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10 Image of an electrophoretic run in a 2% agarose gel of CHD1 gene on W and Z of F. biarmicus feldeggii (© and courtesy of A. Brogna).

10 Image of an electrophoretic run in a 2% agarose gel of CHD1 gene on W and Z of F. biarmicus feldeggii (© and courtesy of A. Brogna).

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... the subterranean animal necropolis at Tuna el-Gebel (Middle Egypt), an initial survey revealed at least 3,744 birds, mainly Sacred and Glossy ibises Plegadis falcinellus but also twenty Lanner falcons (Table 1.4;Driesch et al. 2006). Different kind of jars were filled with bones of individual birds heavily soaked with turpentine, and with mummies shaped in the form of a falcon-headed god (Figure 1.4; Osiris-HorusFalcon; Driesch et al. 2006). Major raptor assemblages were found near the entrances of the Ptolemaic decorated baboon chamber (C-4, chapel of Thot) and chamber B-A 22/24 (chamber of Teephibis; Table 1.4; Driesch et al. 2006). ...
Context 2
... both molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies support an early split among Paleognathae (ratites and tinamous) and Neognathae (all other birds) and a second, later split that formed Galloanserae (chickens, ducks) and Neoaves (the majority of birds) from neognaths ( Hackett et al. 2008, McCormack et al. 2013). McCormack et al. (2013) using sequence data from ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) of loci for 32 members of Neoaves, defined monophyletic waterbird (Aequornithes) and landbird clades that diverge deep in the Neoaves phylogeny ( Figure FIGuRE 1. 5 Relationships between passerines and parrots with falcons as sister group (A) and among genera of Falconidae (Hackett et al. 2008, Suh et al. 2011, McCormack et al. 2013, Yuri et al. 2013, Li et al. 2014). ...
Context 3
... Previously, Hackett et al. (2008) found a unexpected close relationship between passerines and parrots with the Falconidae as a sister to this clade (Figure 1.5 A, B). ...
Context 4
... Suh et al. (2011) supported the sister group relationship between passerines and parrots (Psittacopasserae) and their mutual affinity to falcons (Eufalconimorphae) using rare genomic changes encoded in retroposons (Figure 1.5 A). In addition, phylogenetic trees from 1541 locus analysis provided strong support for the absence of a sister relationship between raptorial birds in the Accipitridae and Falconidae families (McCormack et al. 2012). ...
Context 5
... addition, phylogenetic trees from 1541 locus analysis provided strong support for the absence of a sister relationship between raptorial birds in the Accipitridae and Falconidae families (McCormack et al. 2012). Thus, Falconidae are not members of the Accipitriformes and in contrast to ancient authors, Linneaus and traditional systematic definition (grouping organisms by their similarities in appearance and structure) as well as DNA-DNA hybridization, falcons become more closely related to parrots rather than hawks ( Figure 1.5 A; Ahlquist 1990, Livezey andZusi 2007). As consequence, the AOU check-list of the Birds of North America and the IOC World Bird List included raptor families Cathartidae, Accipitridae, Sagittariidae, and Pandiondae in the Order Accipitriformes with the Falconidae separated as the Order Falconiformes (Chesser et al. 2012, Gill andDonsker 2013). ...
Context 6
... feldeggii of the Balkans, Greece, Montenegro, Albania, Bulgaria, Herzegovina and S. Italy (Latium, Calabria, Apulia and Sicily), erlangeri of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya and southern Spain, tanypterus of Egypt, 'Nubia' and Arabia, abyssinicus of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Togo and biarmicus of South Africa, Angola and limited areas of East Africa (Hartert 1912(Hartert , 1915. One of the first comprehensive distribution maps for the Lanner falcon was made by Simon (1965) in which he spatially separates four races along the Palearctic ecozone and West and East Africa (Figure 1.6). ...
Context 7
... the other subspecies, no real doubt has ever been cast on the separation of biarmicus from other races purely on the basis of morphological features, particularly the unspotted abdomen and flanks (Layard and Sharpe 1875, Bree 1895, Whitaker 1905, Martorelli 1911, Langford 1912. A synonymous species name that was frequently used was F. cervicalis (Figure 1.7; Bree 1895). The syntype is an adult male from Cape region of South Africa preserved as a mounted skin at the RMNH (Tem- minck 1820-1839, Hoek Ostende et al. 1997). ...
