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Inflammation is a controlled process with an initiation, resolution and termination phase. After microbial invasion, lesion or chemical injury, the initiation phase starts with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators like LTB4 and PG2. These mediators increase inflammation until the Eicosanoid Switch, the end of the initiation phase, takes place. This occurs when the level of PGE2 plus PGD2 is equal to the LTB4 level. The resolution phase is entered, triggering the generation of anti-inflammatory mediators like LK, resolvins, protectins, maresins, PGD2 and PGF2a. When the total level of anti-inflammatory mediators exceeds the level of LTB4 the Stop Signal takes place. This is the last phase, the inflammation will be terminated by clearing the affected area [11]. The stress hormones produced by the systemic stress axes have a direct effect on the inflammation phases. A microbial invasion, lesion or injury sends off an alarm in the body, setting off the systemic stress system which produces NE as response and tunes the system to insulin and cortisol resistance [12]. The Eicosanoids Switch to resolution can only take place when NE is equal to the level of cortisol plus insulin and when cortisol sensitivity is recovered. The Stop Signal requires a low level of NE and normalized cortisol sensitivity. The termination phase is entered when the stress axes are switched off.

Inflammation is a controlled process with an initiation, resolution and termination phase. After microbial invasion, lesion or chemical injury, the initiation phase starts with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators like LTB4 and PG2. These mediators increase inflammation until the Eicosanoid Switch, the end of the initiation phase, takes place. This occurs when the level of PGE2 plus PGD2 is equal to the LTB4 level. The resolution phase is entered, triggering the generation of anti-inflammatory mediators like LK, resolvins, protectins, maresins, PGD2 and PGF2a. When the total level of anti-inflammatory mediators exceeds the level of LTB4 the Stop Signal takes place. This is the last phase, the inflammation will be terminated by clearing the affected area [11]. The stress hormones produced by the systemic stress axes have a direct effect on the inflammation phases. A microbial invasion, lesion or injury sends off an alarm in the body, setting off the systemic stress system which produces NE as response and tunes the system to insulin and cortisol resistance [12]. The Eicosanoids Switch to resolution can only take place when NE is equal to the level of cortisol plus insulin and when cortisol sensitivity is recovered. The Stop Signal requires a low level of NE and normalized cortisol sensitivity. The termination phase is entered when the stress axes are switched off.

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Serhan and colleagues introduced the term "Resoleomics" in 1996 as the process of inflammation resolution. The major discovery of Serhan's work is that onset to conclusion of an inflammation is a controlled process of the immune system (IS) and not simply the consequence of an extinguished or "exhausted" immune reaction. Resoleomics can be consider...

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... Chronic inflammation is marked by increasing levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as Interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha, cortisol buildup, and insulin resistance that eventually culminate in disease. The intensity and impact of the inflammatory response appear to be highly individualized [53]. The effective resolution of the inflammatory response is regulated by an arsenal of endogenous and dietary anti-inflammatory mediators. ...
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Human food foraging in community forests offers extensive and expandable sources of food and high-quality nutrition that support chronic disease prevention and management and are underrepresented in US diets. Despite severe gaps in non-commercial “wild food” data, research in Syracuse, NY, identified substantial amounts of five key antioxidant phytochemicals in locally available, forageable foods with the potential to augment local dietary diversity and quality. Findings endorse the need for micro- and macro-nutrient research on an expanded range of forageable foods, community nutrition education on those foods, an expanded study on antioxidant phytochemical function, and the inclusion of forageables in the food system definition.
... Many of these drugs and treatment methods are expensive and not easily accessible, and they are also associated with side effects. Alongside drug therapy regimens, lifestyle changes and nutritional interventions have been considered as strategies for controlling and treating autoimmune diseases [13,14]. One nutritional intervention that has gained significant attention from scientists in recent years is intermittent fasting, which has been associated with promising results in controlling and improving autoimmune diseases in some cases. ...
