Figure 3 - uploaded by Pg Emeroylariffion Abas
Content may be subject to copyright.
LCCs of diesel and electric buses, with breakdown of their ACs, MCs, OCs and DCs.

LCCs of diesel and electric buses, with breakdown of their ACs, MCs, OCs and DCs.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Electric vehicles are a leading candidate in the clean energy market. This paper aims to analyse the feasibility of the deployment of electric buses (EB) based on the existing bus routes in Brunei, by the use of life cycle cost analysis and the analysis of the parameters that influence the overall life cycle cost. The findings from the study reveal...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... overall LCCs of Coaster and Urbino for the two distance scenarios, the minimum and maximum distance travelled, are shown in Table 4 and Figure 3. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Abstract This research performed a techno‐economic analysis of diesel‐biogas hybrid microgrid system. The paper modeled, designed, and simulated the microgrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK and performed system optimization using HOMER software. The anaerobic digestion (AD) processes were designed and simulated with the aid of Simulink to obtain the...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents the Water Energy Point Absorber (WEPA), which is a heaving single-buoy point absorber optimized for a specific site off the west coast of Sardinia Island. The aim of the study is to present the optimization process undertaken to identify the best configuration in terms of performance and cost. The optimization is carried out than...
Article
Full-text available
Stand-alone Photovoltaic (PV) system is mostly required for the remote areas where the electricity is limited or not available from the grid. This study presents the simplified method to design system and analyse the economic aspect of the stand-alone PV system. The case study of providing electricity for public street lighting using PV system for...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents an economical assessment of the benefits of introducing 5G technologies into pilot use cases pertaining to the railroad transportation and energy sectors. For each of the pilots, undergone by EFACEC Engenharia e Sistemas and EFACEC Energia, respectively, under the scope of the H2020 5Growth project, evaluates the expenditure and...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of circular economy in wastewater treatment has recently attracted immense interest and this is primarily fueled by the ever‐growing interest to minimise ecological footprints of mining activities and metallurgical processes. In light of that, countries such as the Republic of South Africa, China, Australia, and the United States are at...

Citations

... The result of this measurement is used for each bus. National cost data and the consumption data of buses published have been compared in the case of Brunei [21,22], Germany [23,24], Hungary [25], Nepal [26,27], Slovakia [28], and the USA [29,30]. ...
Conference Paper
Regulatory environment in the EU already mandates public transport providers (PTP) to detail their cost accounting to the level of each line they operate. Models used, however, fail to utilise the level of precision state of the art technology would allow for; therefore, state-owned providers become uncompetitive. Implementing new technologies such as electric buses have high investment costs; thus, reconsidering the cost structure of an operator is essential. The aim of this paper is to introduce an innovative cost calculation method for battery electric bus operation. The novelty of the model is its foundation on telemetric data generated by sensors hosted in electric buses and the consequent use of marginal consumption costs instead of averages based on aggregations. The model introduced focuses on the cost of energy consumption, examines influencing factors, such as the effect of meteorological externalities on auxiliary systems, and considers driving dynamics. Nonetheless, fix costs such as amortisation and labour costs are also accounted for to give a complete picture of per passenger numbers. The model developed was applied as a case study to prove its applicability. We found that the climbed elevation positively correlates, while the number of stops served at a given distance negatively correlates with the increase in consumption. The model is better suited for improving the operative competitiveness of PTPs rather than as a tool for regulatory compliance.