Context 8
... analysis of mitochondrial mtDNA sequences revealed two main clades among Lanner subspecies which showed that the subspecies are not randomly distributed (Nittinger et al. 2005). Clade A comprises biarmicus, erlangeri, feldeggii, tanypterus races whereas in clade B only biarmicus and abyssinicus occur (Figure 1.9). Afro-tropical representatives form a separate cluster except for one individual from East Africa, whereas Palearctic individuals are apparently dispersed (Nittinger et al. 2007). ...
Context 9
... fact, twenty different haplotypes occurred (n = 29 individuals) and most of them form the centre of the maximum parsimony network of control region (represented entirely by biarmicus sp.), fifteen possess a private haplotype (locus MsFp01: alleles 152 and 156) and those of abyssinicus are derivatives of the centre (Nittinger et al. 2005). Thus, (a) nominate biarmicus is the only race belonging to both groups, (b) overall abyssinicus is directly derived from biarmicus, (c) Ethiopian (E Africa) abyssinicus specimens share the same haplotype (H-46) separated by a single substitution with the individual from Cameroon (E Africa; Figures s1 and s2), (d) the specimen from Uganda is clearly separated from the main cluster, and (e) current contacts among erlangeri and abyssinicus in West Africa (Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Chad) and tanypterus and abyssinicus (South Sudan and Yemen) occurred after this process of differentiation. ...
Context 10
... analysis of variation of nuclear microsatellites also identified two macro geographic areas for the Lanner groups, one comprising F. b. biarmicus and F. b. abyssinicus from South and East Africa (SEA, n = 25), and the other containing the remaining three subspecies (F. b. erlangeri, F. b. tanypterus, and F. b. feldeggii) from the Mediterranean region (MED, n = 8; Figure 1.9) (Nittinger et al. 2007). ...
Context 11
... summary, the Lanner falcon possesses private microsatellite alleles and the South African population forms two compact branches in the NJ tree, while the Mediterranean individuals are distributed in other branches of the tree (Nittinger et al. 2007). As expected from Figure 1.9, the Sahara desert played a fundamental role in this process of diversification through the geographical separation of the main group (A and B; Figure 1.9) (Guillaumet et al. 2008, Gonçalves et al. 2012, Korrida and Schweizer 2013. Section 3.5 integrate these phylogenetic results with fossil evidence (cf. ...
Context 12
... summary, the Lanner falcon possesses private microsatellite alleles and the South African population forms two compact branches in the NJ tree, while the Mediterranean individuals are distributed in other branches of the tree (Nittinger et al. 2007). As expected from Figure 1.9, the Sahara desert played a fundamental role in this process of diversification through the geographical separation of the main group (A and B; Figure 1.9) (Guillaumet et al. 2008, Gonçalves et al. 2012, Korrida and Schweizer 2013. ...
Context 13
... sexing method based on intronic length polymorphism gave for the gene CHD1W a 370 bps amplified product, while a 174 bps fragment was obtained for CHD1Z. Female Lanner falcons shows both amplified products, while males show only a 174 bps fragment (Brogna et al. 2005; Figure 1.10). ...
Context 14
... the UK as well as in Germany and Austria, a high number of captive Lanner falcons and Lanner-like hybrids were observed or recorded as having escaped into the wild (10% of escapes in UK from 1986 to 1994; Fleming et al. 2011). Captive hybrids produced by artificial insemination have similarly low failure rates when compared with pure-bred captive birds (Figure 1.11; Cade et al. 1977, Heidenreich et al. 1993. ...
Context 15
... 2012, a mixed pair was observed nesting in the Edinburgh area. A local female Peregrine mated with a male falcon (wearing jesses) with a plumage pattern very close as plumage patter very close to a pure Lanner falcon (Figure 1.12; F. Germi pers. comm.) and the pair proved productive over the subsequent two years producing five young in total. ...
Context 16
... crista lateralis of the humerus is stronger and larger than that of the Saker but the length/width index values clearly separate the Lanner from other Hierofalcons (Figure 2.3; Solti 1981b). The radius is wider than that of the Saker and the width of distal epiphyse and the degree of curved part of the bone are also larger (Solti 1981b). ...
Context 17
... chick is covered in white down washed with a pale pink-brown, the skin is pink, and the eyelids pale blue-grey. The culmen is pink, the legs pale orange and the claws light grey (Figure 2.18 A, Figure s11; Kemp 1975). At four days old, the bill becomes grey around the tooth, the skin of the abdomen and anus turns orange and the eyes turn brown (Kemp 1975). ...
