Intradiurnal evolution in mean bihourly values of air temperature (T), sunshine duration (S), wind speed (WS), relative air humidity (RH), atmospheric preassure (AP) and precipitation (P) in Bratislava in 2016

Intradiurnal evolution in mean bihourly values of air temperature (T), sunshine duration (S), wind speed (WS), relative air humidity (RH), atmospheric preassure (AP) and precipitation (P) in Bratislava in 2016

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Article
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Fungal spores are an important cause of allergic respiratory diseases worldwide. However, little is known about the intradiurnal pattern of spore concentrations of different fungal spore types in the air of the urban area. In this study, we evaluated bihourly variation in spore concentration of eight predominant fungal spore types in the atmosphere...

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... Elevated CO 2 can also lower the resistance of crops to fungal invasion, encouraging the spread and growth of plant fungal pathogens like Alternaria spp., which causes early blight [102,103]. However, other pollutants like ozone and NO 2 have had inconclusive effects on fungal spore levels and need to be explored further [104]. ...
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Despite making up a significant proportion of airborne allergens, the relationship between fungal spores and asthma is not fully explored. Only 80 taxa of fungi have so far been observed to exacerbate respiratory presentations, with Cladosporium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Alternaria spp. found to comprise the predominant allergenic airborne spores. Fungal spores have been found in indoor environments, such as hospitals and housing due to poor ventilation. Meanwhile, outdoor fungal spores exhibit greater diversity, and higher abundance and have been associated with hospitalizations from acute asthma presentations. In addition, fungal spores may be the underlying, and perhaps the “missing link”, factor influencing the heightened rate of asthma presentations during epidemic thunderstorm asthma events. To improve our knowledge gap on fungal spores, airborne allergen monitoring must be improved to include not only dominant allergenic fungi but also provide real-time data to accurately and quickly warn the general public. Such data will help prevent future asthma exacerbations and thus save lives. In this review, we examine the health risks of prominent allergenic fungal taxa, the factors influencing spore dispersal and distribution, and why improvements should be made to current sampling methods for public health and wellbeing.
... Depending on the considered fungi, spore release may occur preferentially during the daytime, as observed for Alternaria,Cladosporium , Epicoccum, and Exosporium or at night, e.g. Coprinus and Leptosphaeria (40). Particulate air pollution such as PM10 is positively correlated with the fungal spore load (40). ...
... Coprinus and Leptosphaeria (40). Particulate air pollution such as PM10 is positively correlated with the fungal spore load (40). ...
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Humans inhale, ingest and touch thousands of fungi each day. The ubiquity and diversity of the fungal kingdom are in sharp contrast with their complex and relatively blurred taxonomy and scarce knowledge about their distribution, pathogenic effects, and effective interventions at the environmental and individual levels. Here, we present an overview of salient features of fungi as permanent players of the human exposome and key determinants of human health. Improved understanding of the fungal exposome sheds new light on the epidemiology of fungal-related diseases, their immunological substratum, the currently available methods, and biomarkers for environmental and medical fungi. Unmet needs are described and potential approaches are highlighted as perspectives.
... To date, a range of regression techniques have been used to develop fungal spore forecasting models, including both linear regression [123,124] and multiple regression analysis [38,39,125,126]. Linear/multiple regression methods have been used regularly for the prediction of Alternaria [19,113,124,125,127,128], Cladosporium [33,123,125,128], Ganoderma [128,129], Aspergillus/Penicillium, and Ascospore [129] concentrations, amongst others [126,128,129]. In addition, multiple regression techniques have long been employed to determine important meteorological parameters that influence the seasonal concentrations of specific fungal spore taxa [114,130]. ...
... To date, a range of regression techniques have been used to develop fungal spore forecasting models, including both linear regression [123,124] and multiple regression analysis [38,39,125,126]. Linear/multiple regression methods have been used regularly for the prediction of Alternaria [19,113,124,125,127,128], Cladosporium [33,123,125,128], Ganoderma [128,129], Aspergillus/Penicillium, and Ascospore [129] concentrations, amongst others [126,128,129]. In addition, multiple regression techniques have long been employed to determine important meteorological parameters that influence the seasonal concentrations of specific fungal spore taxa [114,130]. ...
... To date, a range of regression techniques have been used to develop fungal spore forecasting models, including both linear regression [123,124] and multiple regression analysis [38,39,125,126]. Linear/multiple regression methods have been used regularly for the prediction of Alternaria [19,113,124,125,127,128], Cladosporium [33,123,125,128], Ganoderma [128,129], Aspergillus/Penicillium, and Ascospore [129] concentrations, amongst others [126,128,129]. In addition, multiple regression techniques have long been employed to determine important meteorological parameters that influence the seasonal concentrations of specific fungal spore taxa [114,130]. ...
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Fungal spores make up a significant portion of Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs) with large quantities of such particles noted in the air. Fungal particles are of interest because of their potential to affect the health of both plants and humans. They are omnipresent in the atmosphere year-round, with concentrations varying due to meteorological parameters and location. Equally, differences between indoor and outdoor fungal spore concentrations and dispersal play an important role in occupational health. This review attempts to summarise the different spore sampling methods, identify the most important spore types in terms of negative effects on crops and the public, the factors affecting their growth/dispersal, and different methods of predicting fungal spore concentrations currently in use.
