Incidence of hypertension stratified by age groups in men and women. Incidence 

Incidence of hypertension stratified by age groups in men and women. Incidence 

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Background: Despite high projected burden, hypertension incidence data are lacking in South Asian population. We measured hypertension prevalence and incidence in the Center for cArdio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) adult cohort. Methods: The CARRS Study recruited representative samples of Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi in 2010/11,...

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... awareness, treatment, and control showed a positive linear relationship with educational status (the rates were lowest in illiterate or participants with no formal education and highest in participants with more than graduate level education) only in men ( Figure S2). However, hypertension prevalence was not associated with educational status. ...
Context 2
... 9 of 10 incident cases (87.9%) were detected at the time of second year survey. Overall, there were no differences in the incidence of hypertension in men and women (Fig 2). The incidence of hypertension, however, was lower in women than in men in the younger age group (<55 years), but was higher in women than men in the older age group (>55 years). ...

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... The present study revealed that the incidence of hypertension was high among the studied populations. This finding agrees with results from previous studies conducted in the Gulf region and other developing countries [18,19]. An increase in BP with age is considered a universal aspect of human aging and the present study supported the fact that advancing age is an important risk factor for hypertension. ...
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Background Hypertension is a major global health concern affecting approximately 1.13 billion people worldwide, with most of them residing in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of different stages of hypertension and its associated modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors among patients in military-setting hospitals in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted at two hospitals in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected from hospital electronic records from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019. The blood pressure levels of patients from the last three separate medical visits were recorded. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used for the data analysis. Results The study included 884 hypertensive patients. The incidences of stage of elevated BP, stage 1, stage 2, and hypertension crisis were 60.0, 29.5, 7.0, and 3.5 cases per 1000 persons. Multivariate analysis indicated that progression from the stage of elevated blood pressure to hypertension crisis was significantly associated with advanced age (odds ratio [OR] = 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.99–8.42), male sex (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 0.57–5.92), and a positive family history of hypertension (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.23–3.09). Other key determinants of the development of stage of elevated blood pressure to hypertension crisis were current smoking status (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.23–4.76), and physical inactivity (OR = 6.48, 95% CI: 2.46–9.14). Conclusion The incidence stage of elevated blood pressure was high among the patients investigated at armed forces hospitals in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. The logistic regression model proposed in the present study can be used to predict the development of different stages of hypertension. Age, sex, marital status, family history, smoking status, and physical activity play an important role in the development of hypertension. Better strategies to improve awareness, screening, treatment, and management of hypertension are required in Saudi Arabia.
... Task shifting and task sharing allow tasks to be shifted from highly trained healthcare workers (HCWs) to HCWs with less training and qualifications, respectively, and jobs to be shared with an equally competent cadre of HCWs. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this enables for more efficient use of limited human resources working in overcrowded health systems (6) . ...
... Hipertensi merupakan kondisi peningkatan tekanan darah secara terus-menerus hingga mencapai batas normal (>140/90 mmHg) [4] . Hipertensi termasuk dalam penyakit tidak menular yang disebabkan oleh gaya hidup, sosial ekonomi dan modernisasi [5]. ...
Article
Informasi yang kurang dan rendahnya pengetahuan mengenai hipertensi dapat menjadi salah satu penyebab hipertensi. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengatasi hal tersebut adalah penyuluhan mengenai hipertensi. Penyuluhan ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan kesadaran masyarakat mengenai alternatif pencegahan hipertensi. Penyuluhan dilakukan menggunakan metode ceramah, pembagian booklet, emo demo dengan 55 responden ibu PKKBD. Metode emo demo yang digunakan bertujuan agar informasi yang diberikan dapat lebih mempengaruhi emosi masyarakat. Emo demo yang diberikan berupa cara membuat sari tempe. Hasil penyuluhan menemukan adanya perbedaan signifikan skor pretest dan postest mengenai pengetahuan hipertensi setelah dilakukan penyuluhan menggunakan metode ceramah, pembagian booklet, dan emo demo. Hasil ini membuktikan bahwa penggunaan ketiga metode tersebut secara bersama - sama efektif dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan hipertensi. Ibu Kader yang mengikuti kegiatan juga ikut aktif dalam pelaksanaan kegiatan penyuluhan. Tim pengabdian masyarakat berharap agar pembuatan sari tempe melalui emo demo tersebut juga dapat disosialisasikan kembali oleh ibu PKKBD kepada masyarakat Desa Argorejo agar dapat diaplikasikan.
