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Infestation of Tuta absoluta on tomato plants of the experimental farms at Umiam (Meghalaya state, India). A. Infested stem, B. Infested fruit, C. Infested leaves, D. Heavily infested plant.

Infestation of Tuta absoluta on tomato plants of the experimental farms at Umiam (Meghalaya state, India). A. Infested stem, B. Infested fruit, C. Infested leaves, D. Heavily infested plant.

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The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae), although made its first entry in continental India in 2014, has not been reported occurring in northeastern areas of the country. For the first time, we recorded T. absoluta infes- tation in tomato plants in the Meghalaya state of India. The identification was c...

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Context 1
... of T. absoluta were observed in the pheromone traps for the first time during January 2017 at experimental farm at Umiam. The infestations of T. absoluta larvae were also observed in tomato plots at experimental farms of ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya (Fig. 1). The identification was confirmed by external morphological characters and CO-I DNA barcoding as mentioned in the section 3.3. During the survey, mild to severe infestation of T. absoluta has been observed on tomato plants in our experimental farms located at Umiam and tomato plants in adjoining villages viz., Umroi Nongrah, Nongsder ...
Context 2
... farms located at Umiam and tomato plants in adjoining villages viz., Umroi Nongrah, Nongsder and Mawnohsynrum. The larvae were found infesting tomato leaves and fruits of the varieties Megha tomato 3, Avinash, Rocky and other genotypes. Larvae feed on mesophyll tissues in between upper and lower leaf epidermis causing typical mines on the leaves (Fig. 1). Infested fruits had holes, and larvae were found feeding on the pulp, potentially leading to secondary infection by the pathogens. Except in the Umiam site, very few plants were found infested by this pest at other locations. Because, northeastern India shares international borders with many countries, the Fig. 2 shows the possible ...
Context 3
... of T. absoluta were observed in the pheromone traps for the first time during January 2017 at experimental farm at Umiam. The infestations of T. absoluta larvae were also observed in tomato plots at experimental farms of ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya (Fig. 1). The identification was confirmed by external morphological characters and CO-I DNA barcoding as mentioned in the section 3.3. During the survey, mild to severe infestation of T. absoluta has been observed on tomato plants in our experimental farms located at Umiam and tomato plants in adjoining villages viz., Umroi Nongrah, Nongsder ...
Context 4
... farms located at Umiam and tomato plants in adjoining villages viz., Umroi Nongrah, Nongsder and Mawnohsynrum. The larvae were found infesting tomato leaves and fruits of the varieties Megha tomato 3, Avinash, Rocky and other genotypes. Larvae feed on mesophyll tissues in between upper and lower leaf epidermis causing typical mines on the leaves (Fig. 1). Infested fruits had holes, and larvae were found feeding on the pulp, potentially leading to secondary infection by the pathogens. Except in the Umiam site, very few plants were found infested by this pest at other locations. Because, northeastern India shares international borders with many countries, the Fig. 2 shows the possible ...

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... The non-resilient vegetation characteristics of these basins basically show their incompetence to attain the required soil moisture conditions for vegetation redevelopment once the dry period ends. However, Northeastern river basins and Indo-Gangetic plain shows less ecological response to flash droughts as they were considered as one of the most ecological rich regions of the country (Sankarganesh et al., 2017) where vegetation can tolerate extreme deviations in soil moisture conditions. A lower response frequency in Northeastern India and Indo-Gangetic plain indicates a lower risk to the ecosystem (GPP). ...
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... Increased trade between countries, poor quarantine and surveillance are the major reasons for its quick global spread (Han et al. 2019). In India, T. absoluta has rapidly spread to all the tomato growing areas following its invasion in 2014 (Sridhar et al. 2014;Shashank et al. 2015;Ballal et al. 2016;Sharma and Gavkare 2017;Sankarganesh et al. 2017). Endophytic feeding habit, high population growth rate, high dispersal, ability to adapt to varied climates, etc. make this pest more challenging (Desneux et al. 2010;Desneux et al. 2011;Tonnang et al. 2015;Campos et al. 2017). ...
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... There are considerable concerns regarding the rapid geographic expansion of SATP in the tomato-growing regions due to their biological traits that hinder effective control (McNitt et al., 2019;Campos et al., 2021;Ponti et al., 2021). In addition to previously documented infected areas (Campos et al., 2017;Sankarganesh et al., 2017;Sylla et al., 2017;Han et al., 2018Han et al., , 2019Mansour et al., 2018;Sylla et al., 2019;Tabuloc et al., 2019;Verheggen & Fontus, 2019), SATP was recently reported in Western China (Li et al., 2021), threatening local production and the export of fresh tomatoes to countries without SATP infestation (Xian et al., 2017;Han et al., 2018). ...
