauges is called Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). The main component of GLOSS is the 'Global Core Network' (GCN) of 290 sea level stations around the world for long term climate change and oceanographic sea level monitoring. The present definition of the GCN (the definition is modified every few years) is called GLOSS02 (JCOMM, 2011). Nigeria is lagging behind as the nation is not within the GLOSS network. In the 1990s Shell Nigeria made some effort to acquire tidal data along the Nigerian coastline. The data were useful in tidal analysis and prediction. With sea level rising as a result of Global warming, there is a need for Nigeria to acquire real time tidal measurements so as to be able to protect our coastline. The entire Nigerian coastline, which is low-lying, is already experiencing the adverse effects of sea level rise (SLR) through inundation and exacerbation of coastal erosion. The impacts of SLR on the Nigerian coastal area were well articulated in Vulnerability Assessment case study of the impacts of SLR on the Nigerian coast. (Awosika et al., 1992, French and Awosika et al., 1995). For further reading on the history and science of tides and sea level changes see Pugh(1987), Open University (1989), Emery and Aubrey (1991), Bijlsma et al . (1996), Pirazzoli (1996), Warrick et al . (1996), Cartwright (1999) and Douglas and Kearney (2000). Nineteenth and early twentieth century scientific studies of changes in sea level were concerned primarily with vertical land movements in the belief that the average „real‟ level of the sea is constant over long periods of time. Indeed, the original motivation for the establishment of the IUGG Mean Sea Level Committee, which became the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, was the requirement for a better sea level data set for the study of post-glacial rebound in Scandinavia (Woodworth, 1993). Of course, it is now appreciated that neither land nor sea levels are constant over long periods. There are vertical movements of the land associated with a range of natural processes such as tectonics (e.g.,earthquakes) in addition to post-glacial changes, and with a range of anthropogenic processes (e.g., ground water pumping); for a review, see Emery and Aubrey (1991). Long term changes in mean sea level relate to variations in ocean currents and to changes in the volume of water in the oceans and therefore to climate change. Lagos 1955 is a vertical datum first defined in 1955 and is suitable for use in Nigeria. Lagos 1955 origin is Mean sea level at Lagos, 1912-1928. Lagos 1955 is a vertical datum for Geodetic survey, topographic mapping and engineering survey. It was defined by information from Ebong et al, AVN International, 1991 (Geomatics Solutions 2011, Uzodinma 2005, The Lagos Datum is 2.8310m above mean sea level (British Oceanic Data Centre, 2011 ). The following steps constitute the methodology employed for investigating the water level variation in Lagos ...

Citations

... This study area falls within the Lagos coastal plain which is accessible through waterways within the metropolis. According to Badejo et al. (2014), the Lagos Lagoon is very significant because it not only extends across the southern region of the metropolis but also serves as a linkage to the Atlantic Ocean especially along the western and southern as well as Lekki Lagoon in the eastern part of the lagoon. The study location lies between longitude 3 o 20 0 Eto4 o 15 0 E and Latitude 6 o 23N 0 to6 o 44 0 N as shown in Figure 1. ...
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Water quality in Lagos's coastal area is prone to constant seawater intrusion due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer is a major challenge to human survival and therefore needs urgent attention due to deficiency in groundwater quality. This study applies integrated techniques to map groundwater suitability zone (GSZ) around the Lagos coastal area for sustainable development. The objectives were achieved by preparing eight different thematic layers that influence groundwater suitability viz; drainage density, geology, geomorphology, lineament density, rainfall, longitudinal conductance, slope, and transverse resistance. Weighting assignment, normalization and, pair-wise comparison of the thematic maps were done using Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model before being integrated through the geographical information system (GIS) spatial analyst model with weight overlay to generate the overall groundwater suitability map. The integrated result reveals that 7% of the research location has very low suitability, 32.2% low, 47.8% moderate, and 13% high groundwater suitability. Thus, the groundwater suitability zone (GSZ) was validated via Electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) and the result reveals a good correlation. The research has proven the efficacy of integrating different surface and subsurface data for effectively mapping the groundwater suitability zone (GSZ).
