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JC virus large T-antigen expression in colorectal cancer tissue and control tissue sections. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the simian virus 40 large T-antigen monoclonal antibody, which cross-reacts with the JC virus large T-antigen, as described in the 'Materials & methods' section. (A) Positive nuclear staining of cancer cells at 100× magnification. (B) Same section as in (A) at 400× magnification. (C) Control sample demonstrating a negative result in immunohistochemistry at 100× magnification. (D) Same section as in (C) at 400× magnification.

JC virus large T-antigen expression in colorectal cancer tissue and control tissue sections. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the simian virus 40 large T-antigen monoclonal antibody, which cross-reacts with the JC virus large T-antigen, as described in the 'Materials & methods' section. (A) Positive nuclear staining of cancer cells at 100× magnification. (B) Same section as in (A) at 400× magnification. (C) Control sample demonstrating a negative result in immunohistochemistry at 100× magnification. (D) Same section as in (C) at 400× magnification.

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AIm: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2008, CRC was ranked as the second most common cancer among all newly diagnosed cancers in Jordan. It was recently suggested that the JC virus (JCV) could be linked to the development of CRC. However, this topic remains highly controversial. JCV is a common human...

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... positive control demonstrated strong brown nuclear staining of most cells (Figures 1A & 1B), while the negative control demonstrated weak cytoplasmic and limited nuclear staining in less than 10% of cells (Figures 1C & 1D). A result was considered positive for JCV T-Ag expression if more than 30% of cells demonstrated brown nuclear stain- ing (Figure 2). An experienced pathologist (from the pathology department at Jordan University of Science and Technology) conducted the IHC analysis and approved the results. ...

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John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a common polyomavirus classified as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. JCV may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, although we previously reported no association between JCV capsid antibodies and colorectal cancer (CRC). No studies have examined the role of seroreactivity t...

