Figure 1 - uploaded by Christine Satchell
Content may be subject to copyright.
Image MoreAssociates 

Image MoreAssociates 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Accepted proposal for a workshop held at the 6th International Conference on Pervasive Computing, May 19th, 2008, Sydney, Australia

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... by a history of television led ‘big science’ projects in the UK, such as the BBC’s annual Springwatch campaign [1], Participate is exploring a generalised ‘three layer’ approach to participation as shown in figure 1. The public – individuals and families – establish a general background picture of ‘quality of life’ factors across the country. Schools and local-groups carry out focused investigations of particular localities, drilling down into the background data in more detail using more specialised sensors and dataloggers. Experts working with broadcasters drive and shape the overall campaign, assimilating information and feeding it back. Participate began in January 2006, and at the time of writing (January 2008) has just reached the beginning of its final year. The initial eighteen months of the project involved designing, deploying and studying three focused trial experiences to test initial ideas and technologies; the schools trial, the community trial and the public trial. The schools trial brought together different schools in a series of multi-study technology-supported science activities. The community trial involved visitors to Kew Gardens engaging with interactive posters and large displays and making and sharing their own video documentaries. The public trial involved creating a context-aware game for mobile phones called ...
Context 2
... offers location and time based information to the visitors while at the same time tracking their routes. (see Fig. 1) On the other hand visitors act as mobile “measurement units” through the usage of the mobile guide and provide GPS position data with high resolution. This tracking information is anonymously transferred to the analysis and prediction tool, which delivers easy to use information for the national park management about the spatiotemporal visitor behaviour on an aggregated manner (e.g. preferred routes, travel length, duration, stops, etc.). (see Fig. 2) At the same time the prediction tool feeds back information to the visitor and offers routes according to the visitor’s preferences, e.g. sending her to an area less crowded, which still offers the spots (flowers, animals) he wants to see most. Moreover the visitor can assess his own collected information via an online diary that shows his route and spatial information along this route together with pictures or audio files he has collected during his ...
Context 3
... Fig. 1. Benefit for the visitor by using the GPS enabled ...
Context 4
... is an interactive, online community that emerges from real-world data and encourages its inhabitants to consider their ecological impact on the environment. This project measures the ecological and carbon footprint of each user and visualizes this impact in the form of a dynamic footprint graphic. Each inhabitant’s footprint is in constant flux and is impacted by a live stream of data from an RSS news feed, location-specific air quality sensor data and the changes in lifestyle made by each inhabitant. Inhabitants are encouraged to: a) make lifestyle changes to limit the amount of resources they use; b) submit photos of themselves taking steps towards a more sustainable lifestyle, such as recycling, taking public transportation, or using alternative energy such as solar or wind power; c) engage daily and interact with current news and policy worldwide; d) motivate social interaction and participation to employ a collective intelligence towards positive environmental change. Because those who are already concerned with environmental issues would most likely adopt a project of this nature, the main goal would be to engage people who wouldn’t ordinarily interact with such issues. Therefore, an example of an ideal audience for this project is school children between the ages of 5-12 as part of their daily curriculum. The children would be encouraged to participate with their parents at home, introducing both children and adults to important environmental concerns and encourage changes throughout the entire family. Additional functions and applications would be built into TerraPed after the initial implementation of the online component. These additional components would encourage use by a broader audience and include a mobile phone application for real-time monitoring of one’s footprint, as well as a Facebook Footprint widget. The Facebook widget would encourage a larger audience to participate in the TerraPed community, as well as add an element of social and environmental consciousness to Facebook. The TerraPed experience begins with a simple registration, in which users are asked to create a username and password, and to provide their zip code. The username and password is used to access personal footprint information and the zip code is used to provide location-specific information and suggestions about local resources. After a user registers, they are asked to complete an Ecological and Carbon Footprint Survey. This survey integrates the basic questions of both types of standard surveys and provides the users with calculations represented numerically, as well as in the form of a footprint. They will also receive an image of an ideal footprint and a representation of the national average for others in their country of residence. This footprint is placed onto the emergent planet in the center of the main page. As more users register, all will populate the planet with a variety of footprints viewable. Personal footprint information is accessible only to individual users, unless each user specifies open access to their social network. Once a user’s footprint is established, inhabitants are encouraged to make lifestyle changes towards a more sustainable existence, as well as find a balance between personal impact within their control and external impact beyond their control. The ultimate goal is to reduce the size of their footprint to the ideal sustainable size determined for their country of residence. For example, the ideal human footprint for the US is 4.5 acres of land for each person, but the a average footprint is 24 acres of land and 7.5 tone of carbon dioxide. If one’s footprint were determined to equal 14 acres of the earth’s resources and 5 tons of carbon emissions, their goal would be to take steps towards reducing their footprint and CO 2 emissions to 4.5 acres and zero tons of carbon in the US. All changes to individual footprints are visualized by a change in size and color, as shown in Figure 1.2.3. These changes occur based on personal impacts, air quality sensor data and a RSS news feed related to climate change and environmental issues. Personal impact is measured by the lifestyle habits outlined in the footprint survey as well as through a shared photo stream of inhabitants take steps towards sustainability. This shared photo stream encourages users to take photos of them recycling or taking public transportation, and invites other users to vote for and comment on the impact of others actions, adding a social element to promote participation and shared ideas. The idea of creating a social and informational network for environmental sustainability is consistent throughout TerraPed, and acts to motivate its users to take ...