... Under the influence of national policies (such as congestion charge exempts, purchase subsidies, and special waivers from parking and trading taxes [1]), the cumulative production and sales of new energy vehicles, such as pure electric buses and plug-in hybrid electric buses, increased approximately tenfold from 2015 to 2020 [2]. At present, China is the world's largest manufacturer and user of electric vehicles (EV) and electric buses (EB), as well as the leader in the development layout of electric buses [3]. The problems of bus electrification mainly include the following aspects: the lack of service guarantee for charging facilities of electric buses, the "mileage anxiety" caused by the fact that the driving mileage of electric buses is less than fuel and gas buses, the low utilization and income of charging facilities, expensive charging infrastructure costs, and low willingness of social capital to participate in the construction of charging stations [4,5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The premise of the large-scale operation of electric buses corresponds to efficient charging service guarantees. Recent research on charging stations mainly aims to obtain the construction location and construction sequence through optimization methods or decision-making methods. This research has considered the aspects of geography, charging efficiency, economic efficiency, and emergency response capacity. The increase of charging stations will lead to competition among charging stations, unbalanced use of charging facilities, and unnecessary loss of electricity to the power grid. In fact, few studies pay attention to the actual operation of existing charging stations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a scientific, comprehensive, and efficient charging services evaluation framework to support the actual operation of charging stations. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), this paper designs a multi-level indicator evaluation framework, which includes 6 first-level indicators and 20 s-level indicators. The first-level indicators are cutting peak and filling valley (A1), location and scale (A2), intelligent technology (A3), equipment efficiency (A4), operating income (A5), and reliability (A6). Through the questionnaire survey of ten experts in related fields, we understood the importance and attention of these indicators. The results show that the weights of indicators of location and scale index (A2) and reliability (A6) are high, which are 0.2875 and 0.2957, respectively. The least concerned indicator is equipment utilization efficiency (A4), at a weight of 0.0531. According to the actual data of charging stations in Zhengzhou, China, the comprehensive competitiveness of several charging stations is evaluated by the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The result shows that station 1 has the highest comprehensive competitiveness, followed by station 2 and station 7. The evaluation framework proposed in this paper comprehensively considers a variety of factors. The combination of AHP and TOPSIS can reduce the uncertainty in experts’ evaluation of the service of the charging station.
... (11) and for the calculation of the life cycle cost is calculated using the Eq. (12) [55]. The Eq. (11) refers to the price of the energy carrier (fuel or electricity) and the fuel energy consumed respective to that specific bus route for covering every 100 km. ...
Article
To control the global warming by ensuring the greenhouse gas emissions reduction of the automotive sector, the standards or norms are getting ever stricter globally, specifically in the past few years. In view of this, great emphasis is currently being given to the shift towards electric vehicles. However, it is very important to critically evaluate the overall life cycle of different powertrain technologies. In this study, such analysis has been carried out for the bus rapid transit networks in the 4 largest cities of Spain: Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Seville. Ten different lines were selected from each city and their driving-cycles were designed by extracting real time data from GPS used for simulating 3 different bus powertrains (diesel, hybrid and electric) for real-life results of the vehicles on each route. A life cycle analysis of the different bus configurations was done considering a wide perspective from manufacturing, use, maintenance to end-of-life stages, to compare the CO₂ footprints of the 3 evaluated powertrains using the database of the software GREET. The CO₂ footprints of the electric bus was also estimated for the years 2030 and 2050, using the predictions for cleaner electricity grids for future perspective. Compared to the standard diesel bus results, the overall results for hybrid and electric bus show 40% decrement and 30% increment of CO₂ well-to-tank emissions, respectively, 40% and 60% decrement of CO₂ life cycle emissions; 30% increment and 60% decrement of the buses’ driving range and, 2.5% and 30% addition in the life cycle cost
... Despite the importance of life cycle cost in determining the economic feasibility of establishing an electrical charging station, not a lot of studies have been performed on the topic, with a few exceptions [37][38][39]. Furthermore, our previous works on life cycle cost of EVs [20,40] have indicated the need to perform analysis using specific parameters derived from the market, to determine their competitiveness in a particular market. This paper attempts to analyze the feasibility of implementing an electrical charging station in the Bruneian market by performing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) and comparing it with the LCCA of a conventional filling station which serves ICEVs. ...
... The buying price C EV of electricity for commercial buildings in Brunei follows a tiered tariff system, ranging from an initial rate of B$0.20/kWh for the first 10 units to B$0.05/kWh for high-energy users. For this study, C EV is set at B$0.05/kWh [40] as electrical charging stations are highly energy intensive businesses. The heavily regulated fossil fuel market specifies a profit margin of 10% for conventional fuel-filling stations, to give the cost price of one liter of fuel at B$0.477/L. ...
