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Illustrated gamma radiation doses 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 Gy impact on plant morphology, (a): control Kaha 1, (b) Dwarfism and change of leaf morphology, (c): Number of peduncles, (d): Intact dwarfism plant, (e): Control Dokii 331, (f): change in flower color, (g): Number of pods, (h): changes of pods color and size, (i): Intact giant plant.

Illustrated gamma radiation doses 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 Gy impact on plant morphology, (a): control Kaha 1, (b) Dwarfism and change of leaf morphology, (c): Number of peduncles, (d): Intact dwarfism plant, (e): Control Dokii 331, (f): change in flower color, (g): Number of pods, (h): changes of pods color and size, (i): Intact giant plant.

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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important foods and economic vegetable crops in the world. Plant breeders resorted to using mutagenesis, especially gamma radiation to improve the yield production and protein content. Two Egyptian cowpea varieties Dokii 331 and Kaha 1 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0, 50, 100...

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... radiation doses have caused numerous morphological changes in both cultivars as shown in Figure 1. For example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). ...
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... radiation doses have caused numerous morphological changes in both cultivars as shown in Figure 1. For example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...
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... radiation doses have caused numerous morphological changes in both cultivars as shown in Figure 1. For example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...
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... radiation doses have caused numerous morphological changes in both cultivars as shown in Figure 1. For example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...
Context 5
... example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...
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... example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...
Context 7
... example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...
Context 8
... example, the dose of 150 Gy in Kaha 1 cultivar caused changes in the form of leaf ( Figure 1(b)), as well as an increase in the number of peduncles (Figure 1(c)), and also resulted in dwarfing in the plant, where the length of the plant reached to 33.4 cm ( Figure 1(d)). On the other hand, in Dokii 331 cultivar, the irradiated dose 300 Gy resulted in a change in the color of the flower from white to violet (Figure 1(f)), the dose of 250 Gy also increased the number of pods per plant (Figure 1(g)), as well as all gamma radiation doses that were used caused changes in the size, form and color pods (Figure 1(h)), and the dose of 300 Gy had an effect on the plant height, where the length of the plant reached to 277.4 cm (Figure 1(i)). ...

