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Interaction of antibodies with numerous antigens present on the surface of target cell. (A) Interaction of polyclonal antibodies with specific surface antigen activates B lymphocytes to divide and differentiate into plasma cell clones producing more antibodies that recognize antigens. (B) Interaction of monoclonal antibodies with specific surface antigen activates B lymphocytes to divide and differentiate into plasma cell clones that further recruit homogeneous and mono-specific antibodies.

Interaction of antibodies with numerous antigens present on the surface of target cell. (A) Interaction of polyclonal antibodies with specific surface antigen activates B lymphocytes to divide and differentiate into plasma cell clones producing more antibodies that recognize antigens. (B) Interaction of monoclonal antibodies with specific surface antigen activates B lymphocytes to divide and differentiate into plasma cell clones that further recruit homogeneous and mono-specific antibodies.

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Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins...

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Context 1
... B cells are then differentiated into specific antibody producing plasma cell clones that recognize specific antigen epitopes via the antigen receptor. B cells are activated after recognizing their specific antigen ( Figure 1A; Andersen et al., 2006). Some antigens are highly multifarious and exhibit abundant epitopes recognized by several lymphocytes. ...
Context 2
... antibodies (mAbs) are clinically significant homogeneous and mono-specific scientific biomolecules produced from hybridoma cells by hybridoma technology (Zhang, 2012). mAbs arise from single cell clone compared to multiple cell clones for pAbs ( Figure 1B; Andersen et al., 2006). Since their discovery, these molecules have been used as research tools and have revolutionized the fields of biotechnology, immunology, diagnostics, and medicine. ...
Context 3
... underlined approaches aim at developing glycoproteins with homogeneous N-and O-linked glycans of defined composition (Dicker and Strasser, 2015). Moreover, multi-level glyco-engineering techniques have been investigated to generate IgG with defined Fc-glycans in eukaryotic cells (Dekkers et al., 2016). Additionally, E. coli expression have been successfully employed to produce recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) (Kamionka, 2011). ...