... Lagos lagoon is a water body in the heart of Lagos metropolis; with a surface area of approximately 6,354.7 sq.km. It is more than 50 km long and 3 to 13 km wide (Badejo et al., 2014). Moreover, it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a long sand spit and anked by swampy margins on the side (Badejo et al., 2014). ...
... It is more than 50 km long and 3 to 13 km wide (Badejo et al., 2014). Moreover, it is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a long sand spit and anked by swampy margins on the side (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos lagoon is fed by a number of rivers and empties into the Atlantic Ocean via Lagos Harbour. ...
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Background: The magnitude of ocean plastic debris is forecast to triple within the next decade due to a number of factors such as increased plastic demands and production, inadequate waste disposal and management, unhealthy lifestyle and poor knowledge on the health impact of plastic waste among several others, all of which could be exacerbated by COVID-19 and climate change and cause humanity to face a disaster for ocean health in less than 20 years. Hence, microplastic pollution is globally flagged as one of the biggest threats to biodiversity in recent time as they are found nearly everywhere in the environment. While, the world confronts the plastic problem and transitions towards a circular system, turning the ubiquitous plastic loads around requires both momentum and careful navigation. So far, if the burning of plastics and the accumulation of the materials in oceans and landfill is to be reduced, the industry cannot continue to manufacture plastics at the current rate. Objectives: This paper explores public health knowledge and perception of microplastics pollution Methods: Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0) and a significance difference was established at 5% with p<0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results: The result reveals that out of the 102 respondents that participated in the study, 59 respondents representing 57.8% were aware of microplastic pollution. Nonetheless, a significant association between awareness of microplastic pollution and the category of workers (p =0.004, p<0.05) was observed. The mean score on knowledge of microplastic is less than the expected weighted mean of 3.00 for 5 points rating scale which implies that the respondents have poor knowledge of microplastic pollution though they show better knowledge of the serious global problem of microplastic pollution than other knowledge items. Result also indicates that the mean score on perception is greater than 3.00 (3.32) which indicates that the respondents have a good perception of microplastic pollution. Conclusion: There is a need to strengthen advocacy coalition framework (ACF) communication and learning for the determination towards improving the opportunities to protect public interests, including a thorough review of all policy processes, with policy change. This will help highlight the learning importance and involving citizen stakeholder’s participation through observing risk communication on environmental pollutants menace while advancing citizen risk perception, thus influencing risk perception on plastic pollution, as well as the citizens involvement in such environmental problems. Hence, research role as well as creating education awareness will help enlighten the development of policy on the dangers of plastic pollution.
... The lagoon of Lagos borders the city of Lagos. With an estimated length of 50 km, width of 3-13 km, and a total size of 6354.7 km 2 [30], the lagoon is the fourth largest lagoonal system of the Gulf of Guinea. The two larger rivers Ogun and Osun discharge into the lagoon. ...
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Microplastics are a fast-emerging group of contaminants. Their worldwide occurrence in water, sediment, and aquatic fauna raises questions and concerns as to their probable effects on aquatic life and ecology. This study investigates for the first time presence, abundance, and types of microplastics in water and sediment from a lagoon bordering the large urban agglomeration of Lagos in Nigeria, and renders additional information about the sediment composition. Water and sediment samples were collected from four locations in the Lagos Lagoon and a tributary. The abundance and distribution of microplastics in four range classes were determined for the sampled locations. Plastic particles were counted using digital microscopy, and identified with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and pyrolysis Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The abundance of microplastics ranged from 310-2319 particles/kg in sediment, and 139-303 particles/L in water. The large discrepancy in the sediments can be explained by sediment characteristics as more microplastics were detected in the fine-grained sediments of Makoko. Fibres were the predominant shape found in all samples followed by fragments and few films. Fibres were more abundant in water (92.6%) than in sediments (32.5%), while more fragments and foils occurred in sediments. The most commonly used polymers polypropylene and polyethylene were also the most detected ones in both matrices. Compared to other studies in Nigeria, our findings especially in the coarser sediments were lower while the fine-grained site revealed similar results.
... It receives water from the Atlantic Ocean during high tides and returns water during low tides. During this process there is mixing of water (Badejo et al. 2014). Okobaba is a hub of sawmills, timber transport and municipal waste discharge (Akpata 1987) while the High-Rise study site is located adjacent to the University of Lagos staff quarters and relatively close to the Okobaba study site (Plate 1). ...