... Long-range dispersal of airborne spores over thousands of kilometers is known to occur in nature (Levetin et al. 2015). The production, release and dispersion of spores in the atmosphere are determined by the complex interaction between biological and environmental factors such as: geographical location, air pollution, weather conditions, human activity and local source of vegetation (Grinn-Gofroń and Bosiacka 2015;Š čevková et al. 2019). But in addition to the spores, fragments of the mycelium, fractured conidiophores or other mycelial structures can also be dispersed through the air (Green et al. 2006). ...
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Fungal spores have a recognized allergenicity, but in recent years, fungal fragments have also been reported as inducers of Type I allergy. However, airborne hyphae are scarcely studied in tropical regions. The objective of this research was to analyze the fungal composition of the Havana aerosol during 2017 and 2018, emphasizing the presence of hyphae fragments. Air sampling was performed using a Lanzoni VPPS-2000 sampler. The fungal propagules collected were identified and counted following the recommendations of the Spanish Aerobiology Network in two longitudinal transepts of each daily slides. In 2017, the spore count and hyphae count were higher than in 2018 (108,607 spores and 3822 fungal fragments vs. 40,896 spores and 2268 fungal fragments). Cladosporium was the most abundant spore (77.2–76.6%), predominating in the month of May. Leptosphaeria ascospores were identified at lower levels (16.2–17.9%) but also abundant during May. The behavior of the hyphal fragments does not show great variations throughout the year. The contribution of this component to the aerosol ranged between 3.4 and 5.3% in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The intradiurnal periodicity showed a diurnal pattern for Cladosporium and nocturnal for Leptosphaeria, while the hyphae pattern does not show great variations. The temperature and relative humidity correlated with the concentration of the detected airborne fungi propagules. The composition of the fungal aerosol in Havana during the 2 years was characterized, including both spores and hyphal fragments, since both structures can be related to respiratory allergy pathologies.
Article
We studied the diversity and abundance of the airborne fungal spores in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, for two consecutive years. Air samples were collected at one rooftop station (at 30 m) and six near-ground stations (at 1.5 m) that differed in the size and composition of adjacent green spaces. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentrations were also explored. Cladosporium spores were dominant everywhere in the air of the city. The total concentration of the airborne fungal spores at 30 m was 10 times lower than near the ground. Differences in concentration and composition were far less pronounced among near-ground stations. The attributes of the fungal spore season did not change in a consistent way among stations and years. Concentrations at the near-ground stations matched the grouping of the latter into stations of high, intermediate, and low urban green space. Minimum air temperature was the primary meteorological factor affecting spore abundance, followed by relative humidity. Airborne fungal spores are more homogeneously distributed in the air of the city, but their concentrations decrease more rapidly with height than pollen.
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Bioaerosols are reported to affect human health and cause chronic inflammation to the respiratory system, leading to its temporary or permanent damage. This study aims to perform the qualitative assessment of ambient air of Barrackpore, an industrial township of West Bengal, India, by analysing the airborne fungal spore diversity for two consecutive years. The spores of ambient air were trapped using Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler from June 2014 to May 2016. The association of major fungal taxa with environmental parameters was analysed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis to identify the significant predictors. The daily average ambient fungal spore concentration was 3526.38 ± 2709.32 spores m−3. Ascospore, basidiospore, Periconia and Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. accounted for more than 65% of observed fungi, resulting in the major fungal taxa. A significant association of dominant fungi with meteorological parameters and air pollutants was observed. Additionally, stepwise multiple regression analysis pointed out that dewpoint, wind speed, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5(PM2.5) and atmospheric nitrogen dioxide concentration (NO2) are the significant predictors for dominant fungi. Analysis of daily ambient fungal spore concentration and determining their environmental determinants will give an insight into the ambient air quality of the residential area of Barrackpore, for the first time. The acquired data can be used to evaluate the health impact on the residents of an unevaluated industrial township of India.
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A thunderstorm is a risk factor for severe respiratory allergy or asthma attacks in patients suffering from pollen/spore allergy. This study aimed to investigate the changes in the spectrum and quantity of pollen and fungal spores in the air of Bratislava during summer storms as well as the impact of selected environmental parameters on these changes. Pollen/spore samples were collected using a Burkard volumetric aerospore trap during summer 2016. To identify those types of pollen/spores that may harm human health during the storm episodes, we analysed how the concentration of individual bioparticles in the air changed during pre-storm/storm/post-storm periods. The effect of environmental variables on the concentration of selected pollen/spore types was evaluated through Spearman’s correlation analysis. The results of our study suggest that thunderstorm-related respiratory allergy symptoms in the study area may be caused by (1) spores of Myxomycetes, the airborne concentration of which increases due to an increase in wind speed during the pre-storm period; (2) ruptured pollen and Diatripaceae spores, the concentration of which increases due to increase in precipitation and relative air humidity, respectively, during the storm period; and (3) spores of Fusarium and Leptosphaeria, the concentration of which increases due to increase in precipitation and air temperature, respectively, during the post-storm period.
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This article describes in detail an advanced statistical method, the artificial neural network, and the possibilities for its application in aerobiological analyses. The study and models involve the concentration of fungal spores in the air and their relationship with various biological and environmental factors. The author hopes that this work will contribute to a wider use of this method not only in the study of spores but also the concentration of pollen grains.