Citations

... On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are homogeneous, monospecific, and generated by hybridoma technology [6]. However, pAbs are considered to have a superior specificity compared to mAbs because they are produced by a vast number of B-cell clones, each of which produces antibodies against a distinct epitope and also due to the presence of multiple binding sites [7]. ...
... The most common are nanobodies, singlechain variable fragments (scFv), antigen-binding fragments (Fab), and bispecific antibodies [8]. After that, with the onset of new molecular methods utilizing new techniques, namely, phage display technology and ribosomal display, the expression of engineered antibodies in vitro and in vivo systems has experienced a breakthrough [7]. In this context, the rapid advances in research have led to an understanding of antigenantibody interactions and how the bioengineering of antibodies can alter such interactions. ...
Article
Antibodies play a crucial role in the defense mechanism countering pathogens or foreign antigens in eukaryotes. Its potential as an analytical and diagnostic tool has been exploited for over a century. It forms immunocomplexes with a specific antigen, which is the basis of immunoassays and aids in developing potent biosensors. Antibody-based sensors allow for the quick and accurate detection of various analytes. Though classical antibodies have prolonged been used as bioreceptors in biosensors fabrication due to their increased fragility, they have been engineered into more stable fragments with increased exposure of their antigen-binding sites in the recent era. In biosensing, the formats constructed by antibody engineering can enhance the signal since the resistance offered by a conventional antibody is much more than these fragments. Hence, signal amplification can be observed when antibody fragments are utilized as bioreceptors instead of full-length antibodies. We present the first systematic review on engineered antibodies as bioreceptors with the description of their engineering methods. The detection of various target analytes, including small molecules, macromolecules, and cells using antibody-based biosensors, has been discussed. A comparison of the classical polyclonal, monoclonal, and engineered antibodies as bioreceptors to construct highly accurate, sensitive, and specific sensors is also discussed.
... Antibodies have found numerous applications for diagnosis, prophylaxis, and therapy of diseases [1]. While most of the approved therapeutic antibodies belong to the IgG class, recent developments have also focused on the use of antibody fragments [2,3]. ...
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Many therapeutic proteins are small in size and are rapidly cleared from circulation. Consequently, half-life extension strategies have emerged to improve pharmacokinetic properties, including fusion or binding to long-lasting serum proteins, chemical modifications with hydrophilic polymers such as PEGylation, or, more recently, fusion to PEG mimetic polypeptides. In the present study, two different PEG mimetic approaches, the GlycoTAIL and the FlexiTAIL, were applied to increase the hydrodynamic radius of antibody fragments of different sizes and valencies, including scFv, diabody, and scFv-EHD2 fusion proteins. The GlycoTAIL and FlexiTAIL sequences of varying lengths are composed of aliphatic and hydrophilic residues, with the GlycoTAIL furthermore comprising N-glycosylation sites. All modified proteins could be produced in a mammalian expression system without reducing stability and antigen binding, and all modified proteins exhibited a prolonged half-life and increased drug disposition in mice. The strongest effects were observed for proteins comprising a FlexiTAIL of 248 residues. Thus, the GlycoTAIL and FlexiTAIL sequences represent a flexible and modular system to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of proteins.
... Moreover, antibodies have been the object of extensive biomedical studies since their modular architecture facilitates the engineering of novel binding sites (Gotwals et al., 2017;Saeed et al., 2017;and Singh et al., 2018). Indeed, the recognition of virtually any foreign antigen is due to high sequence variability in the antigen-binding site, while the overall architecture is largely conserved (Chothia and Lesk, 1987;Chothia et al., 1989;and Tramontano et al., 1990). ...
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Many factors influence biomolecule binding, and its assessment constitutes an elusive challenge in computational structural biology. In this aspect, the evaluation of shape complementarity at molecular interfaces is one of the main factors to be considered. We focus on the particular case of antibody–antigen complexes to quantify the complementarities occurring at molecular interfaces. We relied on a method we recently developed, which employs the 2D Zernike descriptors, to characterize the investigated regions with an ordered set of numbers summarizing the local shape properties. Collecting a structural dataset of antibody–antigen complexes, we applied this method and we statistically distinguished, in terms of shape complementarity, pairs of the interacting regions from the non-interacting ones. Thus, we set up a novel computational strategy based on in silico mutagenesis of antibody-binding site residues. We developed a Monte Carlo procedure to increase the shape complementarity between the antibody paratope and a given epitope on a target protein surface. We applied our protocol against several molecular targets in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, known to be indispensable for viral cell invasion. We, therefore, optimized the shape of template antibodies for the interaction with such regions. As the last step of our procedure, we performed an independent molecular docking validation of the results of our Monte Carlo simulations.
... The mAb 5E4 with the subtype IgG2b was purified by protein G affinity chromatography, and the fineness of the purified antibody was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. BCA protein assay kit was used to determine the concentration of proteins [24], and the binding activities (titer) of ascites fluid and anti-αB-CTX mAb 5E4 were determined by iELISA [25]. ...
Article
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Given the application of αB-VxXXIVA-conotoxin (αB-CTX) in analgesics and cancer chemotherapeutics, and its threat to humans, it is urgent to develop a rapid, effective and accurate method for the analysis and detection of αB-CTX in real shellfish and medicine drug samples. In the present study, two different immunochromatographic strips were established for αB-CTX detection, based on the monoclonal antibody 5E4 against αB-CTX, and the visual limits of detection (vLOD) for the colloidal gold nanoparticles-based strip (AuNPs-based strip) and nanoflowers-based strip (AuNFs-based strip) were 4 μg/mL and 1.5 μg/mL, respectively. The developed AuNPs-/AuNFs-based strips have good specificity and accuracy, and the detection results were analyzed in less than 10 min, without using an instrument. In view of the excellent repeatability and usability, the established methods could be applied to detect and analyze the content of αB-CTX in real samples.
... Antibiotics were soon preferred due to allergic reactions, variable efficacy between lots, and limited spectrum [222]. The advent of molecular biology tools has led to the development of therapeutic mAbs with improved efficacy, safety, and purity, which enabled the successful translation of antibodies to the clinic [220,223]. Most of the currently practiced antibody therapies are aimed at treating diseases of non-infectious origin and only a few antibodies were approved for treating bacterial infections [224]. ...
Article
