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Kwakuchinja wildlife corridor between Lake Manyara National park and Tarangire national Park showing three villages (Olasiti, Minjingu and Kakoye) in northern Tanzania 

Kwakuchinja wildlife corridor between Lake Manyara National park and Tarangire national Park showing three villages (Olasiti, Minjingu and Kakoye) in northern Tanzania 

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Human-wildlife conflict is a major issue for conservationists due to crop-damage and livestock depredation by wild animals, causing local farmer’s economic loss resulting into deepening of poverty. This study assesses wildlife induced damage. A total of 250 households were randomly interviewed by the use of questionnaires in three villages (Kakoye,...

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... Kwakuchinja wildlife corridor is an important area for the connection between Lake Manyara Biosphere Reserve and Tarangire National Park (TNP) and is recognized for its globally significant biodiversity (Figure 1). ...

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... Human-nonhuman primate confict arises as a result of competition for shared natural resources, afecting both human food security and the nonhuman primates' welfare [1,2]. Crop damage, destruction of human property by primates, and retaliatory killing of primates by the local population are all examples of human-primate confict [2][3][4]. ...
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Crop damage is a major form of human-primate conflict that not only affects the livelihoods of farmers living close to forest areas but also threatens nonhuman primate conservation. This study aimed to investigate the causes of crop loss and foraging by nonhuman primates in southwest Ethiopia. For the purpose of gathering data, we used a questionnaire and direct observation. We employed simple random sampling techniques to select villages and respondents. From the nine selected villages, a total of 130 household samples were identified for the questionnaire. The primates responsible for crop damage were olive baboons and grivet monkeys. Maize, barley, teff, potatoes, sorghum, and other crops were among those foraged by the nonhuman primate species. Farmland close to the woodland boundary suffered more damage than farmland further away. The total amount of maize damaged by the olive baboons and grivet monkeys in the selected kebeles varied significantly. The majority of the respondents used guarding, and a few of them used scarecrows to protect crops from damage by primates. The highest crop damage occurred in the Atiro Tigre and Arigno Gefere villages, while the lowest occurred in the Sedecha villages. The flowering stage of the maize suffered the most, and the seedling stage suffered the least, from grivet monkeys foraging. The growth of crops that are less edible to nonhuman primates, especially on the forest edges, would lessen crop damage.
... With the spread of settlements, changing land use and natural habitats, much of the world"s remaining biodiversity have become increasingly restricted to small, fragmented patches within a matrix of human-dominated landscapes (Milupi et al, 2022;Laurance and Bierregaard 1997;McCloskey and Spalding 1989;Primack 1993).When animals raid crops or threaten human life in local villages, the communities feel that their economy and existence are undermined, especially since there is no policy on compensation in most African country (Milupi et al. 2017). The animals that are involved in crop damage, livestock attacks and human injuries include; elephants, lions, buffaloes, monkeys and many others Hariohay and Røskaft, 2015). Because HWC is a reciprocal process, humans and animals are negatively affected by the conflict, and it is one of the most complex and urgent issues facing wildlife management and conservation (Mekonen, 2020).There are different forms of HWC all over the world and these conflicts are experienced more in developing countries (Amajaet al., 2016;Makindi et al., 2014;Fairet et al., 2012;Lamarque et al., 2009;IUCN, 2005). ...
... People tend to behave favorably when they hold positive attitudes toward attitude objects (e.g., wildlife, protected areas), whereas they are likely to respond unfavorably if they have negative attitudes toward these objects (McCleery et al., 2006). Fear of wildlife (Liu et al., 2011;Røskaft et al., 2003;Sarker & Røskaft, 2010), unpleasant past experiences with wildlife (Abdullah et al., 2019;Hariohay & Røskaft, 2015;Liu et al., 2011;Nsonsi et al., 2017;, and lack of help from the government (Abdullah et al., 2019;Naughton-Treves, 1997) shape the negative attitudes of local people toward wildlife conservation. Negative attitudes of local people toward wildlife hamper public support for the implementation of conservation measures . ...
... Those who lived farther away (>10 km) from elephant habitats never suffered any cost related to HEC and elephant conservation. Other studies have stated that people who live farther away from protected areas have more positive attitudes toward wildlife conservation (Hariohay et al., 2018;Hariohay & Røskaft, 2015;Sarker & Røskaft, 2010). In our study, more people showed a higher preference to live with elephants in the country than in their region. ...