Article
Alternative host plants are among the key factors influencing the spread of invasive pests because they are utilized as a food source and provide shelter in unfavorable conditions. The South American tomato pinworm (SATP), Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), has a high behavioral and physiological plasticity enabling it to rapidly spread in several countries. Among the multiple strategies used by SATP in the invasion process is the use of alternative host plants including black nightshade (BNS), Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae), a perennial plant widely distributed across all habitats worldwide. Besides the life table and behavioral parameters of SATP on tomato, its survival and reproduction in low temperatures on alternative host plants should be assessed to evaluate the likely spread in temperate regions with harsh winters. In our study, comparing solanaceous species through generations, the primary difference was in the mean generation time with SATP reared on BNS, whereby it had a longer development time than larvae and pupae reared on tomato plants. Adults preferred tomato plants even if they had been reared as larvae on BNS. Exposure periods of 7, 14, and 21 days to 4 °C indicated that more than 50% of SATP pupae reared on BNS plants survived more than 14 days. The survival of SATP reared on tomato plants exceeded 21 days and after exposure to 4 °C, females reared on both plants remained fertile. The life table and behavioral parameters recorded demonstrated a significant potential of BNS to support the development of SATP, also at low temperature. Therefore, even with effective border surveillance and phytosanitation processes in place, invasion through an alternative host is possible and difficult to detect.
... In recent examples from India, adopting molecular techniques either as sole or with traditional taxonomical tools, researchers could rapidly detect several invasive pests and immediate control strategies were formulated/ suggested for them (Firake and Behere, 2021), e.g. elephant beetle (Xylotrupes siamensis) (Firake et al, 2013); fruit fly species (Bactrocera aethriobasis, B. thialandica and B. tuberculata) (Manger et al, 2018); South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) (Sankarganesh et al, 2017); rugose spiraling whitefly (Aleurodicus rugioperculatus) (Sundararaj and Selvaraj, 2017), coconut case caterpillar (Mahasena corbetti) (Firake et al, 2018a); vegetable leaf miner (Liriomyza sativae) (Firake et al, 2018b); fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) (Sharanbasappa et al, 2018), and most recently cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) (Joshi et al, 2020). Furthermore, efforts have also been made to provide comprehensive information based on molecular characterization and/ or DNA barcoding of natural enemies closely associated with varied crop ecosystems of India (Larinfeli et al, 2019). ...
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Biotechnology has provided new avenues for the management of insect pests and it holds great potential to be included in integrated pest management (IPM) systems. This review elaborates about the practical utility of different molecular tools in IPM and the recent major breakthroughs achieved, with special reference to India. Molecular techniques are being increasingly used in insect taxonomy for accurate species identification and population structure assessment; manipulating genes from diverse sources to develop insect-resistant crop varieties; improve the effectiveness of biocontrol agents including predators, parasitoids and pathogens; elucidate the plant-insect and insect-natural enemy interactions; to improve the sterile insect technique; comprehend the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, and to identify and develop new insecticide molecules with a novel mode of action. The novel RNA interference-mediated pest management approaches are also being developed. However, in order to exploit the enormous potential benefits of biotechnology, appropriate biosafety regulatory framework and stewardship programs are needed to be effectively implemented.
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... In 2008, T. absoluta was first reported in Africa and has now been reported in 41 of the 54 African countries (Mansour et al. 2018). Since the first report in Turkey in 2009, this pest started invading Asia and now has been recorded in most Asian countries (Han et al. 2019a), including many countries on the northwestern and southwestern border of China, e.g., Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, India, Nepal etc. (Campos et al. 2017;Saidov et al. 2018;Sankarganesh et al. 2017;Uulu et al. 2017). So far, it has been recorded in more than 90 countries and regions worldwide (Campos et al. 2017;Desneux et al. 2011;Uulu et al. 2017;Verheggen and Fontus 2019). ...
