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LNG value chain and the cost breakdown (created with data from refs 5 and 6).

LNG value chain and the cost breakdown (created with data from refs 5 and 6).

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This paper reviews recent contributions on the liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain in the field of process systems engineering. While previous review articles deal with specific topics for each issue on the LNG value chain, this paper deals with the key issues and challenges on the LNG value chain from the process systems engineering point-of-v...

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... LNG value chain starts from the exploration and production steps, followed by the liquefaction, transportation, regasification, and sale steps. 4 The LNG value chain and the cost breakdown are shown in Figure 2. 5,6 Among the LNG value chain steps, the liquefaction step accounts for the largest cost proportion because it is operated under cryogenic conditions. ...

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... The propane precooled mixed refrigerant-based process is the most well established, accounting for more than three-quarters of current liquefaction processes [266]. Given the different processing capacities of the various processes, selection and optimisation of the liquefaction process is crucial in the conventional LNG supply chain because they are a major cause of energy consumption [267]. RM liquefaction is considered an essential part of the entire LRM supply chain; therefore, the energy consumption must be reduced if the efficiency of the supply chain is to be increased. ...
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Decarbonisation of the production and utilisation of natural gas (NG) is the main force behind attempts to reach climate targets because NG is one of the most dominant fuels in the energy and transportation sectors. In the transition to a carbon-neutral society, steps must be defined towards achieving cleaner production and utilisation of NG and towards post-combustion carbon capture to create a completely closed carbon cycle. Methane produced using renewable energy sources is a sustainable substitute for NG and is crucial to accelerating the penetration of the current energy infrastructure by renewables. Supported by existing gas transportation networks, renewable methane (RM) is both an energy storage medium and an advanced fuel that can be used in areas that are considered difficult to electrify. The present article is a state-of-the-art review of RM and a range of clean technologies from production to end-use and carbon capture, which are necessary to minimise lifecycle carbon emissions. The techno-economics and challenges of replacing NG with RM are emphasised. The focal research points for a future RM economy with respect to systems design are highlighted, and the novel renewable-powered technologies that are required to promote net-zero emissions are summarised. Although employing RM is not economically feasible, trends towards carbon emission limitations, carbon taxes, and renewables subsidies will make RM cost-competitive with NG. In view of the state-of-the-art technologies, future research is expected to develop energy- and cost-effective production and utilisation solutions for enhancing the feasibility of RM.
... Reprinted [14]. ...
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... The high operating costs (40-60% (Qyyum et al., 2018c)) have a significant share in the total annualized costs (TAC) of LNG plants. The operating costs of LNG processes depend on many important design parameters, including pretreatment methods for raw NG feed (for LNG plant), NG composition, plant site ambient conditions, liquefaction technology (e.g., N 2 -expander, SMR, DMR, C3MR, MFC, etc.), and plant capacity (Khan et al., 2017;Qyyum et al., 2018c;He et al., 2018;Lee et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2020). It has been found (Park et al., 2016) that the overall performance of LNG plants can be affected by variation in ambient temperature. ...
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... As a naturally occurring substance, it causes no health problems and presents fewer safety concerns than other flammable synthetic chemicals. 4. A wide variety of liquid air technologies are commercially available in the market; cryogenic liquid transportation and storage are mature technologies that have been well-established in the industry (e.g., liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chain) [13]. ...
... An LNG supply chain, recognized as both energy-and cost-intensive, mainly comprises of three steps: natural gas liquefaction, LNG transportation, and LNG regasification [13]. Although a number of studies have enhanced the utilization of LNG cold energy in LAES and ASU at the system level, liquid air produced at the LNG terminal for delivering cold and power can also be optimized at the supply chain level. ...
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... This is particularly true when the process scheme is at its final design stage and allows no further changes, but the operating cost can be reduced by finding more rigorous optimal design variables. Optimal design variables can be found by applying any deterministic/ stochastic optimization algorithm because many researchers [14][15][16][17] have improved the overall performance of conventional NG liquefaction processes through sole optimization. In the case of SNG liquefaction, to the authors' knowledge, only the investigation presented by Qyyum et al. [3] deals with optimizing SMR-SNG liquefaction. ...
... After compression, the SMR stream (14) at 65 bar and 93.8 • C is passed through the after-cooler (C-6) and CHX-1 for condensation. Stream (16) leaving CHX-1 is completely condensed before isenthalpic expansion in JTV-1 to 1.88 bar. Stream (17), leaving JTV-1 at − 160 • C, provides cold energy to cool and liquefy streams 4 and 15. ...
... The TAC and TCI are calculated using Eqs. (15) and (16). To calculate TAC, a payback period of 5 years [30] is maintained in all cases for a fair comparison. ...
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... The LNG supply chain mainly comprises natural gas liquefaction and LNG regasification stages [5]. Fig. 1 displays the current LNG supply chain from an exergy perspective [6]. For the natural gas liquefaction stage, approximately 800 kJ/kg-LNG (mostly electricity consumption in the compressors) exergy destruction occurs when energy is consumed; however, approximately 400 kJ/kg-LNG exergy destruction (by heat exchanging with seawater) occurs during the regasification stage, where LNG is converted to natural gas. ...