... Our results reveal that most respondents tended to have positive attitudes toward wild elephants despite half of all respondents having HEC experience. However, other studies have shown that conflicts with wild elephants correlate relatively with negative attitudes toward conservation (Abdullah et al., 2019;Hariohay & Røskaft, 2015;Nsonsi et al., 2017;Røskaft et al., 2014;Talukdar & Choudhury, 2020). Similar studies of HEC in Myanmar showed that local communities support elephant conservation even when they had experienced HEC (Allendorf et al., 2015;Sampson, 2018). ...
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... Forest animals, especially the blue cow (Boselaphus tragocamelus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), etc. enter nearby cropped fields in search of food and damage the crops by eating or trampling by foot. Crop damage concerning yield, as well as economic loss from different kinds of wild animals, has been recited from different parts of India and other countries (Rao et al., 2002;Hariohay and Røskaft, 2015;Hua et al., 2016;Govind and Jayson, 2018;Can-Hernández et al., 2019;McKee et al., 2020;Nair and Jayson, 2021;Raphela and Pillay, 2021). To reduce yield and economic losses, farmers apply a wide range of protection measures including fencing, manual guarding, trenches, and other devices. ...
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... Sometimes, the land in the nearby areas with such animals was abandoned. Similarly, Hariohay and Røskaft (2015) affirmed that communities living closer to the boundary of the national park were highly affected by wild animals, which destroyed their crops and livestock. This created a negative attitude between local people and the wildlife in a respective area. ...
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... Understanding the factors that influence the relationship between local people and PAs is important for achieving conservation and livelihood goals (Kideghesho et al., 2007). During recent years, people living adjacent to PAs have been competing with wild animals, such as African elephants (Loxodonta africana), over resources, as well as conflicting with them because of the crop loss due to crop raiding (Hariohay et al., 2018;Hariohay and Røskaft, 2015;Redpath et al., 2013). ...
... The occurrence of wildlife species raiding crops between June 2018 and November 2019 are presented in Fig.2. Both type and severity of conflict vary among species, elephant (Loxodonta africana), similarly to other areas (Hariohay &Røskaft, 2015), is the leading conflict species (57%, n=1027), followed by eland (Taurotragus oryx) (22%, n=1027), zebra (Equus quagga) (14%, n=1027) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer)(6%, n=1027). Torches were reported to be the most effective tool, protecting about 64% of crops when used as a standalone tool, and 84% when used in combination with horns (Fig.3). ...
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Calves of black rhino trail behind their mothers predisposing them to risks of attack by stalking predators. A total of 272 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed from 8 villages located in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Most of the interviewed wildlife rangers 87.5% had seen hyena attacking rhino calves and only 22.8% of the interviewed villagers had seen or witnessed spotted hyenas attacking black rhino calves. Majority of respondents (53.1%) mentioned that hyenas have changed their behaviour from being scavengers to active hunters as the the reasons why hyena attacked black rhino calves, while other reasons were that black rhinos do not provide enough protection to the calf after birth (15.6%) and the increase in the hyena population (18.8%) in the crater floor. Majority of both villagers (69.6%) and wildlife rangers (65.6%) respondents suggested that translocation of spotted hyenas from the crater as an effective mitigation measure to control the depredation of black rhino calves. Those who disagreed with the translocation suggested that a better mitigation method may be isolating the rhino calf by keeping them in a boma or fenced area together with the mother until the calf had grown enough to chase away predators.
... The occurrence of wildlife species raiding crops between June 2018 and November 2019 are presented in Fig.2. Both type and severity of conflict vary among species, elephant (Loxodonta africana), similarly to other areas (Hariohay &Røskaft, 2015), is the leading conflict species (57%, n=1027), followed by eland (Taurotragus oryx) (22%, n=1027), zebra (Equus quagga) (14%, n=1027) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer)(6%, n=1027). Torches were reported to be the most effective tool, protecting about 64% of crops when used as a standalone tool, and 84% when used in combination with horns (Fig.3). ...
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Ecosystems provide goods and services that are basic needs for human well-being. Social, cultural, traditional and economic values are considered as part of ecosystem services from biodiversity within a given ecosystem. Despite these important roles, the exact ways in which different ecosystem services, with their rich biodiversity resources including large mammals act to enhance community’s livelihood are not clear. This study aimed at establishing a comprehensive understanding of the social, cultural and economic values of the elephant as a keystone species to community’s livelihoods within the Serengeti ecosystem. The study was conducted in four districts of Ngorongoro, Serengeti, Bariadi and Meatu in northern Tanzania. A total of 12 villages were surveyed through questionnaire surveys where a total of 446 respondents were interviewed. Focus group discussions, Key informant information and literature review were also used for verification of information. Majority of respondents (38%, N = 444)declared that, elephant has no any social value, while 36% did not know whether elephant has any social value. Few had reported that elephants have social values in the communities as they are used for recreation (15%), tourist attraction (6%) and for education purpose (5%). The negative perception on low values of elephants were related to losses incurred from elephant damages. Communities within Serengeti ecosystem understand key values accrued from elephants that include spiritual values among tribes that use elephant as a totem species despite losses and damages incurred through the species. It is therefore important that conservation education programmes to protect elephants in the ecosystem is enhanced among the local communities. Engagement of villagers in conservation programmes and initiating conservation based alternative income generating projects in areas prone to human-elephant conflicts may enable communities to easily recognize the values and services of protecting elephants in the country.
