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Kufic "Allāh" Finger ring ©Gabriel Hildebrand, Swedish History Museum (CC BY 2.5 SE license).

Kufic "Allāh" Finger ring ©Gabriel Hildebrand, Swedish History Museum (CC BY 2.5 SE license).

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In recent years, the influence of Muslims and Islam on developments in medieval Europe has captured the attention of scholars and the general public alike. Nevertheless, ‘conversion’ to Islam remains a challenging subject for historical research and demands more transdisciplinary collaborations. This article examines early medieval interactions bet...

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Context 1
... inscriptions consequently contained multifaceted, wide-ranging meanings to different individuals in different contexts. As a final example, archaeologists uncovered a glass ring with the Arabic inscription 'for All¯ ah' in a ninth-century woman's grave at Birka, Sweden (Figure 4) and similar 'All¯ ah'-inscribed rings have been uncovered in the Volga Region (Duczko 1998). The ring shows little signs of wear, suggesting fairly direct movement from the Caliphate to Scandinavia ( Wärmländer et al. 2015). ...