... Capacities for the i-MiEV and Vios are 16 kWh and 22 L, respectively [20]. State of charge (SOC) usage for LFP batteries is assumed to be 10-90% [47], with charging efficiency η c of 97% [40]. The number of vehicles charged up or filled up by either the electrical charging or conventional filling stations are estimated based on the common operating time of filling station, as well as the length of time required to fill up or charge the considered vehicles, approximately 30 vehicles per day in the case of electrical charging stations, and approximately 50 vehicles per day in the case of conventional filling stations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent United Nations high-level dialogue on energy, which had emphasized on energy usage and environmental protection, has renewed commitments by different countries on the adoption of electric vehicle (EVs). This paper aims to analyze the economic feasibility of establishing electrical charging stations, which is an important factor for the wide adoption of EVs, using life cycle cost analysis. Although local data have been used, the method can be easily adopted to analyze economic feasibility at different markets. The findings have revealed that an electrical charging station is only feasible when the acquisition cost is kept to a minimum to return 1.47 times the initial investment in terms of life cycle cost. An acquisition cost of BND 29,725 on the electrical charging station represents the threshold below which an electrical charging station is more attractive. In order to promote these charging stations, the government needs to provide multiple incentives, including a subsidy to reduce the acquisition cost, relaxing control on the electric selling price, taxing the establishment of conventional filling stations, and minimally reducing the profit margin on the selling price of fossil fuel. It has been shown that a 40% initial subsidy on the purchase of electrical charging stations, coupled with a slight subsidy of BND 0.018/kWh on electricity, would make electrical charging stations economically competitive. To reach its target of 60% electrification of the transportation sector, Brunei would need to implement a structure program to establish between 646 and 3300 electrical charging stations by the year 2035, to cater for its expected number of EVs.
... He also wrote two manuscripts about EV applications, "Prediction of vehicle driving conditions with the incorporation of stochastic forecasting and machine learning and a case study in energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles" [187] and "Stage of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs Based on Improved Cubature Kalman Filter with Long Short-Term Memory Model" [186]. M.A. Hannan from Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia, developed the following recent manuscripts on EMSs for EV applications: "Techno-Economic Analysis and Environmental Impact of Electric Buses" [188], "Fuzzy Based Charging-Discharging Controller for Lithium-ion Battery" [189], and "Energy Storage Integrated Microgrid Performance Enhancement" [190]. Yonggang Liu from Chongqing University, China, has a primary research interest in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles, Powertrains, and Energy Management [191][192][193]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns over growing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel prices have prompted researchers to look into alternative energy sources, notably in the transportation sector, accounting for more than 70% of carbon emissions. An increasing amount of research on electric vehicles (EVs) and their energy management schemes (EMSs) has been undertaken extensively in recent years to address these concerns. This article aims to offer a bibliometric analysis and investigation of optimized EMSs for EV applications. Hundreds (100) of the most relevant and highly influential manuscripts on EMSs for EV applications are explored and examined utilizing the Scopus database under predetermined parameters to identify the most impacting articles in this specific field of research. This bibliometric analysis provides a survey on EMSs related to EV applications focusing on the different battery storages, models, algorithms, frameworks, optimizations, converters, controllers, and power transmission systems. According to the findings, more articles were published in 2020, with a total of 22, as compared to other years. The authors with the highest number of manuscripts come from four nations, including China, the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, and five research institutions, with these nations and institutions accounting for the publication of 72 papers. According to the comprehensive review, the current technologies are more or less capable of performing effectively; nevertheless, dependability and intelligent systems are still lacking. Therefore, this study highlights the existing difficulties and challenges related to EMSs for EV applications and some brief ideas, discussions, and potential suggestions for future research. This bibliometric research could be helpful to EV engineers and to automobile industries in terms of the development of cost-effective, longer-lasting, hydrogen-compatible electrical interfaces and well-performing EMSs for sustainable EV operations.