... The occurrence of wildlife species raiding crops between June 2018 and November 2019 are presented in Fig.2. Both type and severity of conflict vary among species, elephant (Loxodonta africana), similarly to other areas (Hariohay &Røskaft, 2015), is the leading conflict species (57%, n=1027), followed by eland (Taurotragus oryx) (22%, n=1027), zebra (Equus quagga) (14%, n=1027) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer)(6%, n=1027). Torches were reported to be the most effective tool, protecting about 64% of crops when used as a standalone tool, and 84% when used in combination with horns (Fig.3). ...
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Lack of support from local communities for conservation and illegal resource harvest within Protected Areas (PAs) are among the major challenges for sustainable wildlife conservation including elephants. High human population growth rate and density in Africa, escalates Human Elephant Conflicts (HEC) as elephants try to disperse outside PAs where human population density is high. This study assessed participation of local communities towards elephant conservation in the Serengeti Ecosystem (SE). The study was conducted in 12 villages, located in four districts in SE namely; Bariadi, Ngorongoro, Meatu and Serengeti Districts. A questionnaire survey was used for data collections. Out of 446 respondents, 76.2% of the respondents agreed that it is important to conserve elephants and other wildlife. However, nearly half (44.6%) of respondents support and assist conservation of elephants by physical participation in anti-poaching activities with wildlife authorities, informers in uncovering poachers, provision of conservation education to others and adhere to conservation laws. Furthermore, 75.3 % of respondents had experienced HEC during the past five years and crop raiding was reported to be the greatest problem (76%). On the other hand, those who had negative opinions or opposed conservation efforts for elephants had experienced HEC which impacted negatively on their livelihoods or lacked conservation education. We conclude that local communities in the SE are willing to participate and contribute towards elephants’ conservation, despite the losses incurred from them. Therefore, this study recommends Management Authorities to provide conservation education to communities surrounding protected areas to enhance community involvement in planning and sharing benefits from wildlife conservation. Also, the use of appropriate mitigation measures to minimize HEC in order to reduce negative perception of local people towards elephant conservation is highly recommended.
... their children to schools, their minds are always restless and thereby their health is affected(Ango et al., 2017;Hariohay & Røskaft, 2015;Hill, 2000;Linkie et al., 2007). Consequently, negative perceptions are reflected in undermining the conservation of wildlife and forests TA B L E 2 The annual maize yield loss per hectare estimated by respondents (%) in relation to the location from forest edges F I G U R E 3 The boxplot showing the number of stems (≈number cobs) damaged within plots (4 × 4 m) by crop raiders in relation to different distances from forest edges. ...
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Crop raiding is a major form of human-wildlife interaction mainly in the ecotone areas of human-modified natural landscapes. The aim of this study was to examine the spatial pattern of crop raiding and the resultant impacts on how farmers perceive forests at different distances from Yayu Coffee Forest Biosphere Reserve which is located in southwest Ethiopia. For this, thirty transects (each 1 km long) were laid out at 200 m interval parallel to forest edges: ten transects close to forest (<0.5 km), ten at intermediate (0.5–1 km), and ten transects were taken far from forest (>1 km). Along each transect, 2–6 households were randomly selected and interviewed using semistructured questionnaire. The perception of the respondents on forests at different distances from forest edges was analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. The variation in the amount of damage among these three locations was tested using one-way ANOVA. Four wild large mammals including olive baboon, vervet monkey, bush pigs, and crested porcupine were identified as top crop raiders in the area. The frequencies of occurrence of crop raiders decreased with increasing distance from forest edges. Similarly, the amount of damage in maize fields was higher close to forests when compared with that of either at intermediate or far from forest edges (p < .001). Eighty-one percent of the households living close to the forests perceive that forest is a threat to their survival. Overall, our results imply that strategies need to be sought in order to minimize the socio-ecological impacts of crop raiders mainly in locations close to forest edges.