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Immune response of the host to coronavirus infection [4, 32-34].

Immune response of the host to coronavirus infection [4, 32-34].

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The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has thus far killed over 3,000 people and infected over 80,000 in China and elsewhere in the world, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Similar to its homologous virus, SARS-CoV, which caused SARS in thousands of peop...

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... entire human population generally lacks immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and hence is susceptible to the novel virus. Currently, no detailed study has been reported regarding the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we can only refer to previous studies on other CoVs, especially SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Fig. 4). In general, after a virus invades the host, it is first recognized by the host innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including C-type lectin-like receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR), NOD-like receptor (NLR), and RIG-Ilike receptor (RLR) [28]. Through different pathways, the virus induces the expression of ...
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... entire human population generally lacks immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and hence is susceptible to the novel virus. Currently, no detailed study has been reported regarding the immunological response to SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we can only refer to previous studies on other CoVs, especially SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Fig. 4). In general, after a virus invades the host, it is first recognized by the host innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including C-type lectin-like receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR), NOD-like receptor (NLR), and RIG-Ilike receptor (RLR) [28]. Through different pathways, the virus induces the expression of ...

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... The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a massive impact worldwide over the past two years, with over 620,000,000 infections and over 6,500,000 deaths as of October 2022 [1]. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in renal replacement therapy, such as renal transplantation, peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis, are a population with higher infection rates and adverse outcomes, including hospitalizations, requirements of mechanical ventilation and deaths, compared to the general population [2][3][4][5]. ...
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... The novel coronavirus (n-CoV) pandemic brought about a dramatic change worldwide within a quite short period. 1 Emerging from the city of Wuhan, China, this deadly disease has transformed into an extraordinary disaster toward global health, economy, and geopolitical scenario. 2 It is for the third time that the coronavirus family resulted in a pandemic, following Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 3 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. ...
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... After internalization of virus by host cells, the subsequent clinical manifestations of infection include a spectrum of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (1,5). As a first line of defense against the virus, viral particles are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) by the host innate immune system including toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are expressed on immune cells and nonimmune cells, including airway and lung epithelial cells (6,7). ...
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Background: Signaling by toll like receptors (TLRs) initiates important immune responses against viral infection. The role of TLRs in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is not well elucidated. Thus, we investigated the interaction of TLRs agonists and SARS-COV-2 antigens with immune cells in vitro. Material & methods: 30 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (15 severe and 15 moderate) and 10 age and sex matched control (HC) were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and activated with TLR3, 7, 8 and 9 agonists, the spike protein (SP) of SARS-CoV-2 and the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) unit of SP. Frequencies of CD3+IFN-β+ T cells, and CD3+IFN-g+ T cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Interferon (IFN)-b gene expression was assessed by qRT-PCR. Results: The frequency of CD3+IFN-β+ T cells was higher in moderate and severe patients at baseline in comparison with HCs. Stimulation of PBMCs from moderate patients with SP and TLR8 agonist significantly upregulated the frequency of CD3+IFN-β+ T cells (P=0.0005 and 0.0024, respectively) when compared to non-stimulated (NS) samples. The greatest increase in CD3+IFN-b+ T cell frequency in PBMCs from severe patients was seen with TLR8 and TLR7 agonists when compared to NS (P= 0.003 and 0.0167, respectively). TLR stimulation did not significantly enhance the frequency of CD3+IFN-g+ T cells generated from PBMCs from moderate and severe patients compared with unstimulated controls. However, the frequency of CD3+IFN-ɣ+ T cells in PBMCs from moderate patients was upregulated by agonists of TLR3, 8 and 9, SP and RBD when compared with NS samples from HCs. The expression of the IFN-β gene after stimulation of CD3+T cells with the TLR8 agonist was also up-regulated in moderate than severe patients (moderate vs. severe: p=0.0006). In addition, stimulation of CD3+ T cells with SP, up-regulated the expression of IFN-β gene expression in cells from patients with moderate disease (moderate vs. severe: p=0.01). Conclusion: Stimulation of PBMCs from COVID-19 patients with a TLR8 agonist and with SP enhanced IFN-b protein and gene levels. This may potentiate immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection and prevent viral replication and spread.
... This occurrence, COVID-19, has exacerbated the widening gaps between those with and without in recent years. COVID-19 has worsened disparities between populations within nations (like low-income and marginalized groups) and between nations [74]. Many individuals will lack the resources essential to remain resilient in the face of this career setback. ...
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... Fortunately, these seem to be reparable in primary school children. Our findings, in addition to other studies of the effects of specific COVID-19 mitigation measures [44][45][46][47], provide a basis for policymakers to target and mandate future virus-related mitigation measures in an evidence-based manner. ...
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Background: Previous studies have shown that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation measures lead to reductions in health status and health-related fitness in children, whereas no data are currently available on the development of children after the removal of these mitigation measures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influence of different stringent measures, during and after COVID-19, on the longitudinal development of fitness and health status of primary school children. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of 331 primary school children in Austria aged 7.7 (SD-0.4) years at the start of the observation period was conducted. Before (Sept 2019), and during (June 2020, Sept 2020) and after (March 2021, June 2021, Sept 2021, and June 2022) the COVID-19 mitigation measures, fitness tests were carried out and anthropometric data of the children were collected. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDSs) were calculated for seven individual fitness tests of the AUT FIT [1] test battery, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. In addition, children were classified into different fitness categories based on the AUT FIT summary score. Results: After the implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures, cardiorespiratory fitness and action speed decreased dramatically, and the number of children with overweight or obesity increased. At the last measurement after the COVID-19 mitigation measures (June 2022), significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status were observed . However, pre-COVID fitness levels were not achieved and BMI was still higher compared to Sept 2019. Interpretation: Our study showed a trend reversal, in that the negative indirect effects of the COVID-19 measures on fitness and health parameters of children were followed by significant improvements in these parameters after the removal of those mitigation measures. At the end of the observation period, a positive trend in the development of fitness and health status was observed, although pre-COVID levels were not reached. Collaborative efforts are needed to reinforce the observed positive trend, and to continue to improve the level of fitness and health status of primary school children, and to mitigate the long-term negative health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Funding: Austrian Federal Ministry of Arts, Culture, Public Service and Sports (GZ2021-0.361.671).
... This occurrence, COVID-19, has exacerbated the widening gaps between those with and without in recent years. COVID-19 has worsened disparities between populations within nations (like low-income and marginalized groups) and between nations [74]. Many individuals will lack the resources essential to remain resilient in the face of this career setback. ...
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Full-text available
This chapter focuses on the exclusive and social experiences of people in post-COVID-19 life. As it can be observed from the current scenario how people have already accepted COVID-19 as a part of their daily routine. That is from wearing masks to using hand sanitizers and other precautionary activities. Based on these observable changes and adaptation of habits, the current chapter will delve into the psychological causes based on various theoretical concepts and the present literature on how humans use varied mechanisms to adapt to aversive situations and emerge by transforming themselves to be more resilient than before. Likewise, the chapter will also focus on individual and social strategies that can be employed to further strengthen the resilience of people post COVID-19.
... In Sweden, the first wave lasted between March 19 to July 25, 2020 [3]. The wide range of somatic symptoms associated with the virus [4] resulted in uncertainty about whether individuals were infected [5]. Since the virus is transmitted through social contacts [6], measures were introduced to increase social distancing [7]. ...
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Objective The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students' own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion. Results Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with student’s self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students’ self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity. To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students’ self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.