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... Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis was applied to investigate the impact of some variables such as type of diagnosis test, location of sampling and sample type on the I 2 , and pooled Sarvari et al., 2018;Haghi Navand et al., 2019) and five studies assessed the BK virus prevalence (Casini et al., 2005;Giuliani et al., 2008;Tseng et al., 2014;Jarzynski et al., 2017;Sarvari et al., 2018) Some studies had used several targets and diagnostic methods (Enam et al., 2002;Hori et al., 2005;Lin et al., 2008;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Matalka et al., 2013;Tseng et al., 2014). One stydy used In Situ Hybridization (ISH) (Samaka et al., 2013), one study used real time PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction) (Tsekov et al., 2011) and others used PCR, nested-PCR or Immunohistochemistry (IHC), (Enam et al., 2002;Casini et al., 2005;Hori et al., 2005;Theodoropoulos et al., 2005;Goel et al., 2006;Giuliani et al., 2008;Jung et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2008;Niv et al., 2010a;Niv et al., 2010b;Ramamoorthy et al., 2011;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Coelho et al., 2013;Matalka et al., 2013;Ripple et al., 2014;Sinagra et al., 2014;Ksiaa et al., 2015;Jarzynski et al., 2017;Toumi et al., 2017;Sarvari et al., 2018;Haghi Navand et al., 2019). ...
... Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis was applied to investigate the impact of some variables such as type of diagnosis test, location of sampling and sample type on the I 2 , and pooled Sarvari et al., 2018;Haghi Navand et al., 2019) and five studies assessed the BK virus prevalence (Casini et al., 2005;Giuliani et al., 2008;Tseng et al., 2014;Jarzynski et al., 2017;Sarvari et al., 2018) Some studies had used several targets and diagnostic methods (Enam et al., 2002;Hori et al., 2005;Lin et al., 2008;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Matalka et al., 2013;Tseng et al., 2014). One stydy used In Situ Hybridization (ISH) (Samaka et al., 2013), one study used real time PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction) (Tsekov et al., 2011) and others used PCR, nested-PCR or Immunohistochemistry (IHC), (Enam et al., 2002;Casini et al., 2005;Hori et al., 2005;Theodoropoulos et al., 2005;Goel et al., 2006;Giuliani et al., 2008;Jung et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2008;Niv et al., 2010a;Niv et al., 2010b;Ramamoorthy et al., 2011;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Coelho et al., 2013;Matalka et al., 2013;Ripple et al., 2014;Sinagra et al., 2014;Ksiaa et al., 2015;Jarzynski et al., 2017;Toumi et al., 2017;Sarvari et al., 2018;Haghi Navand et al., 2019). Most of the studies targeted DNA and T antigen (TAg) from the samples in order to diagnose the viruses (Enam et al., 2002;Hori et al., 2005;Goel et al., 2006;Jung et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2008;Niv et al., 2010b;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Vilkin et al., 2012;Matalka et al., 2013;Samaka et al., 2013;Ripple et al., 2014;Tseng et al., 2014;Haghi Navand et al., 2019), however, viral protein 1(VP1), noncoding control region (NCCR) and Agnoprotein were also used as target (Enam et al., 2002;Hori et al., 2005;Tsekov et al., 2011;Tseng et al., 2014). ...
... One stydy used In Situ Hybridization (ISH) (Samaka et al., 2013), one study used real time PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction) (Tsekov et al., 2011) and others used PCR, nested-PCR or Immunohistochemistry (IHC), (Enam et al., 2002;Casini et al., 2005;Hori et al., 2005;Theodoropoulos et al., 2005;Goel et al., 2006;Giuliani et al., 2008;Jung et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2008;Niv et al., 2010a;Niv et al., 2010b;Ramamoorthy et al., 2011;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Coelho et al., 2013;Matalka et al., 2013;Ripple et al., 2014;Sinagra et al., 2014;Ksiaa et al., 2015;Jarzynski et al., 2017;Toumi et al., 2017;Sarvari et al., 2018;Haghi Navand et al., 2019). Most of the studies targeted DNA and T antigen (TAg) from the samples in order to diagnose the viruses (Enam et al., 2002;Hori et al., 2005;Goel et al., 2006;Jung et al., 2008;Lin et al., 2008;Niv et al., 2010b;Tsekov et al., 2011;Mou et al., 2012;Vilkin et al., 2012;Matalka et al., 2013;Samaka et al., 2013;Ripple et al., 2014;Tseng et al., 2014;Haghi Navand et al., 2019), however, viral protein 1(VP1), noncoding control region (NCCR) and Agnoprotein were also used as target (Enam et al., 2002;Hori et al., 2005;Tsekov et al., 2011;Tseng et al., 2014). ...
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... Since the first report by Laghi et al. [7] demonstrating presence of JCV DNA in malignant colorectal epithelium, several studies have evaluated the possible role of JCV infection in colorectal carcinogenesis. Although some studies have shown an association between JCV infection and colorectal tumors [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] , others failed to detect JCV DNA in both normal and cancerous colorectal tissues [17][18][19] . These discrepancies have been attributed to several factors such as the type of specimens, the method of viral DNA testing, and differences in the epidemiology of the virus [20] . ...
... After title and abstract screening, 40 full-text articles were evaluated for eligibility. Finally, 18 articles reporting on 19 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]42,[45][46][47][48] . Details of the study selection process are shown in Figure 1. ...
... The characteristics and methodologic quality evaluation of 19 eligible studies are summarized in Table 1 and 2. These studies were published between 2003 and 2018, and involved 3065 participants (1544 patients and 1521 controls). Of the 19 studies, 17 were case-control [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][17][18][19][20]42,[45][46][47][48] and the remaining 2 were cross-sectional [16,17] . Eight studies were conducted in Europe, 6 in Asia, 3 in Africa, and 2 in North America. ...
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... JCV infections generally occurs during childhood as an asymptomatic and latent infection. 7,8 Transmission from human to human is not yet known, but JCV can be found in human waste residues indicating the possibility of fecal-oral transmission. In addition, JCV can infect through the respiratory pathway. ...
... The latent JCV will be reactivated if the immune system is weakened (i.e., in leukemia, lymphoma or immunosuppressive drug). [7][8][9] The activated JCV will take 2 different pathways depending on the infected cells (permissive or non-permissive cells). If permissive cell is infected, the cell will facilitate the virus' DNA replication, then the viruses will be released through the lytic pathway, and the resulting disease is called Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). ...
... The virus will then enter abortive phase or will lead to oncogenesis. 7,10 T-Ag protein is thought to play an important role in the occurrence of neoplasms of carcinogenesis such as transforming premalignant neoplastic lesions into colorectal cancer. This is presumed due to expression of T-Ag would result in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes such as p53, pRb and APC/ β-catenin which play a role in DNA repair. ...