... Many works mainly concern one means of transport or a selected technology for a given type of vehicle. The first group includes numerous papers on electric buses [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40] and trolleybuses [41][42][43][44][45]. The second group includes general papers on auxiliary power technology, in particular batteries in electric buses and trolleybuses, as well as charging technologies for both types of vehicles [46][47][48][49]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study attempts to examine the research gap in terms of comparing the environmental impact of trolleybuses and diesel buses in the conditions of a country with an unfavourable energy mix. The analysed example concerns the trolleybus transport system in Gdynia, in northern Poland, which also partially serves the neighbouring city of Sopot. In the last few years, two bus lines have been electrified with trolleybuses in the In-Motion-Charging technology, which enables operation on sections without an overhead network. Using the actual operational data, a comparative analysis of the emissivity of diesel buses and trolleybuses used on the same lines in an identical operating regime was conducted. Moreover, an attempt was made to estimate the damage costs of the emission of air pollutants for the above-mentioned means of transport. Research has shown that trolleybuses significantly help to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds and particulate matter, while increasing sulphur dioxide emissions on the served lines. They also generate lower specific emissions of carbon dioxide compared to diesel buses. However, taking into account the differences in the number of seats in these vehicles, the length of routes resulting from a need to provide access to the necessary infrastructure and the total amount of kilometres covered on a given route, they may cause higher emissions per year and per the product life cycle than diesel buses. This is related to the unfavourable structure of energy production in Poland, which is dominated by coal sources. The research results clearly show that the use of trolleybuses in public transport contributes to a reduction of the damage costs of the emission of pollutants that amount to approximately EUR (€) 30,000–60,000 per year for the analysed lines.
... Sheth and Sarkar [42] Comparative Life Cycle Cost analysis of the operating costs of electric buses and diesel buses in India. Yusof et al. [43] Analysis of the operating costs of electric buses in Brunei. ...
Article
Full-text available
Trolleybus transport is one of the classic means of public transport in cities. Its popularity varied in the past and was largely related to the fuel market situation. As fuel prices fell, electricity-powered transport lost popularity. The situation was similar during fuel crises. Trolleybuses gained in popularity then. Nowadays, the development of alternative power sources (APS) technology makes trolleybus transport partially independent of the overhead contact system, which is its great advantage. It is thus possible to develop trolleybus connections in areas where there is no justification for building overhead wiring infrastructure. The article analyses the development of on-board APS and their spatial diffusion in trolleybus systems in Europe. The main result of the research procedure indicates that the development of battery technologies, which could accelerate the closure of trolleybus transport due to the strong competition of electric buses not requiring an overhead contact line, allows for the dynamic development of this branch of transport. The situation in 71 trolleybus systems in Central and Western Europe which had any experience in the use of APS in 2011–2021 was examined. As a result of the analysis, the dynamics of APS diffusion were determined, in particular, a significant increase in the number of trolleybus systems using on-board batteries from 7 in 2011 to 44 in 2021.
... Wołek et al. [34] Diesel unit Połom, Bartłomiejczyk [32] Supercapacitor Połom, Bartłomiejczyk [32] Financial efficiency of using auxiliary power sources Hołyszko, Filipek [35]; Jeong et al. [36] Environmental impact Environmental challenges Santos [1]; Zhang, Fujimori [2] Holistic studies of the environmental impact of electric public transport Pietrzak, Pietrzak [37]; Yusof et al. [38] Energies 2021, 14, 2971 3 of 23 ...
... Traction batteries are available in various technologies and are usually dedicated individually to each operator. In Europe, lead, nickel-metal hydride, and nickel-cadmium batteries remain in regular operation, and in recent years lithium technologies (e.g., lithiumion, lithium-polymer, lithium-titanium) have been developed [28,30,33,38]. Looking at the advantages of batteries, their non-emission characteristics should be distinguished in contrast to diesel units. ...
Article
Full-text available
Trolleybus transport refers to contemporary challenges related to a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases and CO2 into the atmosphere formulated by international institutions, such as the United Nations, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or the European Union. Departure from fossil fuels in urban transport is one of the key challenges for the coming years. Trolleybuses are an important tool in this task, even though their importance was declining in the past. Nowadays, due to, among others, technological development, in particular the availability of high-capacity batteries, their long life and low weight, trolleybus transport is becoming popular again. The use of the existing overhead contact infrastructure of the trolleybus network and small on-board batteries allow expanding the spatial accessibility of zero-emission public transport. Thus, this reduces the social differentiation in access to environmentally friendly transport that does not emit pollutants at the place of operation. The article presents possibilities of using on-board batteries in shaping trolleybus connections with the optimal use of the existing overhead contact lines (OHL). It presents a procedure that allows for the evaluation of the extent to which the OHL should cover the routes of bus lines in order to qualify for trolleybus service in the In-Motion-Charging (IMC) technology. Analysis of the literature shows inadequate scientific studies on combining the advantages of overhead wiring and the development of on-board battery technology in popularising zero-emission transport. This article addresses the key issues related to the use of partially autonomous trolleybuses.