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Tuta absoluta is a devastating invasive pest worldwide, causing severe damage to the global tomato industry. It has been recorded recently in the northwestern border areas of China, posing a significant threat to tomato production. It was presumed that the region's winter-related low temperatures would avert the alien species from successfully overwintering. In this study, the supercooling capacity and low-temperature tolerance of this pest were examined under laboratory conditions and its overwintering potential in Xinjiang was estimated. The results showed that the lowest supercooling point was recorded in the adult stage (− 19.47 °C), while the highest (− 18.11 °C) was recorded in the pupal stage. The supercooling points of pupae and adults were not influenced by gender. The Ltemp50 and Ltemp90 of female and male adults were the lowest when exposed to cold for 2 h. However, when the duration of exposure extended from 4 to 10 h, the Ltemp50 and Ltemp90 of female and male pupae were the lowest. Comparison of the lowest Ltemp50 and Ltemp90 with temperatures in January indicated that T. absoluta might not be able to overwinter in most of the northern and central regions of Xinjiang. However, in the southern regions, the extremely low temperature was higher than the Ltemp90, suggesting that T. absoluta has a higher overwintering potential in these regions. These results form a basis for predicting the dispersal potential and possible geographic range of this pest in Xinjiang. In addition, our findings provide guidance for the control of this pest by reducing overwintering shelters.
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... In recent examples from India, adopting molecular techniques either as sole or with traditional taxonomical tools, researchers could rapidly detect several invasive pests and immediate control strategies were formulated/ suggested for them, e.g. elephant beetle (Xylotrupes siamensis) (Firake et al., 2013); South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) (Sankarganesh et al., 2017); fruit fly species (Bactrocera aethriobasis, B. thialandica and B. tuberculata) (Manger et al., 2017); vegetable leaf miner (Liriomyza sativae) (Firake et al., 2017); rugose whitefly (Aleurodicus rugioperculatus) (Sundararaj and Selvaraj 2017), coconut case caterpillar (Mahasena corbetti) (Firake et al., 2018); and most recently fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) (Ganiger et al., 2018). Currently, advanced approaches like DNAmetabarcoding and the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System provide an extremely cost-effective way to both recognize new species and to identify known ones (Hebert et al., 2016). ...
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Molecular techniques have widely been used directly or indirectly for the management of insect pests across the World. Successful applications of these techniques have resulted in saving of time, efforts and money and have been widely accepted by the stakeholders in agricultural and allied sectors. Molecular tools are being increasingly used in fields of insect taxonomy, phylogeny, population structure analysis, plant-insect and insect-natural enemy interactions and improvement in sterile insect release and host-plant resistance breeding programmes. In addition, strain improvement of entomopathogenic microbes and natural enemies is also being done with molecular tools. Novel approaches using RNAi-mediated pest management tools are being developed. In this article, the research carried out on molecular approaches and its relevance to the management of insect pests with special reference to India is reviewed.
... Since then, the pest has rapidly spread east-and southward, tracking favourable biophysical environments [16]. During the last 10 years, T. absoluta has also spread in the Middle East and Asia at lightning speed, resulting in extensive naturalised populations in India, Iran, Israel, Syria, Turkey and Nepal [25][26][27][28][29]. Following its invasion in most European countries, T. absoluta successfully invaded the Afrotropics, reportedly via the Mediterranean Sea, with first detections reported in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco in 2008-2009 [15,25,30,31]. ...
Article
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The South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has aggressively invaded the African continent. Since its first detection in North Africa in Morocco and Tunisia in 2008, it has successfully invaded the entire southern, eastern and western Africa, where it has been on the offfensive, causing significant damage to Solanaceous food crops. While control of this prolific invader is primarily based on conventional synthetic pesticides, this form of control is consistently losing societal approval owing to (1) pesticide resistance development and consequential loss of field efficacy; (2) growing public health concerns; (3) environmental contamination and loss of biological diversity and its associated ecological services; and (4) unsustainable costs, particularly for resource-poor African farmers. As such, more ecologically sound pest management strategies, e.g., the use of natural substances (NSs), may offer a more sustainable approach to tackling this offensive. A systematic literature search through digital libraries and online databases (JSTOR, PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Google Scholar) was conducted using predetermined keywords on T. absoluta, e.g., South American tomato pinworm. We use this to explain the invasion of T. absoluta in Africa, citing mechanisms facilitating African invasion and exploring the potential of its control using diverse biological control agents, natural and low-risk substances. Specifically, we explore how botanicals, entomopathogens, semiochemicals, predators, parasitoids, host plant resistance, sterile insect technique and others have been spatially employed to control T. absoluta and discuss the potential of these control agents in African landscapes using more integrated approaches. We discuss the use of NSs as assets to general insect pest control, some potential associated liabilities and explain the potential use and barriers to adoption in African systems from a legislative, economic, ecological and social standpoint.
... Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis (Green) Neotropical origin, 2012 mtCOI, 28S, ITS-2 markers [1,7] 21. Tomato pin worm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) South America, 2014 mtCOI markers [71] , RAPD markers [8] 22. ...