... The mean age in the present study was similar to that of a recent large-scale survey which reported that 52% of women have a mean age of 40 years 14 . In a study done among 179 female textile workers in Puducherry between 21 to 40 years, it was found that 39.1% were pre-obese and 12.8% were obese 22 . ...
Article
Aim of the Study: The present study aimed to determine the risk of prehypertension and hypertension and its association with certain occupational, sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 180 female cotton mill workers in the production sector of two cotton spinning mills in Central Travancore, Kerala. A questionnaire was framed to elicit information regarding occupational, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Blood pressure readings and anthropometric measurements like body height and weight were recorded. Results: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among the workers were found to be 30% and 7.22% respectively. It was observed that age and body mass index were statistically significant with prehypertension and hypertension (p<0.05) compared to the number of years of employment in the mills, education, annual family income and physical activity which were not statistically significant. Pearson’s correlation test revealed that age and body mass index were positively correlated with mean blood pressure. Conclusion: The present study observed a higher percentage of prehypertension among the workers. This stresses on the importance of early identification and control of more modifiable risk factors in the prevention and treatment of prehypertension and hypertension.
... Facts and figures about hypertension are lacking in the South Asian populace. 8 Results of the previous survey in Pakistan MMM17, revealed a 55.2% prevalence of hypertension among screenees with a mean age of 45.0 years. 9 Ishtiaq et al. 10 describes the increasing occurrence of hypertension in Pakistan and reported a prevalence of hypertension of 29.2%. ...
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High blood pressure (BP) is well recognized as a huge health problem worldwide and is often described as a silent killer. To develop awareness and screening of this health issue globally, the International Society of Hypertension created ‘May Measurement Month (MMM)’ a campaign to provide BP screening and advice to interested participants. This screening and awareness campaign in Pakistan is a continuation of the efforts of the first MMM programme in Pakistan in 2017. This study was conducted in May and June 2019. This public based cross-sectional study included and screened 6919 individuals of either gender and aged ≥18 years, after informed consent. Information about prior diagnosis and treatment of hypertension with history about comorbidities and life-style were taken by a standard pre-designed form. Participants also asked about previous participation in MMM 2017/18. Arterial BP was measured using the OMRON digital BP apparatus and three successive readings were taken. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensives. Participants had a mean age of 45.8 years and 47.1% had never had their BP checked. Of all those screened, 3601 (52.1%) participants had hypertension, of whom 56.2% were aware of their diagnosis, 49.5% were on antihypertensive medication and 19.8% had controlled BP (<140/90 mmHg). Of the 1783 participants on antihypertensive medication, 40.0% had controlled BP. In Pakistan, there are still low levels of awareness, counselling and screening about high BP. Further large-scale studies are required in this region to evaluate these problems and link them with potential solutions.
... The WHO reported prevalence of hypertension among adults in neighboring India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka as 24, 25, 26, and 24%, respectively [28]. A study in three large cities of South Asia also found similar prevalence rate [29]. Another study estimated trends of raised blood pressure from 1975 to 2015 for 200 countries and found that in 2015, 1·13 billion adults were with raised blood pressure, out of which 258 million (23%) lived in south Asia [30]. ...
IntroductionHypertension is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially in South Asian countries including Bangladesh.AimThis study aimed to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and inequality of hypertension in Bangladesh.Methods This study analyzed the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data from 2017–2018. A total of 12,863 people aged 18 years and above were included in this study. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to observe the effects of different factors and reported as adjusted ORs (AORs) with 95% CIs. Concentration index and concentration curve were used to measure the inequality in the distribution of hypertension among people with varying socio-economic status.ResultsThis study found that the prevalence of hypertension was 27.43% while this rate was 28.43% among females and 26.11% among males. The prevalence was the highest (49.26%) among those from the highest age group and among individuals who belonged to the richest households (p < 0.001). The concentration index for hypertension was 0.07. Our study suggests that the risk of having hypertension was higher among respondents who were female, elderly, were overweight or obese; had diabetes; or were from Barisal and Rangpur divisions.Conclusion Our study showed that more than one quarter of respondents had hypertension. Early diagnosis and proper management of the risk factors for hypertension are crucial to halt this emerging public health problem. A joint effort involving public, private, and non-governmental organizations is necessary to tackle the burden of hypertension faced by Bangladesh and similar developing countries in South Asia.
