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Kasha's neighborhoods in the city of Bukavu 

Kasha's neighborhoods in the city of Bukavu 

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This article analyzes the interaction of the traces of war with institutional hybridity in shaping the use of space in the periphery of Bukavu, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In peri-urban Bukavu, the urbanization of previously rural areas has created an uncertain mixture of land allocation mechanisms that are not adequately explained...

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... we find all these and other ethnicities crowded into Bukavu, including the Rwandaphone Banyamulenge and other ethnic minorities (e.g. the pygmies). In a context of endemic corruption and partial state failure ethnicity and belonging are often very prevalent rationalities of governance. For instance, (sub-)clan identity continues to shape appointment to positions within the city's administration. Similar structures as well as ethnic tensions can be found in the governance of land in North Kivu, as explained in this special issue by Mathys and Büscher. 35 The history and socio-political context of Kasha The first chief of Kasha was called Tebura. Within his administration of Kasha there were four groupements, which each had their own chefs de groupement who were accountable to the Mwami. Today, the names of these groupements are still significant as they are now administrative neighborhoods of Kasha, being Ciriri, Kanoshe, Mulwa, and Cikera (see also figure 1 for a map of Kasha's neighborhoods). 37 The old groupements of Kasha each encompass separate hills. The Mwami of Kabare had granted specific family members (sons and cousins) the position of the customary chef de groupement in Kasha. With this position also came non-alienable user rights to work and live on their own hills. The groupements were, however, gradually established at different moments in time. The position of customary leaders, including that of the more local chef de groupement in Kasha, was regularly given from father to son. We can still see hills in Kasha with large representations of particular families of (former) customary ...
Context 2
... we find all these and other ethnicities crowded into Bukavu, including the Rwandaphone Banyamulenge and other ethnic minorities (e.g. the pygmies). In a context of endemic corruption and partial state failure ethnicity and belonging are often very prevalent rationalities of governance. For instance, (sub-)clan identity continues to shape appointment to positions within the city's administration. Similar structures as well as ethnic tensions can be found in the governance of land in North Kivu, as explained in this special issue by Mathys and Büscher. 35 The history and socio-political context of Kasha The first chief of Kasha was called Tebura. Within his administration of Kasha there were four groupements, which each had their own chefs de groupement who were accountable to the Mwami. Today, the names of these groupements are still significant as they are now administrative neighborhoods of Kasha, being Ciriri, Kanoshe, Mulwa, and Cikera (see also figure 1 for a map of Kasha's neighborhoods). 37 The old groupements of Kasha each encompass separate hills. The Mwami of Kabare had granted specific family members (sons and cousins) the position of the customary chef de groupement in Kasha. With this position also came non-alienable user rights to work and live on their own hills. The groupements were, however, gradually established at different moments in time. The position of customary leaders, including that of the more local chef de groupement in Kasha, was regularly given from father to son. We can still see hills in Kasha with large representations of particular families of (former) customary ...