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The physicochemical parameters and 16 priority PAHs in surface water, porewater and sediment at a sawmill wastes-impacted and High-Rise study sites on the Lagos lagoon in Nigeria were assessed. Further, the embryotoxic effects of sediment organic and porewater extracts from the study sites were evaluated in Clarias gariepinus (African sharptooth catfish) embryos for 26 h. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the PAHs profile especially in the sediment. Source apportionment of the PAHs in the three environmental matrices revealed mainly pyrogenic sources. Developmental abnormalities and decreased hatching success were observed in C. gariepinus embryos exposed to extracts from the Okobaba site compared to High-Rise study site. The results demonstrate the potential though non-significant ecological risk of sawmill activities near the lagoon on water quality and fisheries. Further studies are recommended to provide holistic evidence-based information to promote sustainable fisheries in the lagoon in support of the UN SDGs 13 (climate action) and 14 (life below water). https://rdcu.be/b3G7s
... The Lagos lagoon is tidal, where water from the Atlantic Ocean moves into the lagoon during high tides and recedes during low tides. The Lagos lagoon is also affected by a powerful longshore drift (Badejo et al., 2014). In addition, the Lagos lagoon receives untreated effluents from recreation and residential areas mostly from the Ikorodu and Makoko suburbs (Odunuga et al., 2018) the Makoko and Ikorodu sediment of the Lagos lagoon contain high concentration contaminants such as lindane, dieldrin, 4-iso-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, monobutyltin cation, PAH, PCBs, and trace metals with different physiological and general health effects (Adeogun et al., 2016a(Adeogun et al., , 2016b. ...
Article
In this study, sediment samples from Makoko and Ikorodu sites of the Lagos lagoon (Nigeria) were screened for toxicological responses on mammalian and fish cell lines using different extraction methods. Rat hepatoma H4IIE and fish PLHC-1 cell-lines were exposed to serial dilutions of the elutriate, polar and non-polar extracts. We evaluated exposed cells for cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity. Cells exposed to polar and water extracts from Makoko and Ikorodu showed viability percentage of >80% at 48 h. On the other hand, exposure to the non-polar extracts exhibited cell viability of 50-60% at all tested dilutions. For both cell lines, a significant concentration-dependent induction of cyp1a mRNA was observed after exposure to the different extracts from both sites. Interestingly, the extracts affected functional enzymes differently for both cell lines. For H4IIE cells, while EROD activity paralleled cyp1a mRNA expression patterns, MROD showed significant concentration-specific reduction in cells exposed to polar and water extracts. On the contrary, while the MROD activity paralleled cyp1a mRNA, EROD activity was significantly inhibited in PLHC-1 cells exposed to water-, polar and non-polar extracts from both sites. These observations paralleled sediments PAH contamination burden from the study sites as revealed by co-relation analysis. In conclusion, although the different extracts did not exert high cytotoxic effects (except the non-polar) at the tested concentrations, they significantly modulated phase I biotransformation responses, showing that the studied sediments contain complex chemical mixture in the different extracts, with potential for overt physiological and general health consequences.
... Its surface area is approximately 6,354.7sq km (Badejo et al., 2014). With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, 3 africascholarpublications@gmail.com ...
... With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, 3 africascholarpublications@gmail.com 2018 but by smaller barges and boats (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos Lagoon averages 2-4 m deep, but is 10 m deep in the entrance at the Commodore channel. ...
... The southern margin of the lagoon is bounded by the Five Cowrie Creek, the eastern margin by the Palaver Island and its northern border by Ikorodu (Ibe, 1988). The Lagos harbour or Commodore Channel is 0.5 km to 1 km wide and 10 km long (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos port is located at Apapa in a broad western branch off the main channel of the harbour. ...
... Its surface area is approximately 6,354.7sq km (Badejo et al., 2014). With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, 3 africascholarpublications@gmail.com ...
... With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, 3 africascholarpublications@gmail.com 2018 but by smaller barges and boats (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos Lagoon averages 2-4 m deep, but is 10 m deep in the entrance at the Commodore channel. ...