... Recently, a novel concept was suggested and applied to the natural gas supply chain for the use of LNG cold energy [38], which enabled cold [6]. energy circulation by utilizing liquid air as an energy medium for transportation. ...
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This study proposes an advanced natural gas liquefaction process by applying liquid air to the propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant (C3MR) process. Being the most efficient process, the C3MR process has the largest market share in the natural gas liquefaction industry. The proposed concept involves recovering cold energy released by liquefied natural gas (LNG) by introducing liquid air as the recovery medium, in which the natural gas liquefaction and LNG regasification stages are integrated. The proposed C3MR-liquid air (C3MR-LA) process was optimized using a genetic algorithm for four different process configurations. The best design produced 737.41 kJ/kg-LNG for natural gas liquefaction, which is 26.4% less than in the optimized commercial C3MR process. In addition, a techno-economic analysis is conducted, and the results show that 25.1% of expenses could be saved through energy recovery by applying liquid air. By including liquid air in the LNG supply chain, the developed process achieves superior performance from both the energy and economic perspectives. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the newly proposed process can reduce exergy waste by 21.0% over the entire LNG supply chain compared to existing technology. Overall, this study proposes an attractive process model for natural gas liquefaction through cold energy recovery, which is expected to contribute to increasing the sustainability of the LNG industry.
... The liquid phase fluid is then transported through methane containers to a regasification terminal where it is stored, regasified and distributed to the end user through pipelines (Lee et al., 2018). After the liquefaction and storage stage, the LNG is transported to the demand nodes by tanker trucks with normal capacities between 40 m 3 y 50 m 3 . ...
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... While LNG and electricity are promising solutions to sustainable shipping issues, there are technological concerns with their actual implementation (Lee et al, 2017), (DNV GL,2018). ...
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... Natural gas is not only constituted by methane, it also contains traces of other valuable components such as ethane, propane, butane, isobutane and natural gasoline. These byproducts of natural gas processing plants provide an additional economic incentive to invest in gas production due to their marketable use in numerous downstream applications ( Luyben, 2013;Faramawy et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2017 ). After processing the NGL in a train of distillation columns that includes a de-methanizer, de-ethanizer, de-propanizer, de-butanizer and C 4 splitter ( Gao and You, 2017 ), the different compounds can be utilized as fuel for vehicles and chemical feedstocks in the manufac- * Corresponding author. ...
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A simulation-based multi-objective optimization scheme is proposed for determining the optimal operating conditions of a natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery unit. Two objective functions are considered, the annualized profitability of the unit and the concentration of methane in the NGL product stream. Two problem formulations are studied including a deterministic model and a stochastic model which incorporates market uncertainty. The techno-economic framework combines the process simulation package PRO/II and a Python environment, in which the simulation status is tracked through the optimization. An evolutionary optimization algorithm simultaneously optimizes eight decision variables for constructing a 2-D Pareto front. Results provide insightful guidance on determining the most adequate conditions of a gas subcooled process (GSP) unit and portray an operational back-off which aims to reduce the impact introduced by market uncertainties.
... Thus, both compression and liquefaction of methane are energyintensive unit operations. Compared to compression, energy demand and costs for liquifying methane are much higher due to the necessity of condensing methane and keeping its temperature below the boiling point in elaborate cryogenic storage tanks [199][200][201]. Being a compromise with regard to energy consumption, simple handling, and energy density, compressed methane is a well-suited option for shortand medium-distance transport [192]. ...
... Being a compromise with regard to energy consumption, simple handling, and energy density, compressed methane is a well-suited option for shortand medium-distance transport [192]. Methane liquefaction is economically viable and the preferred transport option for oversea and long-distance (>2500 km) transport [192,194,201]. For storage of methane from PtX plants, large underground storage sites for compressed natural gas such as depleted gas reservoirs, salt caverns and saline aquifers can be utilized [202][203][204]. ...
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In light of advancing climate change, environmentally-friendly methods for generating renewable energy are being employed to an increasing extent. This use, however, leads to rising spatial and temporal disbalances between electricity generation and consumption. To address the associated challenges, Power-to-X technologies are considered to harness surplus electricity from renewable sources and convert it into an alternative energy source that can be utilized, transported and stored. The aim of this paper is to compare four different Power-to-X technologies, whereby surplus electricity “Power” is converted to chemical entities “X”. It is shown that the implementation of PtX technologies and a shift of energy distribution to other transport methods could significantly relieve the electricity grid. Moreover, by converting the electricity from renewable sources, like wind farms, into chemical energy sources, the PtX concept offers the opportunity of making larger quantities of energy storable over longer periods of time. By considering a model case where electricity generation and consumption are several hundred kilometres apart, the generation of fuels emerges as a technology with the highest potential to mitigate climate change. Also with regard to transport, fuels emerge as the most favourable option for transporting chemically bound energy. Common to all options is the yield of a significant stream of oxygen as by-product. Utilizing this oxygen may be one of the key factors towards improving the economic viability of Power-to-X technologies.