Koi 1 (> 5yo) (a) Dorsoventral radiographs: marked osteophyte formation on right lateral processes of vertebrae 25-26 and 27-28 (arrows). Vertebrae 3-7 are compressed. (b) Lateral radiographs: vertebral osteophyte formation or degenerative changes (arrows). (c) Right lateral view of spinal column: significant moderate to severe degenerative changes with intervertebral osteophyte formation caudal to vertebra 13. These osteophytes extend into the intervertebral space at vertebrae 25-26 and 27-28 (arrows). (d) Right lateral view of spinal column: Vertebrae 3-7 are compressed (arrow). Verterbrae 4-6 are fused (not visible in photograph).