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Intensity the aerobic exercise based on MET level, Heart Rate Reserve, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) with examples.

Intensity the aerobic exercise based on MET level, Heart Rate Reserve, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) with examples.

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The goal of cancer treatment is to arrest or eradicate the tumor while minimizing the often toxic effects of treatment. While oncologic diagnostics and treatments are improving and survival rates are increasing, it is critical to provide additional patient management that appears to affect long-term survival. Epidemiologic evidence suggests patient...

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... general, light activity is defined as 1.1 up to 3.0 MET, Moderate activity is defined as 3.0 up to 6.0 MET and Vigorous activity is defined as more than 6.0 MET. (Table 3). From a relative intensity level, use of the CR10 or Modified Borg scale works well. ...

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... It should be planned, spread throughout the week for short intervals of 10 min. [30][31][32] ...
... Exercises are the most beneficial and cost-effective intervention for reducing the severity of fatigue among patients with cancer. [32][33][34] Complimentary therapies, nutritional interventions and educational interventions including psychoeducation, cognitive behavioural therapy and sleep therapy have shown a promising effect in managing the CRF. However, evidence to be generated from more number of randomised controlled trial research studies are in demand to reveal the effectiveness of polarity therapy, bright white light therapy, eurythmy therapy, and restorative therapy. ...
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Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most frequent and prevalent symptoms expressed by cancer patients and cancer survivors. It is a multifactorial phenomenon that causes a direct detrimental impact on quality of life. Objectives This systematic review aims to identify different clinical evaluation scales and interventions available for fatigue associated with cancer. Materials and Methods A methodology of the systematic literature review was carried out. Two separate databases PubMed and Google Scholar searches were performed using different MeSH terms. Results A total of 2611 research articles were screened and identified 10 unidimensional scales (four with one item scales and six with numerous item scales) and 13 multidimensional scales which are available for the screening and clinical evaluation of fatigue. Reviews have also revealed non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise, complementary therapies, nutritional and psychoeducational interventions, sleep therapy, energy therapy, bright white light, restorative therapies upcoming anthroposophical medicine, and various pharmacological agents effective in managing CRF. Conclusion Clinical evaluation of fatigue and its management is crucial for improving the quality of life. Yet, more rigorous research studies with higher statistical power need to be conducted on these interventions to generate adequate evidences for managing the CRF.
... This was likely an underestimation because respondents were not specifically asked this question (they raised the issue in response to an open-ended question), and previous research has identified treatment-related side effects and fatigue as key barriers to initiating or maintaining physical activity in cancer survivors [28]. Guidance on how to identify and manage a broad range of cancer-specific exercise contraindications have been published [2,29,30]. ...
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Purpose This study explored cancer survivors’ views and experiences of receiving physical activity advice post-diagnosis. We also determined the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the recall of physical activity advice and whether receiving advice was associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. Methods An anonymised, mixed-methods, 27-item survey was distributed to cancer survivors via online cancer communities in the UK. Results Of the 242 respondents, 52% recalled receiving physical activity advice. Of those who recalled receiving advice, only 30% received guidance on type of physical activity and 14% were referred to another source of information or exercise specialist. Advice was most often given after treatment cessation, with only 19% of respondents receiving advice during active treatment. Most respondents (56%) expressed a need for further information. There was no evidence of associations between sociodemographic characteristics and recall of physical activity advice. However, cancer survivors who perceived the physical activity advice they received as being appropriate (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.4–10.7) and those with a higher level of education (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8–5.8) were more likely to meet aerobic exercise guidelines. Females were less likely to meet resistance exercise guidelines than males (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90). Conclusion There is scope to improve the provision of physical activity advice in cancer care by providing advice in a timely manner after diagnosis, referring patients to a suitable exercise or rehabilitation specialist when indicated, and using a tailored approach to ensure the advice is appropriate for specific sociodemographic groups.
... Nonpharmacological measures include aerobic exercises in the form of walking, cycling, running or bowing for at least 150 min/week of moderate intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous intensity. [16,17] Complementary therapies such as yoga, asana, mindfulness, [18] massage [19] and aromatherapy, foot soak with reflexology, [18] acupressure and acupuncture [20] and Reiki therapy [21] are found to be effective in managing the cancer-related fatigue and improve the quality of life of patients. Dietary counselling, psychoeducation, [22] cognitive behavioural therapy [23] and sleep therapy [24] have a positive impact on fatigue. ...