Context 18
... eight days, the second down is apparent on the abdomen, thighs, wings and back whereas dark areas are apparent on the mantle and scapulars (Kemp 1975). The bill turns grey, the legs blue-grey and the toes dull yellow (Kemp 1975) Figure s12; Kemp 1975). The breast is completely covered at 28 days old and at 35 days the nestling is well feathered but with short tail and wing feathers with some down still adhering to the feather tips ( Figure 2.18 B, Figure s16; Kemp 1975). ...
Context 19
... addition, juveniles show distinct pale spotting to the underwing coverts (Forsman 1999). Liversidge (1989) (Figures s14-s18) but Finch-Davies (1920) reported a juvenile F. b. biarmicus sp. with upperparts barred with whitish bars. The crown is buffy to dark brown (F. ...
Context 20
... tail is dark brown with numerous incomplete rufous-buff bands with the central pair if feathers often less banded (Figure s17) or generally unbanded (Clark 1999, Chiavetta 1992; Figure s14); the tips of tail feathers show a pale terminal band (Figures s14, s17; Clark 1999, Corso 2000. Adults also have this pale band but it is much narrower and therefore not so visible in flight (s1; Corso 2000). ...
Context 21
... and eye-ring remain blue-grey for longer than the legs (Chiavetta 1992, Corso 2000; s13, s14, s16, s17, s18) which turned yellow earlier. Corso (2000) noted that legs become yellowish-grey in summer of the first calendar year and dull yellow around October to December, along with the cere (see Figure s15). ...
Context 22
... (1952) noted that some eggs could also be marked with small blotches so that a pinky-cream colour is apparent, more so at the small ends. Intra-clutch variability, in terms of spottiness and background colour, has also been observed in broods of F. b. tanypterus, F. b. feldeggii and F. variability, in terms of spottiness and background colour, has also been observed in broods of F. b. tanypterus, F. b. feldeggii and F. b. biarmicus (Figure s19; Tarboton and Allan 1984, Goodman and Haynes 1989. As expected, different degrees of variability have been reported in the published literature. ...
Context 23
... several authors distinguish brighter and clearer F. b. biarmicus and F. b. tanypterus eggs from those of the Peregrine falcon (Figure s19; Warthausen 1860, Col- tard 1952, Schönwetter 1960. Warthausen (1860) considered the eggs of the Lanner falcon to be equal in size to those of the Peregrine, but found a difference in structure between the two, with pores in the eggs of the Peregrine less oblong and rather infundibulifor, while those of the Lanner are more distinctly marked and serrated (Figure 2.28). ...
Context 24
... egg shape (the ratio of breadth:length) is thought to derive from pressures exerted in the oviduct, without which an elliptical egg would be formed (Troscianko 2014). The mean shape and the coefficient of variation of F. b. feldeggii (0.79 ± 0.02 -3.2%), F. b. erlangeri (0.79 ± 0.01 -1.3%), F. b. tanypterus (0.76 ± 0.03 -3.9%), F. b. abyssinicus (0.78 ± 0.02 -3.1%), F. b. biarmicus (0.79 ± 0.02 -2.5%) eggs show a low variability (Figure 2.31). Thus eggs show a low variation in shape, and they are all relatively elongated (0.76 -0.79) with a small average coefficient of variation of 2.8%. ...
Context 25
... main aim was to construct a framework where data and inferences from various sources including genetics (cf. Figure 1.12), fossils (cf. Figure 1.3), morphology (cf. ...
Context 26
... main aim was to construct a framework where data and inferences from various sources including genetics (cf. Figure 1.12), fossils (cf. Figure 1.3), morphology (cf. 2.26), and distribution (this chapter) could be combined to contribute to a better understanding of the current status. ...
Context 27
... warmer periods of the Pleistocene three independent colonizations of Eurasia occurred (corresponding to three genetic clusters) and in the course of subsequent colder climactic periods the three Hierofalcon species remained isolated in refuge areas (Nittinger et al. 2005). Following the study made by Nittinger et al. (2005), using Neighbour-Joining (NJ) tree and maximum parsimony network of control region (CR) techniques, the first north-south split occurred between F. b. biarmicus and F. b. feldeggii (corresponding to the two main haploclades A and B; see Figure 1.12). F. b. biarmicus reached East Africa (Uganda) and an east-west split also occurred with F. b. feldeggii (that reached as far as southern and central Italy) directly linked with F. b. erlangeri of Morocco and F. jugger of the Indian continent (Figure 3.2). ...