... As of March 11, 2021 more than 11 million people in India had been infected with COVID-19, and about 158, 000 had died [6]. The spread of COVID-19 in India is of great concern due to the country's large and densely populated areas with widespread poverty and high migration rates, coupled with a high prevalence of chronic conditions [17][18][19] that are generally poorly controlled [20][21][22]. Further, the progression of COVID-19 from urban to rural areas, the strict lockdown measures, and the associated economic shocks are likely to impede efforts to address other health scourges in India such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. ...
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Background People with chronic conditions are disproportionately prone to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic but there are limited data documenting this. We aimed to assess the health, psychosocial and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with chronic conditions in India. Methods Between July 29, to September 12, 2020, we telephonically surveyed adults ( n = 2335) with chronic conditions across four sites in India. Data on participants’ demographic, socio-economic status, comorbidities, access to health care, treatment satisfaction, self-care behaviors, employment, and income were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the factors associated with difficulty in accessing medicines and worsening of diabetes or hypertension symptoms. Further, a diverse sample of 40 participants completed qualitative interviews that focused on eliciting patient’s experiences during the COVID-19 lockdowns and data analyzed using thematic analysis. Results One thousand seven hundred thirty-four individuals completed the survey (response rate = 74%). The mean (SD) age of respondents was 57.8 years (11.3) and 50% were men. During the COVID-19 lockdowns in India, 83% of participants reported difficulty in accessing healthcare, 17% faced difficulties in accessing medicines, 59% reported loss of income, 38% lost jobs, and 28% reduced fruit and vegetable consumption. In the final-adjusted regression model, rural residence (OR, 95%CI: 4.01,2.90–5.53), having diabetes (2.42, 1.81–3.25) and hypertension (1.70,1.27–2.27), and loss of income (2.30,1.62–3.26) were significantly associated with difficulty in accessing medicines. Further, difficulties in accessing medicines (3.67,2.52–5.35), and job loss (1.90,1.25–2.89) were associated with worsening of diabetes or hypertension symptoms. Qualitative data suggest most participants experienced psychosocial distress due to loss of job or income and had difficulties in accessing in-patient services. Conclusion People with chronic conditions, particularly among poor, rural, and marginalized populations, have experienced difficulties in accessing healthcare and been severely affected both socially and financially by the COVID-19 pandemic.
... It is speculated that this result occurred because older patients accounted for a larger proportion of the subjects, and studies have shown that the prevalence of hypertension increases with age. 20 Furthermore, in the cohort study, the fracture site was found to be an independent risk factor for DVT in lower extremities after fracture, and the incidence of DVT in patients with peri-hip fractures was 6.32%. Peri-hip fractures are more common in older patients, and many patients with these fractures choose arthroplasty surgery; this is one of the reasons for the high incidence of DVT following peri-hip fractures. ...
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Objective: The objective of this work is to discuss and analyze the related factors of lower extremity fracture complicated by preoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: A total of 11,891 patients with closed fractures of lower extremities were selected. By analyzing each patient's gender, age, presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension, preoperative plasma D-dimer level, and color Doppler ultrasound of the lower extremity vein, the pertinent factors of the patients with lower extremity fractures complicated by preoperative DVT were analyzed. Results: A total of 578 with preoperative DVT were detected, displaying a total incidence of 4.86%. All patients were categorized into either the DVT group or non-DVT group. The results demonstrate that there were statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in age, the presence of diabetes and hypertension, the fracture site, and the preoperative plasma D-dimer level (P < 0.05). Logistic multivariate analysis revealed that age, the presence of diabetes, and the preoperative plasma D-dimer level of patients were independent risk factors for lower extremity fracture complicated by DVT. Conclusion: Age, the presence of diabetes, the fracture site, and increased D-dimer levels were found to be potential risk factors and indicators for preoperative DVT in patients with lower extremity fractures. In addition, the preoperative plasma D-dimer level has certain guiding significance for the prediction of venous thrombosis after lower extremity fracture, which is conducive to the early prediction and diagnosis of DVT, but it often must be followed with good clinic acumen and examinations.
... In subsequent years, cases were quantified on the basis of an estimated hypertension incidence rate of 8·26%, assuming an annual national population growth of 1·0% in Bangladesh, 2·0% in Pakistan, and 1·1% in Sri Lanka. 17,18 Additional details of our cost estimation approach, including the source data and assumptions used to generate the cost estimates, are presented in the appendix (pp 5, 6). ...