... After cancer diagnosis, the specific therapeutic strategy selected, which may include a combination of different types of treatment, should be accompanied by an overall assessment of the patient's ability to participate in a physical exercise program or exercise testing [8,29]. Specifically, a thorough biochemical and clinical assessment is necessary before a patient's participation in a (personalized) program, in order to recognize potential precautions or contraindications to exercise and ensure patient's safety [30]. ...
... Specifically, a thorough biochemical and clinical assessment is necessary before a patient's participation in a (personalized) program, in order to recognize potential precautions or contraindications to exercise and ensure patient's safety [30]. Clinical complications that may be encountered are usually related with the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal or nervous system, as well as with hematological conditions [29,31]. Thus, a regular re-evaluation of several physiological parameters associated with the abovementioned systems' function is necessary in order to ensure the early detection of possible complications and side-effects. ...
... The complexicity of cancer disease and the eterogenity of side effects that individuals with cancer deal with make it difficult to determine a group of evaluation tests for every single type of cancer. Nevertheless, for some types of cancer there are specific precautions and guidelines, related to the tissue and the body area affected by the disease or the treatment modality employed, which should be taken into consideration before the exercise testing and prescription [29,31] (Table 2; Figure 2). Again, it is essential for cancer exercise specialists to be aware of the common symptoms and side effects associated with both the specific type sPECIAl PRECAuTIons RElATED To sPECIFIC TyPEs oF CAnCER ...
... Furthermore, some types of exercise may be contraindicated in certain subpopulations, treatments or in individual diseased states. For example, caution is required for patients undergoing radiotherapy when exercise is performed in the pool, due to an increased risk of burn site irritation [90]. In addition, limitations may also exist for advanced cancer patients who are prone to develop bone metastases. ...
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The scientific interest of exercise medicine for the treatment of cancer is ever expanding. Recently published and updated guidelines for exercise training in cancer patients by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia (COSA) or the Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) are leading the way towards an individualized approach for exercise prescription. These guidelines provide physicians and therapists with a comprehensive and detailed overview about the beneficial effects of exercise training and, more so, summarize the evidence on potential dose-response mechanisms, including pathways of exercise-induced stimuli to counteract tumour microenvironmental pathologies. However, the most optimal types and doses of exercise training across the cancer disease and treatment continuum are yet to be determined. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review was to illustrate the current implications but also limitations of exercise training during the different stages of cancer therapy, as well as to discuss necessary future directions. As a second purpose, special attention will be given to the current role of exercise in the treatment of cancer in Germany.
... Today, exercise interventions are increasingly being recognized as an efficient strategy in counteracting both CRF and cachexia in cancer patients. Indeed, the implementation of supportive care with adapted physical activity in cancer patients is part of current and future political recommendations in France (39,40) and elsewhere (41)(42)(43). ...
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Background: Cancer cachexia and exacerbated fatigue represent two hallmarks in cancer patients, negatively impacting their exercise tolerance and ultimately their quality of life. However, the characterization of patients' physical status and exercise tolerance and, most importantly, their evolution throughout cancer treatment may represent the first step in efficiently counteracting their development with prescribed and tailored exercise training. In this context, the aim of the PROTECT-01 study will be to investigate the evolution of physical status, from diagnosis to the end of first-line treatment, of patients with one of the three most common cancers (i.e., lung, breast, and colorectal). Methods: The PROTECT-01 cohort study will include 300 patients equally divided between lung, breast and colorectal cancer. Patients will perform a series of assessments at three visits throughout the treatment: (1) between the date of diagnosis and the start of treatment, (2) 8 weeks after the start of treatment, and (3) after the completion of first-line treatment or at the 6-months mark, whichever occurs first. For each of the three visits, subjective and objective fatigue, maximal voluntary force, body composition, cachexia, physical activity level, quality of life, respiratory function, overall physical performance, and exercise tolerance will be assessed. Discussion: The present study is aimed at identifying the nature and severity of maladaptation related to exercise intolerance in the three most common cancers. Therefore, our results should contribute to the delineation of the needs of each group of patients and to the determination of the most valuable exercise interventions in order to counteract these maladaptations. This descriptive and comprehensive approach is a prerequisite in order to elaborate, through future interventional research projects, tailored exercise strategies to counteract specific symptoms that are potentially cancer type-dependent and, in fine, to improve the health and quality of life of cancer patients. Moreover, our concomitant focus on fatigue and cachexia will provide Mallard et al. The PROTECT-01 Cohort Study Protocol insightful information about two factors that may have substantial interaction but require further investigation. Trial registration: This prospective study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03956641), May, 2019.
... The Potential mechanism in the development of Cancer-related fatigue can be related to altered metabolism due to decreased peripheral circulation, altered substrate utilization and increase in proinflammatory cytokines 4 . Normal protein and hormonal levels related to the inflammatory process can get altered due to cancer and its treatment which can cause or worsen the fatigue. ...
