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Key cytologic features that distinguish the formed elements found in peripheral blood. 

Key cytologic features that distinguish the formed elements found in peripheral blood. 

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... Ideally, following any type of mastectomy there should not be any breast tissue in the inner side of skin aps. However, since breast tissue [1,2] is not encapsulated , unlike the thyroid gland, there are chances that some breast tissue may be left behind on the inner surface of skin aps [3] [ 4 ] , sometimes carcinomatous tissue too. ...
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Background: The objective of any mastectomy is to rid the chest wall of any breast tissue but since the breast being unencapsulated, there is every chance that some amount of breast tissue may be left behind in the skin aps after resection. As the remnant breast tissue is likely to be exposed to the same carcinogenic risk factors as the tissue removed. Hence, there is always a possibility that the residual tissue may become the seat of a recurrence. To get rid the chest wall so far the residual breast tissue will Objective: be minimal and the recurrence of breast carcinoma will be less. Patents Data source: of proven case of CA breast who underwent MRM at RG KAR MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL from July 2016 to June 2018 are included in the study group. This is a prospective study Study design: of total 45 patients are selected. Materials and methods: Prospective analysis of 45 post MRM women whose mean age is 49.5 years (mean ± SD age, 49.5 ± 2.4 years). Tissue specimens taken from central part of four quadrants of two skin aps for histo-pathological examination. Skin ap thickness measured for more than 8mm. All patients followed for any recurrence of breast carcinoma. Results: Of all histo-pathological specimens left sided breast cancer cases were more common than right side. 48-49 years age group had the most number of cases and more than 53 years the least. The lower medial quadrant the most 5(45.45%), upper and lower lateral quadrant 3(27.27%) each for positive and upper medial quadrant negative for breast tissue. Breast carcinoma negative in all specimens. Skin ap necrosis of 2(4.44%) cases. No recurrences noted during my study period. My study has demonstrated presence of residual breast tis Conclusion: sue in a signicant percentage of post mastectomy skin aps. No residual cancer tissue was found. During the duration of the study, no recurrence of breast carcinoma was detected in patients with residual breast tissue in skin aps.
... At 0 mmHg, native arteries showed a high degree of fiber alignment in the circumferential direction (Fig. 5A). As the vessel contracted to nearly half its original length upon harvest, it is not surprising that most of the fibers throughout the wall thickness would assume circumferential orientation, including adventitial fibers, which tend to have a more disorganized or longitudinal orientation in vivo[62,63]. However, decellularized vessels demonstrated a lower degree of alignment and more random orientation of fibers, despite being in a similar unloaded state (Fig. 5B). ...
... Helical structure has been found in pig carotid artery, and evidence suggests that it exists to varying degrees in other vessels and species[62]. However, it is also possible that the helical pattern represented two populations of fiber orientation: the circumferential organization typically seen in the media and the longitudinal organization often characteristic of the adventitia[63]. Nonetheless, the change from circumferential to helical organization in native arteries represents a stable structure, similar to a coiled spring that can expand and retract. However, this structural stability was compromised in decellularized arteries, as most fibers throughout the vessel wall became oriented toward the circumferential direction and were highly aligned (Fig. 6C and D). ...
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Recently, major achievements in creating decellularized whole tissue scaffolds have drawn considerable attention to decellularization as a promising approach for tissue engineering. Decellularized tissues are expected to have mechanical strength and structure similar to the native tissues from which they are derived. However, numerous studies have shown that mechanical properties change after decellularization. Often, tissue structure is observed by histology and electron microscopy, but the structural alterations that may have occurred are not always evident. Here, a variety of techniques were used to investigate changes in tissue structure and relate them to altered mechanical behavior in decellularized rabbit carotid arteries. Histology and scanning electron microscopy revealed that major extracellular matrix components were preserved and fibers appeared intact, although collagen appeared looser and less crimped after decellularization. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of proteoglycans (PG), but there was decreased PG density and increased spacing between collagen fibrils. Mechanical testing and opening angle measurements showed that decellularized arteries had significantly increased stiffness, decreased extensibility and decreased residual stress compared with native arteries. Small-angle light scattering revealed that fibers had increased mobility and that structural integrity was compromised in decellularized arteries. Taken together, these studies revealed structural alterations that could be related to changes in mechanical properties. Further studies are warranted to determine the specific effects of different decellularization methods on the structure and performance of decellularized arteries used as vascular grafts.