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Intermittent fasting, which includes periods of fasting and nutrition, has been considered a dietary approach for weight loss and metabolic health improvement. However, its potential benefits in autoimmune diseases have not been widely studied. This study aims to review the existing studies on the role and effects of intermittent fasting on autoimmune diseases. A comprehensive search was conducted on electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science, and relevant studies were included based on inclusion criteria. Studies show that intermittent fasting may have beneficial effects on various autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, by reducing inflammatory markers, modulating the immune system, altering and improving gut microbiota, and enhancing cellular repair mechanisms through autophagy. However, evidence regarding the effects of intermittent fasting on other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and psoriasis is limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, further research is needed to determine optimal intermittent fasting guidelines and its long-term effects on autoimmune diseases. Overall, this literature review proves intermittent fasting may be a promising dietary intervention for managing autoimmune diseases.
... For instance, rheumatoid arthritis is more prevalent among women and older individuals, while inflammatory bowel disease is commonly observed in younger adults [11]. The treatment of inflammatory diseases typically involves the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic agents, immunosuppressants, as well as dietary and lifestyle modifications such as exercise, stress reduction, and smoking cessation [12]. While inflammatory diseases cannot be cured, effective management strategies exist [13]. ...
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Inflammation, a characteristic physiological response to infections and tissue damage, commences with processes involving tissue repair and pathogen elimination, contributing to the restoration of homeostasis at affected sites. Hence, this study presents a comprehensive analysis addressing diverse aspects associated with this phenomenon. The investigation encompasses the synthesis, spectral characterizations (FT-IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR), and molecular modeling of p-phenylenediamine-phenylhydrazine-formaldehyde terpolymer (PPHF), a potent agent in promoting inflammation. To explore the reactivity, bonding nature, and spectroscopy, as well as perform molecular docking for in-silico biological evaluation, density functional theory (DFT) utilizing the def2svp/B3LYP-D3BJ method was employed. The results reveal significant biological activity of the tested compound in relation to anti-inflammatory proteins, specifically 6JD8, 5TKB, and 4CYF. Notably, upon interaction between PPHF and 6JD8, a binding affinity of −4.5 kcal/mol was observed. Likewise, the interaction with 5TKB demonstrated an affinity of −7.8 kcal/mol. Furthermore, a bonding affinity of −8.1 kcal/mol was observed for the interaction with 4CYF. Importantly, these values closely correspond to those obtained from the interaction between the proteins and the standard drug ibuprofen (IBF), which exhibited binding affinities of −5.9 kcal/mol, −7.0 kcal/mol, and −6.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, these results provide compelling evidence affirming the tremendous potential of p-phenylenediamine-phenylhydrazine-formaldehyde (PPHF) as a highly promising anti-inflammatory agent, owing to the presence of nitrogen—a heteroatom within the compound.
... Western diet patterns usually lead to a disproportion in the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in favor of omega-6 [79]. A higher inflammation level is caused by higher intake of omega-6 PUFA which is resulted in consumption of a high saturated fat or foods with a high glycemic load and in consumption of lower dietary fiber [80]. In contrast to this, intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA, obtained from fish and seafood, as frequently consumed in Mediterranean diet, is related to a reduced risk of RA presumably due to their anti-inflammatory features [81]. ...
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Genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle are thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is evidence that diet can enhance the inflammatory response in genetically predisposed individuals. On the other hand, certain types of diets can alleviate RA symptoms due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Also, natural compounds with potential effectiveness in RA management belong to different chemical classes such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, and alkaloids with their antioxidant characteristics as well as probiotics. The nutritional approaches to prevent or extenuate the disease progress were examined in this narrative review which was conducted using the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases and conforms to the Scale for the Assessment of Narrative Review Articles (SANRA) guidelines. Mediterranean and vegan diets equally have been shown to exhibit positive effects on RA as the consumption of dietary fiber, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds from fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds are high. Whereas Mediterranean diet additionally includes beneficial nutrients of animal origin such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and seafood, patients on vegan diet need to be monitored closely for intake of all critical nutrients. Certain calorie restrictions and intermittent fasting diets have been shown to benefit RA patients although there is an obvious need for further studies to establish solid evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. The research data available strongly suggest that dietary approaches with anti-inflammatory properties may help delay the onset of RA and/or improve symptoms and thus nutrition should be routinely addressed to facilitate management of the disease.