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Antibiotic resistance, and, in a broader perspective, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), continues to evolve and spread beyond all boundaries. As a result, infectious diseases have become more challenging or even impossible to treat, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite the failure of conventional, traditional antimicrobial therapy, in the past two decades, no novel class of antibiotics has been introduced. Consequently, several novel alternative strategies to combat these (multi-) drug-resistant infectious microorganisms have been identified. The purpose of this review is to gather and consider the strategies that are being applied or proposed as potential alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These strategies include combination therapy, techniques that target the enzymes or proteins responsible for antimicrobial resistance, resistant bacteria, drug delivery systems, physicochemical methods, and unconventional techniques, including the CRISPR-Cas system. These alternative strategies may have the potential to change the treatment of multi-drug-resistant pathogens in human clinical settings.
... Similarly, patients with Addison's disease need regular pharmaceuticals to compensate for their failure to generate steroid hormones naturally [23]. Monoclonal antibodies, such as adalimumab, infliximab, and rituximab, have been incorporated with new therapeutic resources for coping with unsolicited inflammatory diseases in recent decades [24]. ...
Chapter
Nanomedicine is a rapidly developing area of medicine with promising applications in molecular nanotechnology for safe, effective, and precise drug delivery. To date, many inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with and without surface modifications have been produced for selective drug delivery. An autoimmune disorder is a self-destructive immune cell condition that affects various body tissues and organs. Poor penetration and nonspecific delivery of therapeutic constituents to the targeted cells, which contributes to insufficient therapeutic effectiveness, is one of the main obstacles in targeting therapy for autoimmune diseases. Metallic nanoparticles provide a number of scopes in biomedical applications including diagnosis, treatment, and immunotherapy. Metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) (gold, silver, etc.) may suppress the immune system, causing a strong reaction to threatening cells. They are useful for drug targeting because of their nanosize, nontoxic properties, charge, and ease of high surface functionalization—all of which make them good carriers for drug transportation. This chapter intends to examine numerous strategic methods by integrating material science and immunobioengineering expertise for the safe and efficient delivery of metal-based nanoparticles for the treatment of various autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, the toxicity and safety issues of these metallic NPs are systematically presented.
... AI is currently used in online search engines to help pathologists and lab managers to choose the best kits and reagents to suit the tissue type and local protocols and resources in the laboratory. Digital technology is also employed in the development of IHC reagents including synthesized primary antibodies and detection systems [17]. ...
Article
Digital technology has been used in the field of diagnostic breast pathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for decades. Examples include automated tissue processing and staining, digital data processing, storing and management, voice recognition systems, and digital technology-based production of antibodies and other IHC reagents. However, the recent application of whole slide imaging technology and artificial intelligence (AI)-based tools has attracted a lot of attention. The use of AI tools in breast pathology is discussed briefly as it is covered in other reviews. Here, we present the main application of digital technology in IHC. This includes automation of IHC staining, using image analysis systems and computer vision technology to interpret IHC staining, and the use of AI-based tools to predict marker expression from haematoxylin and eosin-stained digitalized images.
... It is effective and can completely remove symptoms, although it is expensive and requires subepithelial administration through weekly injections [51]. High production costs and specialized invasive administration are the issues facing all biologic treatments [52,53]. Approaches have been made to deliver these therapeutics through alternative routes; however, there are many barriers. ...
Article
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The IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine pathways play integral roles in stimulating IgE inflammation, with the IL-4 cytokine being a major cytokine in the etiology of thunderstorm asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. The increasing prevalence of thunderstorm asthma in the younger population and the lessening efficacy of corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatories has created a need for more effective pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes the IL-4 and IL-13 pathways while highlighting and discussing the current pathway inhibitors aimed at treating thunderstorm asthma and atopic dermatitis, as well as the potential efficacy of peptide therapeutics in this field.
... In multiple studies, HS has been shown to play a role in the DV infection process [24], suggesting that HS may indeed serve as a receptor or co-receptor for DV infection of host cells. Other studies investigating the role of HS in DV infection have demonstrated that DV, when propagated under certain conditions in vitro, can undergo adaptive changes resulting in increased affinity for and utilization of HS for cell infection [49,50]. ...
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Humans usually contract dengue by being bitten by arthropods, and more than 3.6 billion people are at risk per year. Although studies are conducted to screen and trace out the possible pathophysiology of the virus, an adequate receptor-based study has not been completed. Understanding how the dengue virus (DV) engraves its landing sites requires identification of such cellular receptors. In many model studies, heparan sulfate (HS) has been reported to act as a DV receptor under various conditions. However, the physiological relevance of these findings remains uncertain. Therefore, it is still unclear whether HS is used by viral strains or not, and if at all used by clinical or non-cell culture-adapted strains of DV. The present review aims to identify relevant experimental evidences that confirm the possible interaction between envelope protein and HS chains. We collected data from a series of studies to conclude the interactive role.
... Traditional methods of antibody preparation mainly include hybridoma cell method and phage display method [17]. Outside of animal immunity, both of them have a lot of library building and screening work, which lasts for several months or even half a year. ...
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In this report, one novel method has been developed to screen the monoclonal antibody against human pancreatic cancer biomarker glypican-1 (GPC1) through the combination of fluorescent cell sorting and single B cell amplification. GPC1-positive B cells were sorted out from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by fluorescent cell sorting after the GPC1 immunization to the New Zealand white rabbit. Then, total RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed into cDNA, which was used as the template, and the variable region sequences of both heavy and light chains were amplified from the same B cell. Next, their recombinant antibody was expressed and purified from the human 293T cell after the antibody gene amplification and expression vector construction. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry assays were used to determine the antibody affinity. The antibody named GPC-12 that we screened and obtained was proven to have natural heavy-light chain pairing information, and it was highly specific to the GPC1 antigen, and the affinity could reach 1 × 10-7 M. Overall, an effective and novel method has been successfully developed to screen the antibody by combining the fluorescent cell sorting and single-cell amplifying technologies, which was proved to be workable in our setting.