Context 5
... is a game-like application intended to be used as a background activity by an ecologically minded family in the course of their normal daily activities. A display installed in the kitchen or another prominent place in the household presents a virtual island. Each family member is represented on the island by an avatar (Figure 1). The family sets a target CO 2 emission level (e.g. national average minus 20%) and the system tracks their approximate current emissions using sensors and self-reported data. If the emissions exceed the target level, the water around the island begins to rise, eventually sweeping away the avatars’ possessions and resulting in a game ...
Context 6
... of Melbourne. The full trial involved 50 households, which each had an Ampy Email ‘EcoMeter’ in-home display system (see Figure 1). The EcoMeter plugs into any power point in the home and displays the household’s energy, water and gas consumption in real-time. The research aimed to understand how feedback systems affect expectations of comfort and cleanliness, and how they could be re-designed to challenge these norms more strongly. Normative behaviours are those which sit beyond the realm of questionable practice [13] and are so deeply ingrained in the routines of daily life that education alone will not result in their reconfiguration [9]. This is despite the fact the histories of everyday practices such as laundering, bathing, heating and cooling show dramatic variations in what is considered ‘normal’ [1, 4, 5, 11, 18]. For example, while a weekly bath was recently the norm, this has been replaced by daily or more frequent showering. Similarly, comfort practices such as opening windows, cooling the body with water, using blankets and appropriate clothing, or building thermally efficient housing, are being replaced by heating and air-conditioning [13]. Although many other norms influence individual behaviours, water and space heating and cooling (comfort norms) constitute almost 60 per cent of Australians’ energy demand in the home [7]. Similarly, the bathroom, toilet, laundry and kitchen (cleanliness norms) constitute 70 per cent of an average household’s water consumption in Melbourne [12]. However, governments, utilities and conservationists have been reluctant to challenge these norms. Shove [13, p. 17] argues that this is because ‘comfort and cleanliness constitute fine examples of non-negotiability, their meaning and importance being quite simply taken for granted.’ The EcoPioneer research supported Shove’s conclusion and attributed the lack of change in these norms resulting from the provision of feedback to two factors. Firstly, the research found that householders either didn’t understand or misunderstood the connections between the consumption data provided through the EcoMeter, and their own practices. They were left to answer questions such as: what practices does this figure on my screen relate to? And, is this figure appropriate or inappropriate for the tasks I have just undertaken? This problem is related to the way the consumption data was provided to participants, which was in the units of kilowatts, kilolitres and greenhouse gas emissions. Providing raw consumption data to householders assumes that they can understand and translate this information into energy and water services, such as air-conditioning, heating, lighting, showering, cooking and computer or TV usage [13, 14, 18, 20]. Secondly, the practices made possible by energy and water are set within wider social and cultural norms governed by notions around what it means to have a clean body, clothes or house, or to be comfortable in any given society or culture [13]. Feedback systems generally target the individual, rather than this larger context in which a household is situated. Therefore, where householders had made the connection between their consumption data and practices, they did not necessarily consider these tasks to be negotiable or changeable. Instead, they often tried to improve the practice by changing the technologies used for the task. For example some participants changed to water-efficient showerheads or ...