... The southern margin of the lagoon is bounded by the Five Cowrie Creek, the eastern margin by the Palaver Island and its northern border by Ikorodu (Ibe, 1988). The Lagos harbour or Commodore Channel is 0.5 km to 1 km wide and 10 km long (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos port is located at Apapa in a broad western branch off the main channel of the harbour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lagos Lagoon, located at the southwestern part of Nigeria has been known for its use as a major navigational route for the transportation of people as well as goods and services. The Bathymetry of part of the lagoon was carried out to map the profile of the seabed around the channel that leads to the Lagos harbor. Data acquisition was done using satellite imagery, tidal observation, and depth sounding were obtained with echo sounder and the positions determined using GPS. Initial processing performed on observed bathymetric data includes noise removal, tidal correction on the instantaneous depth and sorting with HYPACK 2008 software. Further processing was done using ArcGIS 10.2 Software. The processed depths were analyzed and presented in the form of a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) to showcase the seabed profile. A query was performed on the acquired data to determine the deepest and shallowest portion of the lagoon. The deepest spot was found to be 19.69m while the shallowest spot was found to be 1.139m respectively. From the analysis conducted, there is an indication that vast changes on the seabed have taken place over the years as a result of dredging activities along the channel. Keyword: Bathymetry, Mapping, Lagos Lagoon, Navigation, Sounding, Seabed
... Its surface area is approximately 6,354.7sq km (Badejo et al., 2014). With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, 3 africascholarpublications@gmail.com ...
... With the exception of the Commodore channel, the lagoon is fairly shallow and is not plied by ocean-going ships, 3 africascholarpublications@gmail.com 2018 but by smaller barges and boats (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos Lagoon averages 2-4 m deep, but is 10 m deep in the entrance at the Commodore channel. ...
... The southern margin of the lagoon is bounded by the Five Cowrie Creek, the eastern margin by the Palaver Island and its northern border by Ikorodu (Ibe, 1988). The Lagos harbour or Commodore Channel is 0.5 km to 1 km wide and 10 km long (Badejo et al., 2014). The Lagos port is located at Apapa in a broad western branch off the main channel of the harbour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lagos Lagoon, located at the southwestern part of Nigeria has been known for its use as a major navigational route for the transportation of people as well as goods and services. The Bathymetry of part of the lagoon was carried out to map the profile of the seabed around the channel that leads to the Lagos harbor. Data acquisition was done using satellite imagery, tidal observation, and depth sounding were obtained with echo sounder and the positions determined using GPS. Initial processing performed on observed bathymetric data includes noise removal, tidal correction on the instantaneous depth and sorting with HYPACK 2008 software. Further processing was done using ArcGIS 10.2 Software. The processed depths were analyzed and presented in the form of a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) to showcase the seabed profile. A query was performed on the acquired data to determine the deepest and shallowest portion of the lagoon. The deepest spot was found to be 19.69m while the shallowest spot was found to be 1.139m respectively. From the analysis conducted, there is an indication that vast changes on the seabed have taken place over the years as a result of dredging activities along the channel. Keyword: Bathymetry, Mapping, Lagos Lagoon, Navigation, Sounding, Seabed
... Lagos Lagoon is fairly shallow with averages depth of 2 to 4 m and it is isolated from sea by beach barrier ridges. The lagoon empties inside the Atlantic Ocean via Lagos Harbour where it has depth increase of 10 m, with 0.5 to 1 km width and 10 km long, (Badejo et al., 2014). ...
... Lagos 1955 as reported by (Badejo et al., 2014) is a vertical datum first defined in 1955 and is suitable for use in Nigeria. Lagos 1955 origin is Mean Sea Level at Lagos, 1912Lagos, -1928. ...
Article
With the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology, it is now possible to determine the position of points in 3D coordinates systems. Lagos datum is the most common Mean Sea Level used in most parts of Nigeria. In Niger Delta, for instance Warri and its environs, the most commonly used datum for height determination is the Mean Lower Low Water Datum. It then becomes necessary to determine a constant factor for conversion between the two datum when the need arises as both are often encountered during Geomatics Engineering field operations. In this paper, the constant to be applied in converting between both datum was determined. The constant was found to be 17.79m. The horizontal and vertical accuracy standard was also determined as well as the stack maps.