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... An association between the development of colorectal cancer and infectious agents, such as polyomaviruses JCV, BKV and SV40, has been described recently [10,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. The oncogenicity of these viruses stands behind their influential transforming genes, which are implicated in mitosis pathway and proliferation control [11,15]. ...
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... Statistical analysis of this prospective study performed with the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 19.0 and MicrosoftExcel 2013. Categorical data formulated as count and percentage. ...
... The results of the current study showed that JCV was detected in 4 (20.0%) with viral load range (63.71 -137.48 copies/µg of DNA) by Real-Time PCR technique, while 16 (80.0%) of the samples didn't show presence of JCV DNA. And this was agreed with a previous study that showed the viral load was 100-fold lower in the adjacent colonic epithelium 50-450 viral copies/µg of DNA [19]. Enteric cells normally do not support JCV replication but it can be speculated that JCV might enter such cells. ...
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Polyomaviridae family consists of small circular dsDNA viruses. Out of the 14 human polyomaviruses described so far, BKPyV and JCPyV have been studied extensively since their discovery in 1971. Reportedly, both BKPyV and JCPyV are widely distributed across the globe with the frequency of 80-90 % in different populations. The primary infection of these viruses is usually asymptomatic and latent which is activated as a consequence of im-munosuppression. Activated BKPyV and JCPyV viruses lead to the development of BK Virus Associated Nephropa-thy and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, respectively. Immense progress has been made during the last few decades regarding the molecular understanding of polyomaviruses. Epidemiology of polyomaviruses has also been studied extensively. However, most of the epidemiological studies have focused on European and Amer-ican populations. Therefore, limited data is available regarding the geographical distribution of these potentially oncogenic viruses in Asian countries. In this article, we have presented a compendium of latest advances in the molecular understanding of polyomaviruses and their pathobiology. We also present a comprehensive review of published literature regarding the epidemiology and prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV in Asian regions. For this purpose, a thorough search of available online resources was performed. As a result, we retrieved 24 studies for BKPyV and 22 studies for JCPyV, that describe their prevalence in Asia. These studies unanimously report high occurrence of both BKPyV and JCPyV in Asian populations. The available data from these studies was categorized into two groups: on the basis of prevalence (low, medium and high) and disease development (healthy and diseased). Altogether, Korean population hasbeen evidenced to possess highest frequency of BKPyV (66.7 %), while JCPyV was found to be most prevalent in Taiwan (88 %). Due to high and ubiquitous distribution of these viruses, frequent studies are required to develop a better understanding regarding the epidemiology and pathobiology of these viruses in Asia.
Article
Polyomaviridae family consists of small circular dsDNA viruses. Out of the 14 human polyomaviruses described so far, BKPyV and JCPyV have been studied extensively since their discovery in 1971. Reportedly, both BKPyV and JCPyV are widely distributed across the globe with the frequency of 80-90% in different populations. The primary infection of these viruses is usually asymptomatic and latent which is activated as a consequence of immunosuppression. Activated BKPyV and JCPyV viruses lead to the development of BK Virus Associated Nephropathy and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, respectively. Immense progress has been made during the last few decades regarding the molecular understanding of polyomaviruses. Epidemiology of polyomaviruses has also been studied extensively. However, most of the epidemiological studies have focused on European and American populations. Therefore, limited data is available regarding the geographical distribution of these potentially oncogenic viruses in Asian countries. In this article, we have presented a compendium of latest advances in the molecular understanding of polyomaviruses and their pathobiology. We also present a comprehensive review of published literature regarding the epidemiology and prevalence of BKPyV and JCPyV in Asian regions. For this purpose, a thorough search of available online resources was performed. As a result, we retrieved 24 studies for BKPyV and 22 studies for JCPyV, that describe their prevalence in Asia. These studies unanimously report high occurrence of both BKPyV and JCPyV in Asian populations. The available data from these studies was categorized into two groups: on the basis of prevalence (low, medium and high) and disease development (healthy and diseased). Altogether, Korean population hasbeen evidenced to possess highest frequency of BKPyV (66.7%), while JCPyV was found to be most prevalent in Taiwan (88%). Due to high and ubiquitous distribution of these viruses, frequent studies are required to develop a better understanding regarding the epidemiology and pathobiology of these viruses in Asia.
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Objective: Given the probable role of JC virus in associate with increasing the odds of colorectal cancer, this study was conducted systematically to evaluate the association between JC virus and colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: Systematic reviews of the articles published prior to January 1, 2019 without time and place limitations were done independently through the PubMed, ISI, EMBASE and Medline main databases. The heterogeneity rate was assessed through I2, Chi2 and Tau2, and the sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were used to investigate the source of heterogeneity among the studies. Results: 24 studies with a sample size of 2576 were finally entered into the meta-analysis. The results showed that the prevalence of JC virus in colorectal cancer tissues was about 43% (95% CI: 29% –58%). The meta-analysis results also showed that the presence of JCV in colorectal tissues increased the odds of colorectal cancer 4.70 times as much (OR Pooled = 4.70; 95% CI: 2.95–7.50). Also, the results of the sub-group analysis indicated that the presence of JC virus, compared with the tissues adjacent to the tumour and the healthy control tissues, increased the odds of colorectal cancer (OR Pooled = 4.50, 95% CI: 2.09–9.65 and OR Pooled = 4.70, 95% CI: 2.95–7.50) respectively. Conclusion: The meta-analysis showed that as an oncogene virus, JC could increase the odds of colorectal cancer, reinforcing the hypothesis on the role of viral factors in the pathogenesis of cancers.