Inter-annual variations of the wave and wind parameters considered for the 10-year time interval 2005-2014, where: (a) U10-mean values; (b) Hs-mean values.
The higher requests concerning the large scale implementation of the renewable energy imposed by the EU directives implies a substantial enhancement of the renewable energy extraction all over Europe. Wind turbines entered in the last decades gradually in the common landscape and the success of the wind power industry renewed the interest in discov...
... Paradox, this very high dynamics of the offshore wind industry is expected to induce momentum also to the wave energy extraction. Collocation approaches, when wave farms are implemented in the vicinity of already operating wind farms , or direct implementation hybrid windwave projects , are some solutions. These would allow the combination of the resources as regards renewable extraction in the marine environment and may provide a change step in relationship with the economic efficiency of the wave farms. ...
The objective of the present work is to assess the wave power in the North Sea in the vicinity of the most relevant wind farms that are operating there. At this moment, the coastal environment of the North Sea is among the most significant areas in the world from the point of view of harvesting marine renewable energy. Furthermore, this area is also very relevant for offshore activities related to oil and gas extraction. From this perspective, its coastal environment would be a perfect candidate for the implementation of the wave projects, which would benefit from existing infrastructure. The ERA5 dataset has been considered for the evaluation of the wave power for the 30-year period (1989-2018). 10 reference points have been defined in the coastal environment of the sea covering the most relevant locations and for them, the mean wave power has been first assessed. After this, the seasonal and monthly variability of the wave power have been also evaluated together with some statistical parameters. The results show that the northern part of the sea has relatively significant wave energy resources and it can be a viable candidate for implementation of the future wave projects. However, the linear trends indicate a slight tendency of decrease of the wave power, but on the other hand, the coefficient of resource variation has small values. Finally, a comparison with the satellite data provided by the European Space Agency is also carried out for the 27-year period 1992-2018. While in general there is a very good concordance between the two datasets, for the reference points located in the northeastern part of the sea, which are the most resourceful locations, the satellite data indicate higher values.
... As the industry evolves, some new technological solutions emerge, such as renewable systems, with wave energy converters (WECs)  being a prime example. Since the purpose of a WEC farm is to extract energy from the waves, the use of such projects for coastal protection was developed in recent years. ...
The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the possible implications involving the influence of a generic marine energy farm on the nearshore processes. Several case studies covering various European coastal areas are considered for illustration purposes. These include di�erent nearshore areas, such as the Portuguese coast, Sardinia Island or a coastal sector close to the Danube Delta in the Black Sea. For the case studies related to the Portuguese coast, it is noted that a marine energy farm may reduce the velocity of the longshore currents, with a complete attenuation of the current velocity for some case studies in the coastal area from Leixoes region being observed. For the area located close to the Danube Delta, it is estimated that in the proposed configuration, a marine energy farm would provide an e�cient protection against the wave action, but it will have a relatively negligible impact on the longshore currents. Summarizing the results, we can conclude that a marine energy farm seems to be beneficial for coastal protection, even in the case of the enclosed areas, such as the Mediterranean or Black seas, where the erosion generated by the wave action represents a real problem.
The opportunity of using wave energy converter arrays in a hot spot area of the Mediterranean sea was investigated. For this purpose, numerical simulations of wave energy converters together with a simple cost-effective analysis were carried out. The selected study area is one of the most energetic inside the Sicilian channel (Italy). The numerical simulations were performed using the SNL-SWAN (“Sandia National Laboratories – Simulating WAves Nearshore”) spectral model with an unstructured mesh. The power absorbed from thirteen Wave Energy Converter (WEC) devices was computed. In particular, Pelamis, Wave Dragon, Oyster 2, Wavestar, B-HBA, B-OF, Bref-HB, Bref-SHB, F–2HB, F–3OF, F-HBA, F-OWC were investigated. Hydrodynamic stationary simulations of a WEC array parallel to the coastline were carried out in order to choose the best devices for a non-stationary simulation. The devices selected for this simulation are Pelamis, Wave Dragon, Oyster 2, F–2HB, and Bref-HB. The non-stationary simulation was forced with thirty-nine years wave parameters reanalysis from ERA5 by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts). This simulation has allowed to obtain the capacity factor (CF) and the dissipative effects in the period from 1979 to 2018. Moreover, a preliminary cost-to-benefit analysis was carried out for the best performance WEC array only. Costs, revenues, LCoE (Levelized Cost of Energy), and payback period were therefore computed by means of economic assumptions. The high energy concentration near the coast produces hydrodynamic effects which have as a consequence potential erosion phenomena. A shoreline change analysis of three beaches of the studied coast was carried out. Such an analysis was focused on shoreline retreatment during the last thirty years. On the basis of the presented results, there is a slight economic advantage in installing a Wave Dragon scaled array with the added value of potentially giving beneficial effects on coastal erosion. Nevertheless, from a strictly economic point of view, other renewable resources could give better results (e.g. wind energy). The adopted methodology gives encouraging results that confirm the opportunity to deploy WEC devices in the Sicilian channel together with devices exploiting other renewable resources.
The deterioration of the environment and the depletion of resources are promoting the development of clean, renewable energy. Offshore wind is characterized by its sustainability and cleanliness, and is one of the fastest-growing renewable energy in recent years. Various methodologies have been therefore utilized to support offshore wind power investment decision-making. However, the existing literature lacks a comprehensive analysis and summary of these methods aimed at improving investment efficiency. To this end, this paper undertakes a systematic literature review of methodologies and theories commonly used in offshore wind power investment decision-making, following with the characteristics, applicability of various methods discussed and discussion of representative literature. Then, the selected papers were classified by the year of publication (2010-2020), journals, country of author affiliation, method consideration perspectives and application fields. These classifications are presented to highlight the trends, which aim to provide broad, systematic approaches and tools for assessment of power investment, and to give suggestions on which method to use for each situation. It can be seen that the popularity and applicability of these methods have improved after 2015. They cannot replace but complement each other and should be implemented in a parallel or better comprehensive way. The outputs of this review will map appropriate analytical techniques to specific investment applications and perspectives, provide researchers with guidance on future investment decision-making research, and point out any possible gaps. Specifically, through this review, decision-makers would be able to choose the best-suited or hybrid methodology, according to different fields and objects, for investment viability and effectiveness. Finally, untapped issues recognized in recent research approaches are discussed along with suggestions for future research.