Context 7
... Cialdini has shown that 1) when deciding on a behavior to enact, people are strongly influenced by knowing what others are doing and 2) in certain situations, people report that they do not think they will be strongly influenced by others, but in fact these same people appear to be most strongly influenced by what others are doing [2]. This perhaps surprising result means that social influence can be particularly powerful because people do not guard themselves against such influence. Even if benefits, costs and other people are aligned in favor of an individual enacting a certain behavior, that individual may still not act. One reason is that they may believe they cannot enact the behavior. This is where we must provide support mechanisms like support groups (e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous) and skills training [13]. Because of large variability in target audiences, it is unlikely that treating the audience as one large, coherent market will be successful, and thus we should perform market segmentation. Identity- based marketing is related to this idea. Controlled studies have shown that if individuals with a relevant identity (say they are "green" individuals) that is primed (the individual is given content that surfaces "green" thoughts) are then much more likely to purchase a product related to that identity when compared to green individuals who were not primed [11]. Green social networking site applications have been discussed in the literature [8] and appear online. One popular green application on Facebook is called "I Am Green" [4]. Users provide the application with a list of their green behaviors. Each green behaviors gets you a leaf, and you are compared to your other friends who have also installed the application. As a leaf collecting competition, it may be effective, but it is unclear if it is actually effective at advocating and motivating users to enact environmentally sustainable behaviors. Consider the profile view of the "I Am Green" application in Figure 1. What is most prominent is the number of leaves the friends have, not the behaviors they enact. To leverage social influence, the application could instead say "4 of your friends recycle, even when it is not convenient." If four of my friends do it, based on Cialdini's work, we can hypothesize that we are already more likely to enact that behavior. Furthermore, I could click on the behavior and learn more about it, like its benefits and costs. Similarly, popular behaviors could be advertised. Finally, recall the social marketer's emphasis on audience segmentation. Social networking sites provide such detailed information about individuals and their social network that creating audience segments of size one is possible. Indeed, we hypothesize that presenting users with recommended behaviors based on collaborative filtering instead of the most popular behaviors will lead to increased adoption of the recommended ...
Context 8
... effects of the resource consumed, (iv) policies (at home, community, state or national level) and associated goals, and (v) the inferred situations of use, to actions to regulate usage in that instance (possibly even identifying wastage or non-usage). Actions can range from simply notifying users, i.e. displaying to users cost or water levels in a visual form, advice on water-saving for specific tasks, various forms of reinforcement messages, just-in-time prompts, social validation (e.g., where possible show the best water users in the home), adaptations (according to usage history or current needs), negotiation (e.g., to keep to a previously specified budget, the user can use more water this time but have less to use next time), recommendations of water saving devices, to taking action on behalf of the user (e.g., stopping water flow at certain times – if the user so authorises such pre-settings). Feedback and strategy revision : there is a cycle of monitoring resource usage and situations of use, adopting a course of action and a corresponding persuasion strategy, following the strategy, and then adjusting or revising strategies midway depending on detected changes in resource usage (e.g., due to users’ behavioural change). Such a cycle of processing is akin to the paradigm of knowledge-based intelligent agents [6], which runs in the “background”, as depicted in Figure ...

Citations

... Persuasive technology is a branch of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and its aim is to change the thinking and behavior of users in constructive and positive manner without any deception and coercion [3] [4]. Persuasive technology is very common with health, politics, safe driving, education, environment and public relation as its key areas [5] [6] [7]. Nowadays, mobile phones are ubiquitous and a key platform for persuasive technology and personalized learning to be used in them [8] [9]. ...
Article
Our research studies the impact of different adaptive learning strategies on improving students study behavior. We have developed an e-learning software system that assists students to improve their study behavior from two different perspectives. In both of the perspectives, our e-learning system has different functionalities and implements different adaptive learning techniques. In the first approach, e-learning software system uses mobile app that through automatic reminders and different screen widgets, persuades the students to stay in touch with study and keep themselves up to date about different class activities. In the second approach, e-learning system uses automated web based SMS application for automatically sending timely and related messages to different students in order to keep them aware of their study progress and different class activities. Both approaches were thoroughly tested on undergraduate students and at the end interesting results were revealed about different adaptive and persuasive techniques that would help educationalist and software engineers in streamlining the process of mobile learning in future.