... O tecido conectivo subjacente à superfície do epitélio é mais compacto e forma camadas densas e fibrosas referidas como tendo a túnica albugínea. A região central do ovário, a medula, consiste num tecido conectivo avulso que possui numerosos vasos sanguíneos, linfáticos e nervos (Krause, 2004). ...
... As células da granulosa aumentam bastante no tamanho, tornam-se poliédricas e são transformadas em células luteínas da granulosa. As células da teca interna alargam e tornam-se epitelioides formando as células luteicas da teca (Krause, 2004). ...
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Background and Objective: Peptic ulcer disease still remains a burden in under-developed and developing countries. Argemone mexicana is a plant locally used in folk medicine of Nigeria to treat peptic ulcer disease. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the anti-ulcer activity of solvent-partitioned fractions of Argemone mexicana leaves in indomethacin ulcerated rats. Materials and Methods: Dried leaves of A. mexicana were extracted with ethanol and the crude extract was subjected to solvent-partitioning using n-hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening of the partitioned fractions was carried out using standard methods. A total of 36 rats were randomized into six groups of six rats each. Group 1 serve as the control and received distilled water only, Group 2 serve as ulcerated group, Groups 3 serve as ulcerated group treated with 20 mg kg-1 b.wt., Omeprazole while Groups 4-6 were ulcerated rats treated with 200 mg kg-1 b.wt., of ethylacetate, butanol and n-hexane fractions respectively. The rats were ulcerated by single dose of indomethacin (25 mg kg-1 b.wt.,) administered orally followed by treatment with the fractions. Ulcer indices, antioxidant enzymes status, levels of glutathione and lipid peroxidation were assessed. Results: The results revealed the presence of alkaloids and flavonoids only in ethylacteate and butanol fractions. A significant increase (p<0.05) in gastric acid, volume, malondialdehyde concentration, pepsin and H+/K+ ATPase activities was observed in the ulcerated rats. Significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in gastric mucus content, glycoprotein concentration and antioxidant activities in ulcerated rats. The ulcer indices were attenuated and the antioxidant status was improved in rats treated with 200 mg kg-1 b.wt., of ethylacetate and butanol fractions. Conclusion: The ethylacetate fraction demonstrated a better efficacy which may be attributed to presence of flavonoids thus suggesting Argemone mexicana as an alternative therapy for treating ulcer.
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Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana) is a plant traditionally used in Nigeria and some African countries to treat peptic ulcer disease. In this study, the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of A. mexicana in indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer and its safety were investigated. Phytochemical screening was performed using standard procedures. Ulcer was induced in rats by single oral administration dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) indomethacin followed by treatment with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w. ethanolic leaf extract of A. mexicana. Ulcer-related indices such as gastric pH, acidity, pepsin, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities, glycoprotein, and mucus contents were determined. The status of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reductase, and transferase) in the stomach and duodenum of the rats was also evaluated. Safety of the extract in the liver and kidney was investigated by chromosomal aberration. The results showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and saponins present in the extract as phytochemical constituents. The extract at 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the gastric pH, volume, and acidity of the stomach. It also significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the glycoprotein and mucus contents in the mucosal membrane of rats. The status of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reductase, and transferase) in both tissues was also significantly improved. Study on safety evaluation revealed that the extract is relatively safe at the most active dose investigated. The study concluded that A. mexicana could serve as an alternative therapy for the development of a safer antiulcer drug.