Article
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Background: Cancer-related fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment which negatively impacts the Quality Of Life in breast cancer survivors. Hence the main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic versus resistance training on fatigue level and QOL in breast cancer survivors.
... Swimming in a pool is contraindicated due to the increased risk of infection and skin irritation in the irradiated area. 116 This narrative review has some limitations to mention. First, participants in the majority of studies did not receive only RT for cancer treatment. ...
Article
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Despite its beneficial effects, radiotherapy still results in a range of side effects that negatively impact quality of life of patients. Exercise has been shown to counteract the side effects induced by cancer treatment. This narrative review aims to provide an up-to-date review of the effects of an exercise intervention in cancer patients during radiotherapy. A literature search was performed on PubMed to identify original articles that evaluated the effects of an exercise programme to alleviate treatment-related side effects in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy with or without other cancer treatments. Benefits related to exercise training have been shown in breast, prostate, rectal, lung, head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Therefore, exercise should be considered as a concurrent treatment alongside radiotherapy to alleviate treatment-related side effects and facilitate effective recovery. Due to the onset and progress of treatment-related side effects throughout radiotherapy, a regular clinical evaluation seems strongly advisable in order to continuously adapt the exercise programme depending on symptoms and side effects. An exercise professional is needed to personalize exercise training based on the medical condition and tailor it throughout the intervention according to progress and the patient’s medical status. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential benefits of exercises observed on treatment-related side effects. Furthermore, because of the narrative design of this study, a systematic review is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence reported.
... Table 2 illustrates the prescription of PA based on intensity using MET level, HRR, and RPE, which are the easiest methods of PA prescription. [92] Table 3 shows exerciseprescription for high blood pressure control. [93] Table 4 described exercise prescription for diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients. ...
Article
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Sedentary behavior is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality; hence there is a need to promote physical activity (PA) among adults aged 60–86 years. The aim of this narrative review was to evaluate the role of PA in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases among older adults. Relevant studies (original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses) that reported on the effects of PA in older adults from 1998 to 2019 were selected. The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, Sports Discus, Web of Science, and Cochrane database. Physical exercise at different intensities was shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of overweight, functional decline, and mood disorders in older adults. Moderate-to-high intensity endurance exercise can be effective in the prevention of diabetes type 2, hypertension, and cancer in older adults. Resistance training at different intensities was shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity in the elderly. Mobility and balance training were effective in preventing falls in older individuals. Combined exercise training regimen comprising moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and resistance exercise is beneficial in the prevention of disability, osteoporosis, hypertension, and falls among older adults. Moreover, combined exercise training improves immune function and antioxidant capacity in older adults. Based on the studies reviewed, PA was found to be an effective tool for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases among older adults.
... The increased survival rates due to advancements in cancer detection and medical care indicate that cancer should be handled as a chronic disease that requires long term management to maintain patients' quality of life [4]. It is well established that standard medical care for BCa, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, is associated with adverse effects on cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous and endocrine physiological systems [5][6][7]. In particular, cardiotoxicity, cancer-related fatigue, muscle atrophy, cachexia, peripheral neuropathy, immune system dysfunction and altered body composition are some of the reported complications that result in a diminished quality of life (QoL) of patients, while interfering with their ability to carry out regular daily living activities [8][9][10][11]. ...
Article
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A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a complementary intervention during breast cancer (BCa) treatment, contributing to the alleviation of the chemotherapy-related side-effects. The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity (PA) levels and quality of life (QoL) parameters of BCa patients undergoing chemotherapy and compare them with healthy controls. A total of 94 BCa female patients and 65 healthy women were recruited and self-reported QoL and PA levels. The results reveal that women suffering from BCa spent only 134 ± 469 metabolic equivalents (MET)/week in vigorous PAs compared with the healthy females who spent 985±1508 MET/week. Also, BCa patients were spending 4.62±2.58 h/day sitting, contrary to the 2.34±1.05 h/day of the controls. QoL was scored as 63.43±20.63 and 70.14±19.49 while physical functioning (PF) as 71.48±23.35 and 84.46±15.48 by BCa patients and healthy participants, respectively. Negative correlations were found between QoL and fatigue, PF and pain, and fatigue and dyspnea, while a positive correlation was found between QoL and PF. This study indicated that the BCa group accumulated many hours seated and refrained from vigorous Pas, preferring PAs of moderate intensity. Additionally, BCa patients’ levels of functioning and QoL were moderate to high; however, they were compromised by pain, dyspnea and fatigue.