Context 28
... et al. (2005) indentified three main haplotypes where the first (I) included only F. b. biarmicus individuals, thus supporting a Southern African origin for all of the races (Figure 3.2). In fact, F. b. biarmicus is the sole race that should be included in A (Mediterranean) and B (Afrotropical) haploclades (Figure 1.12). Considering the Lanner falcon as a unique species (n = 6255), the predictive distributional model map confirms a wide core area in Southern Africa and a clear favourable pathway along the African Rift Valley (Figure s31). ...
Context 29
... fact, F. b. biarmicus is the sole race that should be included in A (Mediterranean) and B (Afrotropical) haploclades (Figure 1.12). Considering the Lanner falcon as a unique species (n = 6255), the predictive distributional model map confirms a wide core area in Southern Africa and a clear favourable pathway along the African Rift Valley (Figure s31). In the Palearctic, small suitable zones for colonization can be found in Israel, along the border between Syria and Turkey, in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, and in the Tripoli province of Libya (Figure s31). ...
Context 30
... the Lanner falcon as a unique species (n = 6255), the predictive distributional model map confirms a wide core area in Southern Africa and a clear favourable pathway along the African Rift Valley (Figure s31). In the Palearctic, small suitable zones for colonization can be found in Israel, along the border between Syria and Turkey, in the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, and in the Tripoli province of Libya (Figure s31). ...
Context 31
... intra-specific radiations appear to have occurred within the past 200-300,000 years, corresponding to the last two or three major Pleistocene glaciations (Guillaumet et al. 2008). During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period, the Lanner falcon probably occupied the more suitable areas of the south western refugia (Figure s21, Ray andAdams 2001, López-López et al. 2008). These areas of southern Italy, Sicily, the southern Balkans, and coastal Turkey were covered by a predominantly grassland landscape with an overall 5-20% of tree cover, often occurring in patches ( Figure s22 A; Ray and Adams 2001). ...
Context 32
... the north, the vegetation turned to a harsh steppe-tundra that represented the main distribution pathway for large falcons allowing the differentiation between the Gyrfalcon and the Saker falcon (c.f. 1.2 and Figure 1.3). Most probably, the colonization of Northern Italy and coastal northern Balkans began after the retreat of the ice-sheet (Figure s22 A). ...
Context 33
... possible scenario for the Lanner falcon seems to be similar for a number of European raptor and owl species structured in meta-communities delimited by the suture zones of Eastern and Western refugia (i.e. Pyrenean and Balkanic suture zones; Figure s21; López-López et al. 2008). ...
Context 34
... large number of islands and islets are also used by breeding pairs of Lanner falcons or are reached by wandering individuals (Table 3.4). The Lanner falcon is frequently observed as being present or nesting in the western Mediterranean islands, which is in keeping with the refugia theory (Figure s21, Table 3.4). Conversely, sightings are much scarcer with regard to islands in the eastern Mediterranean (the Balearic islands for example) or Macaronesia (such as the Canary and Cape Verde islands) (Figure s21, Table 3.4). ...
Context 35
... Lanner falcon is frequently observed as being present or nesting in the western Mediterranean islands, which is in keeping with the refugia theory (Figure s21, Table 3.4). Conversely, sightings are much scarcer with regard to islands in the eastern Mediterranean (the Balearic islands for example) or Macaronesia (such as the Canary and Cape Verde islands) (Figure s21, Table 3.4). A recent review by Donázar et al. (2005), points out that the probability of presence on an island increases in proportion to island area and with proximity to a migration route. ...
Context 36
... a partially migratory species such as the Lanner falcon is more prone to maintaining populations on islands than wholly migratory or sedentary species (Donázar et al. 2005). In this way, large islands located close to a nearby mainland are very suitable for colonisation, an example being Sicily which holds the largest Mediterranean population of the Lanner falcon (Figure s21, Table 3.4). In these cases, the water bodies may act as a semi-permeable barrier, creating a metapopulation structure for species such as the Lanner falcon that may result in lower probabilities of the colonization of appropriate habitats and lands beyond the barrier (Donázar et al. 2005 ...