... Another parameter that strongly affected the prtC detection rate (93.75%) was the type of food consumed by the subject (Fig. 7). Previous studies reported that high levels of carbohydrates promote chronic inflammation [59,60]. Furthermore, diets low in carbohydrates, rich in fiber, vitamins C and D, and omega-3 fatty acids can significantly reduce periodontal inflammation [61]. ...
... Western diet patterns usually lead to a disproportion in the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in favor of omega-6 [46]. A higher inflammation level is caused by higher intake of omega-6 PUFA which is resulted in consumption of a high saturated fat or foods with a high glycemic load and in consumption of lower dietary fiber [47]. In contrast to this, intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFA, obtained from fish and seafood, as frequently consumed in Mediterranean diet, is related to a reduced risk of RA presumably through their anti-inflammatory features [48]. ...
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Genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is evidence that diet can enhance the inflammatory response in genetically predisposed individuals. On the other hand, certain types of diets are thought to alleviate RA symptoms due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Also, natural compounds with potential effectiveness in RA management belong to different chemical classes such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, and alkaloids with their antioxidant characteristics. In this paper, the nutritional approaches to prevent or extenuate the disease progress were examined in the light of current literature. Mediterranean and vegan diets equally have been shown to exhibit positive effects on RA as the consumption of dietary fiber, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds from fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds are high. Whereas Mediterranean diet additionally includes beneficial nutrients of animal origin such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and seafood, patients on vegan diet need to be monitored closely for intake of all critical nutrients. Certain calorie restrictions and intermittent fasting diets have been shown to benefit RA patients although there is an obvious need for further studies to establish solid evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. The research data available strongly suggest that dietary approaches may help delay the onset of RA and/or improve symptoms and thus nutrition should be routinely addressed to facilitate management of the disease.
... Reciprocally, acute physiological stressors have become a vocal point for mitochondrial functioning and health in general . Protocols, including acute physiological stressors, show promising results in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially those strategically combining different hormetic and evolutionary interventions (Bosma-Den Boer et al., 2012;Ruiz-Núñez et al., 2013;Lane and Martin, 2015;Pruimboom et al., 2015;Pruimboom et al., 2016;Pruimboom and Muskiet, 2018). Per the low-cost nature of these interventions, they have importance at the individual and public health levels. ...
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Mitochondria play a key role in both health and disease. Their function is not limited to energy production but serves multiple mechanisms varying from iron and calcium homeostasis to the production of hormones and neurotransmitters, such as melatonin. They enable and influence communication at all physical levels through interaction with other organelles, the nucleus, and the outside environment. The literature suggests crosstalk mechanisms between mitochondria and circadian clocks, the gut microbiota, and the immune system. They might even be the hub supporting and integrating activity across all these domains. Hence, they might be the (missing) link in both health and disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction is related to metabolic syndrome, neuronal diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders. In this regard, diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and chronic pain are discussed. This review focuses on understanding the mitochondrial mechanisms of action that allow for the maintenance of mitochondrial health and the pathways toward dysregulated mechanisms. Although mitochondria have allowed us to adapt to changes over the course of evolution, in turn, evolution has shaped mitochondria. Each evolution-based intervention influences mitochondria in its own way. The use of physiological stress triggers tolerance to the stressor, achieving adaptability and resistance. This review describes strategies that could recover mitochondrial functioning in multiple diseases, providing a comprehensive, root-cause-focused, integrative approach to recovering health and treating people suffering from chronic diseases.