... As experts in context, bicyclists dynamically select varied routes through city and in the process collectively contribute a rich set of data; ostensibly richer, more varied, and thus more representative to that context than if the data was collected by the engineers, computer scientists or designers developing the Biketastic system. One catchphrase used in the literature for such work is " citizen science " [27,62]; work under this label tends to emphasize the democratic potential of involving end users in data collection, a theme shared with community environmental information systems [e.g.,32,51]. ...
Conference Paper
With the recent growth in sustainable HCI, now is a good time to map out the approaches being taken and the intellectual commitments that underlie the area, to allow for community discussion about where the field should go. Here, we provide an empirical analysis of how sustainable HCI is defining itself as a research field. Based on a corpus of published works, we identify (1) established genres in the area, (2) key unrecognized intellectual differences, and (3) emerging issues, including urgent avenues for further exploration, opportunities for interdisciplinary engagement, and key topics for debate.
... As well, several special interest groups and panels have occurred at the 2007 and 2008 conference, Mankoff et al. [20], and Nathan et al. [22]. In addition to the CHI venue, recent ubicomp and pervasive workshops continue to explore the role pervasive technology might play in facilitating more sustainable ways of being, for example Foth et al. [11], Hasbrouck, et al. [15]. and Paulos et al. [27]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper takes up the problem of understanding why we preserve some things passionately and discard others without thought. We briefly report on the theoretical literature relating to this question, both in terms of existing literature in HCI, as well as in terms of related literatures that can advance the understanding for the HCI community. We use this reading to refine our frameworks for understanding durability in digital artifice as an issue of sustainable interaction design in HCI. Next, we report in detail on our ongoing work in collecting personal inventories of digital artifice in the home context. We relate our prior and most current personal inventories collections to the framework that owes to our reading of the theoretical literature. Finally, we summarize the theoretical implications and findings of our personal inventories work in terms of implications for the design of digital artifice in a manner that is more durable.
... Sustainability in and through design have become critical topics in HCI [e.g. 1,4,10,13,15,16,17,25,26,31,32,40] promising necessary change for both our natural environment and designed systems. This work is roughly categorized as building systems that are 1) 'more green', and/or 2) improve 'green behavior' [25,32]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sustainable HCI is now a recognized area of human-computer interaction drawing from a variety of disciplinary approaches, including the arts. How might HCI researchers working on sustainability productively understand the discourses and practices of ecologically engaged art as a means of enriching their own activities? We argue that an understanding of both the history of ecologically engaged art, and the art-historical and critical discourses surrounding it, provide a fruitful entry-point into a more critically aware sustainable HCI. We illustrate this through a consideration of frameworks from the arts, looking specifically at how these frameworks act more as generative devices than prescriptive recipes. Taking artistic influences seriously will require a concomitant rethinking of sustainable HCI standpoints - a potentially useful exercise for HCI research in general.
... The intersection of human-computer interaction and environmental sustainability represents a nascent and growing area of interest in the HCI community [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 5]. Moreover, the combined application of situated visualizations and pervasive computing technology presents a compelling context to persuade individuals and communities to intentionally act in more sustainable ways [3]. This design space is particularly well suited to support exploration into eco-visualization (EV), which we have elsewhere described as " any kind of interactive device targeted at revealing energy use in order to promote more sustainable behaviors or foster positive attitudes towards sustainable practices " [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this workshop paper, we describe the design, implementation, and early results of an eco-visualization of Indiana University Bloomington campus dormitory energy and water consumption. We (i) present initial results of our ongoing study examining the role eco-visualizations might play in impacting dormitory communities' behavior, (ii) discuss what these findings suggest with respect to how situated displays could help improve community uptake in future work and (iii) describe an emerging conceptual design direction with an eye toward the intersection of situated displays and social incentive.
Chapter
According to a recent statistical analysis conducted in 2018, more than 40% of the population has no reading or writing skills especially in rural areas of Pakistan. On the contrary, the mobile phone users have grown at a very steep rate even with a stagnant literacy rate. We formed a user-driven approach to research, develop and test a prototype mobile application that could be used to teach illiterates basic reading, writing and counting skills without using traditional schooling techniques. This first of a kind application provided the user the ability to customize their own learning plan. Focusing on native language Urdu, the application teaches them the required skill they need for daily life activities such as writing their own name, scenario-based calculations, identifying commonly used words.