Context 37
... observed during seasonal movements in the Messina Strait or across the Adriatic sea (see Chapter 8). Unfortunately, there are no fossil records of the Lanner falcon in Italy but only Gyr-and Saker falcons in southern regions (Figure 1.3; Bedetti and Pavia 2007). In addition, individual Saker falcons from Hungary seem to regularly over-winter in Sicily where they shift their diet to insects and birds Harris 2012, Bondì et al. 2014). ...
Context 38
... shows a significant difference among races (p < 0.05; Dunn's Method) except for F. b. feldeggii and F. b. biarmicus (Q = 2.214). A high precipitation regime characterizes several territories of F. b. abyssinicus that could have an influence on plumage patterns as well being related to temperature (Figure 3.5 and Figure 1.16). The seasonality of precipitation was significantly different among all races (p < 0.05; Dunn's Method). ...
Context 39
... Nigeria, the species has been observed on steep rocky hills, over open savannah, and also in more urban areas (Hartert 1912, Elgood 1982. In Senegal, the Lanner falcon can be found on rocky cliffs surrounded by savannah with patches of grass and shrubs, and semi-deciduous forest in the foothills (Figure s31). In the Central African Republic, habitat preferences are for Terminalia laxifolia savannah woodland, forest, and mixed lowland savannah woodland (Carroll 1988). ...
Context 40
... one case, a male was seen to carry food 4.4 kilometres to feed the female near the future nest site (Kemp 1993). Copulation occurs near the nest site, either on the topmost branches of a tree or on a cliff ledge, and is recorded as having occurred even after the clutch has been laid (Figure 5.1; Dalling 1975, Sinclair andWalters 1976). Copulation was observed at Urmia Lake in Iran in mid-March (F. ...
Context 41
... mutual bowing which preceded copulation was initiated by either bird and mounting usually lasted less than ten seconds, during which time both birds vocalised (Figure s36; Snelling 1973). The male balled up his feet prior to mounting and the female kept her head down and her tail cocked to the left (Figure 5.1; Snelling 1973). Overall, Lanner falcons are more subdued and less conspicuous in their mating displays when compared to the vigorous and loud displays of species such as the Gyrfalcon where males perform such elaborate behaviours as the curve-neck display (Wrege and Cade 1977). ...
Context 42
... fact, foot-span measurements of chicks older than twenty days show significant differences with the values for males averaging about 69 mm (69.1 ± 4.1; n = 7) and females around 76 mm (76.4 ± 4.4; n = 20; Stephenson 2001). Sex can also be made using DNA extraction from the CHD1 gene which is more reliable and accurate than morphological features (Figure 1.13; Brogna et al. 2005). ...
Context 43
... Tuscany, 27% of the prey that was delivered directly into the nest was mostly passed by males to females (73%) at favoured perching sites which were located on rock ledges and trees, although occasionally on bare ground (Figure s40; Pezzo et al. 1995). When chicks are 4-5 weeks old, the female feeds them at all times and the male is chased if he attempts to feed them (Figure 5.11; Kellow-Webb and Dingley 1972). If the male is delayed in returning with prey, the female may leave the nest and hunt herself, as has been observed in southern Africa, where a female left the nest and caught prey (such as domestic poultry) within five minutes (Barbour 1971). ...
Context 44
... central Harare when chicks were 2-3 weeks old, the female started leaving the nest for short periods and during the subsequent week was away from the nest for up to ninety minutes (Kellow-Webb and Dingley 1972). Nevertheless, on these occasions the male would always be either on the nest or on a nearby perch-site (Figure s41; Kellow-Webb and Dingley 1972). One nesting site in Campania which was successful for three consecutive years failed during the fourth season due to the female leaving the eggs too many times for the absence of the mate ( Mancuso and Gatto 2014). ...
Context 45
... males bring almost exclusively small items of prey such as small birds and mammals to the nest, while the female tends to bring larger prey items (Salvo 1984). Prey deliveries in Tuscany (average 1.5 per day; range 1-4) and average one prey item every two and a half hours (range 2-5 hours), mainly around mid-day and late afternoon (Figure 5.12; Pezzo et al. 1995). Nevertheless, a study with a large sample size demonstrates that the distribution of feeds does not differ significantly in relation to time of day (Jenkins 2000). ...
Context 46
... frequency of ground nesting is, however, low and can lead to reduced productivity, as in Morocco for example where egg deposition on bare soil is half of that found in sites in re-used nests (Bergier 1987). In the Western desert along the Egyptian-Sudanese border, nests were located on the ground due to the total absence of terrestrial predators (Figure s19; Goodman and Haynes 1992). Interestingly this site also revealed distraction behaviour in the Lanner falcon. ...