... As a result, many tumor cell types require increased supply of glucose or specific amino acids [5,6]. Indeed, hyperglycemia is associated with reduced progression-free or overall survival in patients with different cancer types [7,8]. Thus, the reduction of certain nutrients can be very effective in regulating the growth and survival of many cancer cell types, yet the use of dietary restrictions to prevent and treat tumors is only beginning to be recognized as a potent approach complimentary to drugs. ...
Article
Fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) are emerging as effective dietary interventions with the potential to improve healthspan and decrease the incidence of cancer and other age-related diseases. Unlike chronic dietary restrictions or water-only fasting, FMDs represent safer and less challenging options for cancer patients. FMD cycles increase protection in healthy cells while sensitizing cancer cells to various therapies, partly by generating complex environments that promote differential stress resistance (DSR) and differential stress sensitization (DSS), respectively. More recent data indicate that FMD cycles enhance the efficacy of a range of drugs targeting different cancers in mice by stimulating antitumor immunity. Here, we report on the effects of FMD cycles on cancer prevention and treatment and the mechanisms implicated in these effects.
... It is worth noting that chronic inflammation is a vital factor to serious chronic diseases mentioned above [101]. When the innate immune system (IIS) activity is incorrect or excessive in human body, the chronic inflammation can be activated, which will enhance the prevalence of chronic diseases [101][102][103]. ...
... It is worth noting that chronic inflammation is a vital factor to serious chronic diseases mentioned above [101]. When the innate immune system (IIS) activity is incorrect or excessive in human body, the chronic inflammation can be activated, which will enhance the prevalence of chronic diseases [101][102][103]. Thus, monitoring of inflammation with flexible biosensors may be able to discover clues in time to reduce the incidence rate of chronic diseases. ...
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Health problems have been widely concerned by all mankind. Real-time monitoring of disease-related biomarkers can feedback the physiological status of human body in time, which is very helpful to the diseases management of healthcare. However, conventional non-flexible/rigid biochemical sensors possess low fit and comfort with the human body, hence hindering the accurate and comfortable long-time health monitoring. Flexible and stretchable materials make it possible for sensors to be continuously attached to the human body with good fit, and more precise and higher quality results can be obtained. Thus, tremendous attention has been paid to flexible biochemical sensors in point-of-care (POC) for real-time monitoring the entire disease process. Here, recent progress on flexible biochemical sensors for management of various diseases, focusing on chronic and communicable diseases, is reviewed, and the detection principle and performance of these flexible biochemical sensors are discussed. Finally, some directions and challenges are proposed for further development of flexible biochemical sensors. Graphical abstract
... Studies have associated the occurrence of a variety of diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, asthma, and psoriasis with inflammation. For the past thirty years, the number of inflammation-mediated diseases has increased rapidly (Bosma-den Boer et al., 2012). ...
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Increasing inflammation-mediated health issues have driven the search for more natural anti-inflammatory drug sources. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity of Nephrolepis biserrata rhizome and Angiopteris palmiformis frond extracts were determined via inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes, 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Extraction with absolute ethanol was done followed by subsequent partitioning with hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. Results revealed that the ethyl acetate-soluble partition (Nb-EtOAc) and aqueous partition (Nb-Aq) of N. biserrata and the ethanolic extract (Ap-EtOH) of A. palmiformis exhibit active inhibition against the 15-LOX enzyme. All of the N. biserrata extracts (Nb-EtOH, Nb-Hex, Nb-EtOAc, and Nb-Aq) and the hexane-soluble partition (Ap-Hex) of A. palmiformis were found to be active and selective towards inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme. The observed anti-inflammatory activity of N. biserrata rhizome and A. palmiformis frond extracts suggests that N. biserrata rhizomes and A. palmiformis fronds are potential sources of natural anti-inflammatory components.