Chapter
Full-text available
More people are traveling than ever before. This intense and disproportionate growth in tourism may, however, generate negative environmental and social effects, especially on islands. In order to address this issue, this article presents the design and evaluation of Há-Vita, an interactive web platform, whose goal is to foster awareness of local nature and folk knowledge and create connections between locals and visitors. We explored these design goals through different research methods, such as user studies with tourists in hotel lobbies, as well as focus groups consisting of two different groups of local residents and a group of visitors. Theoretically, Há-Vita is grounded in the concept of “community-based tourism ventures,” which is concerned with environmental preservation via ecotourism practices and, at the same time, the empowerment of local communities. Furthermore, the design rationale of the platform is also inspired by the authenticity theory, which examines tourists’ pursuit of meaningful interactions with locals. Our results indicate that, despite time constraints (for visitors), locals and visitors were willing to interact with each other as they acknowledged authentic benefits in such interaction. Furthermore, our focus groups with locals have shown the potential to stimulate different levels of local empowerment based on the community-based tourism framework in the design iterations of Há-Vita.
Article
Full-text available
This study takes place from the idea that the personal usage of mobile technologies can bring positive outcomes to the user and to their society in an indirect way. Technologies studied in this work are defined as persuasive technologies (Fogg, 1997) because they are intentionally designed to modify the users’ attitude or behavior. This research is aimed to evaluate if the intention to use the application can be influenced by positive attitudes toward technology, by the persuasive power of the application and by the perceived fun. Participants (N = 118; M = 55; F = 63; mean age = 27.4; range age = 15–69) filled in an online questionnaire that was partly based on the Media and Technology Usage and Attitude Scale (MTUAS – Rosen et al., 2013). An additional eight items were added to the scale, aimed at evaluating participants’ technophobia, technophilia, perceived technology pervasiveness and perceived persuasive power of technology. By using linear regression analysis, it was found that the application’s informational power and the perceived entertainment positively influenced the usage intention. Another interesting result, obtained through ANOVA, concerns a generational difference: baby boomers tended to trust more the fact that the single individual action through the application can have an effective impact on the environment. These results represent a basis for future in-depth investigations about socially relevant use of the ICT.
Article
Full-text available
Persuasive technologies are tools for motivating behaviour change using persuasive strategies. socially-driven persuasive technologies employ three common socially-oriented persuasive strategies in many health domains: competition, social comparison, and cooperation. Research has shown the possibilities for socially-driven persuasive interventions to backfire by demotivating behaviour, but we lack knowledge about how the interventions could motivate or demotivate behaviours. To close this gap, we studied 1898 participants, specifically Socially-oriented strategies and their comparative effectiveness in socially-driven persuasive health interventions that motivate healthy behaviour change. The results of a thematic analysis of 278 pages of qualitative data reveal important strengths and weaknesses of the individual socially-oriented strategies that could facilitate or hinder their effectiveness at motivating behaviour change. These include their tendency to simplify behaviours and make them fun, challenge people and make them accountable, give a sense of accomplishment and their tendency to jeopardize user’s privacy and relationships, creates unnecessary tension, and reduce self-confidence and self-esteem, and provoke a health disorder and body shaming, respectively. We contribute to the health informatics community by developing 15 design guidelines for operationalizing the strategies in persuasive health intervention to amplify their strengths and overcome their weaknesses.
Article
Environmental sustainability demands civic action through both changes in individual and community behaviors in addition to national and international agreements and cooperation. In moral appeals to the environment, individuals are often called upon to behave in “good” ways—reduce, reuse, recycle—to “save the planet.” Behavior, and our attitudes about it, is therefore an important component to ongoing sustainability efforts. This pilot study, conducted in Fall 2009, brings together research methods in sociolinguistics and rhetorical studies to examine the discourses that students produce when describing issues and practices concerning sustainability. In interviews with 15 students in an earth sustainability general education core, our study found that students were knowledgeable about environmental issues and expressed intentions to engage in sustainable behaviors. Yet, students produced accommodating discourses when addressing competing demands on their time and resources. The sociolinguistic analysis of interview data shows a disassociation from environmental issues at the symbolic level of language use. The rhetorical analysis shows that this disassociation manifests as guilt, largely because when choosing between various moral appeals in their social context, students are left without tangible direction for engaging in new sustainable behaviors.