Context 47
... Africa, power lines provide the main roosting, nesting, and perching sites for territorial Lanner falcons (Figure s36; Kemp 1993). The use of pylons is similar to the use of old nest in trees but occurs with much less frequency where tree-nesting occurs (Kemp 1972). ...
Context 48
... four nesting sites recorded in Darb el Arba'in Desert in south-western Egypt, one was on the floor of a World War II truck and another one in an old British army camp (Figure 6.4; Goodman and Haynes 1992). Lanner falcons also used the side mirrors of the lorry and the empty petrol tins as favourite perches (Figure 6.1; Goodman and Haynes 1992). Other man-made structures can be used by the Lanner falcon and it has been recorded nesting at Oribi Airport in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal ( Byron and Downs 2002). ...
Context 49
... example, a nesting site in Sicily which was recorded as occupied in 1936, was subsequently recorded as being occupied in 1957 and also during the 1990s and 2000s (Orlando 1957, Mebs 1959. A nest site at the Roman aqueduct in Tunisia was re-occupied each year by pairs of F. b. erlangeri (Figure 3.1; Azafzaf 1999). A recent study made on a breeding population of Lanner falcons revealed a significant relationship between productivity and vocal activities, which may be an indirect measure of quality in male partners (Leonardi et Obs = obser- vations, Br = breeding (Raw et al. 1921, Kellow-Webb and Dingley 1972, Sinclair and Walters 1976, Irwin 1981, Ledant et al. 1981, Brown et al. 1982, Leonardi et al. 1992, Kemp 1993, Mundy and Hartley 2002, Carswell et al. 2005). ...
Context 50
... very arid environments Lanner falcons often take advantage of prey that use water holes for drinking by foraging around this type of site. Namaqua Sandgrouse Pterocles namaqua, Burchell's sandgrouse Pterocles burchelli, Speckled Rock Pigeon Columba guinea, Cape Turtle Dove Streptopelia capicola, Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis, and Namaqua Dove Oena capensis are the main prey species that are hunted in this way (Figure 7.1). These species come to water holes in order to drink and wet their feathers, which are typically brief acts that require no more than 10 to 15 seconds for completion after the water is reached (Cade 1965). ...
Context 51
... surprise attacks are often aimed at targets at ground level such as Waders and Columbiforms (Figure 7.1). In one such attack, the Lanner falcon slowly circled a small flock of Redshanks Tringa totanus. ...
Context 52
... Lanner falcon has a very wide distribution range and there are a number of limiting factors which lead to differences in local abundance across the different parts of this range. This is especially evident when comparing the Palearctic and Afrotropical distributions of the species (Figure s31). Considering the African origin of the species and the role of the Sahara desert as a natural barrier, populations in the Mediterranean and Middle East become more vulnerable to limiting factors due to the structures of these metapopulations. ...
Context 53
... rates and their consequent effect on recruitment also have an important role to play in the maintenance of a viable population. Although the Lanner falcon can live for as many as eighteen or twenty years in captivity, the mean life expectancy of wild birds is usually around five years (Figure 9.2; Bree 1859, Kemp 1993), although there is a record of a ringed bird in Zimbabwe which was recovered after more than 17 years ( Mundy and Hartley 2002). ...
Context 54
... persecution, and the collection of eggs and nestlings for falconry, appear to be the main threats to the species in the Middle East with, for example, more than one hundred individuals trapped annually on the Yemeni side of the Bab al Mandab straits (Shirihai et al. 2000). In September 2014, 142 large falcons (Lanner and Barbary falcons) were recovered by police and the Red Sea Protectorates from poachers on their way to Sharqiya (Figure 9.1). There remains an opportunistic trade in wildlife through the Sana'a's Nuqum animal suq in Yemen, where it is frequently possible to find Lanner falcons for sale (Stanton 2010). ...
Context 55
... Laggar falcon is the ecological counterpart and geographical replacement for the Lanner falcon in India (Naoroji 2006). In common with the Lanner, the Laggar falcon prefers arid to semi-arid open areas such as scrubland, grassland, or thin drydeciduous forested areas (Figure 10.1; Naoroji 2006). These two species are separated by a large geographical area which includes Pakistan, Afghanistan, and south-eastern Iran. ...