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... In Pakistan, Akram et al. (2019) found that landowners involved in agribusiness are more likely to invest in measures to improve soil and increase productivity than land tenants. While the customary system and traditional institution may come under stress and be no longer able to ensure equitable land access, because of land reform and increasing competition due to high demand in land, especially in periurban areas, as claimed by Deininger et al. (2017), this has introduced and prioritized purchase as another form of accessing land in DR Congo (Ansoms et al., 2012;Overbeek & Tamás, 2018). Although land markets are more active, attractive, and increasing because of the reforms that facilitate access to land in many African countries (Deininger et al., 2017), still, women have less access to formal land sales and lease markets compared to men, and therefore are limited in their ability to optimize their landholding (USAID, 2010). ...
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... In the marshlands investigated, Kalinzi and Bwasa were reported among many respondents ( Figure 3). Kalinzi is a land use right allocated by customary authorities or a landowner after the payment of rent, which may be a goat, a cow, or its monetary value depending on the arrangement of the two parts (Ansoms et al., 2012;Overbeek & Tamás, 2018). Bwasa is a rental contract which gives the borrower the right to use land for a short duration only for food crops (cassava, beans or vegetables) and the rental price is called Ntumulo, calculated a posteriori in proportion to the profits or harvests collected. ...
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Thesis
Soziale, politische und geografische Prozesse der Stadtentwicklung in Konflikt- und Grenzregionen werden in dieser Dissertation durch eine Kombination von Satellitenbildern und Feldforschung analysiert. Das Untersuchungsgebiet ist die Grenzregion zwischen der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (DRK) und Ruanda, die seit Anfang der 1990er Jahre von zwischen- und innerstaatlichen bewaffneten Konflikten betroffen ist. Im Fokus der Analyse liegt Goma, die Provinzhauptstadt von Nord-Kivu im Osten der DRK. Zusätzlich wird ein Vergleich mit Gomas Zwillingsstadt Gisenyi in Ruandas Westprovinz gezogen. Die Literatur zu urbanen Räumen im Kongo und in gesamt Subsahara-Afrika bezieht sich häufig auf Primärstädte. Über die Entwicklung von Sekundärstädten in Konfliktzonen, für die es kaum räumlich explizite Studien gibt, ist wenig bekannt. Diese Arbeit bietet zwei sich ergänzende Perspektiven durch die Kombination von Satellitenbildanalyse mit semi-strukturierten Interviews und Beobachtungen aus mehreren Forschungsaufenthalten. Das zweite Kapitel verwendet eine Zeitreihe hochaufgelöster Landsat-Szenen, um die Expansion von Goma zwischen 1986 und 2015 zu analysieren. Dieser Zeitrahmen umfasst internen Konflikt in Ruanda (1990-1994), die Kongo-Kriege (1996-2003) und deren von Gewalt geprägte Folgezeit. Das dritte Kapitel basiert auf der Analyse sehr hochauflösender Satellitenbilder. Eine feinskalige Kartierung von Urbanisierungsmustern zwischen 2005 und 2014 wird mit verantwortlichen Akteursgruppen verbunden. Das vierte Kapitel erweitert die Analyse auf Gomas ruandische Nachbarstadt Gisenyi. Es untersucht und vergleicht, wie sich zwischen- und innerstaatliche Konflikte und die jüngste Phase von Stabilität in Ruanda auf die räumliche Stadtentwicklung über die nationale Grenze hinweg auswirken. Die Arbeit schließt mit einer kritischen Reflexion über Nutzen und Grenzen des angewendeten Methodenmix und zeigt mögliche Bereiche für weitere Forschung auf.
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Thesis
My dissertation explores the state in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) through a case study of the Congolese police and their reform. In short, it is about the police and their everyday work, about the effects of police reform and the nature of the state. While scholarship on the police in the post-colony and in Africa in particular has been growing over the past decade, this is the first comprehensive academic account of the police in Congo. Moreover, despite the crucial role of the police in state-society relations, in Congo and the wider region they remain underexplored in the study of these relations as well as of the state in general. My thesis, then, aims to contribute not only to scholarship on the police in Congo, but to broader questions of the state and its nature in Central Africa. It addresses the following question: How do the police perform the state in Congo? Or, more specifically, in what ways do police practices and encounters with the public reproduce, sustain or collapse Congo’s state? The shortest answer to this question lies in what I refer to as the Craft of the Congo Cop. Based on a year of immersive fieldwork consisting of interviews, focus groups and participant observation, my dissertation traces this performative way of doing the police in a context marked by acute contingency, scarcity and plurality. Following police officers from the classroom via the station to the street, I argue that officers make policework possible through their everyday performativity (Butler 1994, 2010) that draws on, combines as well as subverts rationalities, technologies and techniques of prevailing—and entangled—governmentalities. While some of these police performatives project an effect of the state that instils them with its authority, not all do. In fact, everyday police performatives subvert as much as sustain the ‘state effect’ (Mitchell 1991). The Craft of the Congo Cop lies in the ability to reconcile colliding governmentalities and to project the state as a temporary, yet convincing effect of authority as and when it is required. This effect may barely last through one interaction only to crumble in the next and call for its transformation in the one thereafter. Therefore, rather than implying weakness, failure or chaos from this inherently contingent performative process, I propose that the state in Congo is best understood as a composite of temporary and fast-changing effects summoned by police performatives to gain an edge in a given social encounter. This composite nature explains why the state in Congo seems to be everywhere and nowhere, tangible and illusive, enduring and fleeting all at once.
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