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Background COBRA-BPS (Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation-Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), a multi-component hypertension management programme that is led by community health workers, has been shown to be efficacious at reducing systolic blood pressure in rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In this study, we aimed to assess the budget required to scale up the programme and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Methods In a cluster-randomised trial of COBRA-BPS, individuals aged 40 years or older with hypertension who lived in 30 rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka were deemed eligible for inclusion. Costs were quantified prospectively at baseline and during 2 years of the trial. All costs, including labour, rental, materials and supplies, and contracted services were recorded, stratified by programme activity. Incremental costs of scaling up COBRA-BPS to all eligible adults in areas covered by community health workers were estimated from the health ministry (public payer) perspective. Findings Between April 1, 2016, and Feb 28, 2017, 11 510 individuals were screened and 2645 were enrolled and included in the study. Participants were examined between May 8, 2016, and March 31, 2019. The first-year per-participant costs for COBRA-BPS were US$10·65 for Bangladesh, $10·25 for Pakistan, and $6·42 for Sri Lanka. Per-capita costs were $0·63 for Bangladesh, $0·29 for Pakistan, and $1·03 for Sri Lanka. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $3430 for Bangladesh, $2270 for Pakistan, and $4080 for Sri Lanka, per cardiovascular disability-adjusted life year averted, which showed COBRA-BPS to be cost-effective in all three countries relative to the WHO-CHOICE threshold of three times gross domestic product per capita in each country. Using this threshold, the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves predicted that the probability of COBRA-BPS being cost-effective is 79·3% in Bangladesh, 85·2% in Pakistan, and 99·8% in Sri Lanka. Interpretation The low cost of scale-up and the cost-effectiveness of COBRA-BPS suggest that this programme is a viable strategy for responding to the growing cardiovascular disease epidemic in rural communities in low-income and middle-income countries where community health workers are present, and that it should qualify as a priority intervention across rural settings in south Asia and in other countries with similar demographics and health systems to those examined in this study. Funding The UK Department of Health and Social Care, the UK Department for International Development, the Global Challenges Research Fund, the UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust.
... In addition, the prevalence of prehypertension was also assessed among the study population. Though pre-hypertension has not been recognized as a separate category of BP, it has been demonstrated to be an important risk factor for developing hypertension in the future in many studies 10 . ...
... Men exhibited higher prevalence of hypertension than women in our study which was 10 ; young adults in our study may be at increased risk for developing hypertension in the near future. Similar results were noted in a few other studies 20,29 indicating that lifestyle diseases such as hypertension are no longer limited to elderly population. ...
... Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) by age, gender and blood pressure categories SD, standard deviation; BP, blood pressure; HTN, hypertension in accordance with most epidemiological studies of hypertension3,5,7,10,14,20,24,25,28 . Age was found to be the most important risk factor for hypertension with the mean systolic and diastolic BPs showing linear increase with advancing age in both sexes. ...
Article
Background & objectives: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing among all ethnic groups across the globe with only a handful of studies from India addressing the prevalence of hypertension among tribal population. In view of paucity of data, this study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among tribal population of Kashmir, India. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 6808 tribals aged >20 yr (5695 Gujjars and 1113 Bakarwals) from five randomly selected districts of Kashmir. Modified WHO-STEPS surveillance questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Hypertension was defined by Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension (JNC 8) criteria. Results: The mean age of our study participants was 43.12 ± 15.69 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 41.4% (39.9-42.9%) [men=46.7% (44.1-49.1%); women=37.9% (35.9-39.9%)]. The prevalence of prehypertension (95% CI) in our study was 35 per cent (33.7-36.6%). Higher age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI): >70 yr-2.2 (1.9-2.4)], passive smoking [OR-1.3 (1.1-1.5)], family history of hypertension [OR-1.6 (1.4-1.7)] and obesity [OR-1.3 (1.1-1.6)] were significantly associated with hypertension. A weak positive correlation was observed between BP (systolic/diastolic) with haemoglobin, red blood cell count and haematocrit (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Gujjar and Bakarwal tribes of Jammu and Kashmir showed high prevalence of hypertension. Hence, urgent policies and reforms are needed to tackle this silent epidemic and further studies focusing on community-based interventions are required.