Citations

... Cowpea has employed a variety of DNA markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (18)(19)(20). Recently, a simple, innovative DNA marker technology known as start codon-targeted polymorphism (SCoT) has been employed for genetic research of agricultural plants, particularly cowpea (21,22). The SCoT approach is a kind of targeted marker technique in which the ATG context is one of the functional genes and is tied to functional genes and their associated features (23). ...
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Mutagenesis is a well-known technique for introducing new variants into crop plants. In the present study, M2 populations were generated in the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) variety CO7 using gamma irradiation. The M2 progeny were used to investigate the effectiveness of the gamma irradiation doses and examined for the agronomic traits. The genomic variation present in the mutants and their parents was analysed using five SCoT markers. Marker analysis revealed a total of 87 amplicons and among these, 20 amplicons showed polymorphism. The highest numbers of amplicons were observed at SCoT10 (39), while the lowest number of amplicons was produced by SCoT09 (07). The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 18.18% to 28.57%, with an average of 21.12%. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.197 to 0.345. Analysis of Molecular Variation (AMOVA) showed 12% and 88% between the genotypes and within the genotypes respectively. The constructions of 4 clusters were identified through Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) dendrogram tree based on the genetic distance deduced from SCoT marker analysis. Analysis of the genetic relatedness between parent and mutants through Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed two main groups. The present study concludes that the genetic variability induced by gamma irradiation and inherited in the next generations. This research investigation supports that gamma irradiation alters the growth and yield traits, which is helpful for generating the cowpea improvement.
... Hence, gamma-ray has proved a potential mutagen for improving cowpea with desired traits based on the selection of agronomic characters. The present results are supported by earlier reports (66), that the polymorphic variations were obtained in cowpea by start codon target markers. ...
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An annual pulse crop cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), commonly named southern pea, is a nourishing constituent for the human diet and fodder. Gamma rays are a potent mutagenic agent to stimulate genetic variation with better characteristics, improving the yield relating traits in crops. Hence, the present study focused on exploring genetic variation between three generations in the mutant populations of cowpea through SCoT markers. The mutant populations of three successive generations, M1, M2 and M3, were induced by different doses [200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gray (Gy)] gamma irradiation. The results depict that the quantitative characters were reduced by increasing the dosage of gamma irradiation in the M1 generation. In contrast, the second and third generation of plants showed a significant increase in yield and yield contributing traits than control and the maximum increase was noticed at 200 Gy and 400 Gy. Days to first flowering was delayed in irradiated plants than control of M1 generation. In contrast, in consecutive generations (M2 and M3), the early first flowering was noticed at 400 Gy and late flowering was observed at 800 Gy compared respectively to control and other doses. Seed yield per plant mean value was increased at 200 Gy in both generations (M2 and M3); it may produce new genotypes to desirable traits such as yield and quality. SCoT markers were used to explore genetic variation at the genomic level of mutant populations and screened with eight primers. Among them, seven primers showed amplification of 222 bands, in which 133 bands showed polymorphism. The polymorphic bands varied from 3.03–96.07%. The genetic variation, such as the number of different alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Shannon’s information index (I), expected heterozygosity (He) and unbiased expected heterozygosity (uHe) showed an average value of 1.352 ± 0.092, 1.278 ± 0.027, 0.293 ± 0.023, 0.184 ± 0.016, and 0.194 ± 0.016, respectively. AMOVA depicted significant genetic variation between all generations and indicated a total of 95% within populations and 5% among population variation by the marker used. The present investigations prominently showed that the variations induced by gamma irradiation were inherited from successive generations of the improvement in cowpea quantitative traits. This investigation gives acceptable proof that the SCoT markers are a valuable tool to identify the genetic variation among the three generations of cowpea.
... Low doses of gamma irradiation have been used for mutant isolation in conventional plant breeding (Albokari et al., 2012). Several studies have shown that exposure to gamma rays have stimulatory effects on specific morphological parameters and can increase the yield of plants and their resistance to drought (Hanafiah et al., 2010, Badr et al., 2014aand b, Ariraman et al., 2016, Gaafar et al., 2016and Ezzat et al., 2019. Molecular markers are highly heritable and polymorphic enough to enable the discrimination of closely related genotypes. ...
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THIS study was carried out to identify the genetic variations in yardlong bean plants irradiated by various doses (75, 150, 300, 450 and 600Gy) of gamma rays using RAPD and ISSR markers techniques as well as, their effect on some vegetative traits were studied. ten RAPD and 10 ISSR markers were used in this investigation. The obtained results showed that the ten RAPD primers produced 117 bands only 94 of them were polymorphic while 23 bands were monomorphic. The percentages of polymorphism among primers ranged from 0.0% to 100%. All of the RAPD primers produced unique bands except OPK-06 primer which did not produced any unique bands. Meanwhile, 62 amplified bands including 26 polymorphic and 36 monomorphic bands were generated by ten ISSR primers. All of the ISSR primers did not produce any unique bands except ISSR4 primer which produced only one unique band, these results demonstrated that this unique sequence could be used as a molecular marker associated with gamma irradiation. The field results showed that the emergence percentage decreased with increasing doses up to 600Gy treatment which gave the lowest emergence percentage. Inconstant values of vegetative characteristics were obtained after each treatment with gamma ray doses; 300Gy treatment gave the highest value of plant height, number of branches, pod length and number of seeds per pod compared to control and other treatments. The values of coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic variation, heritability and expect genetic advance did not follow regular increase or decrease with the radiation doses in both seasons. The present data demonstrate that using gamma rays to induce DNA polymorphism in this plant genome which might be lead to appearance of a desired phenotype and genetic characteristics which could be used in yardlong bean improvement programs.
... Low doses of gamma irradiation have been used for mutant isolation in conventional plant breeding (Albokari et al., 2012). Several studies have shown that exposure to gamma rays have stimulatory effects on specific morphological parameters and can increase the yield of plants and their resistance to drought (Hanafiah et al., 2010, Badr et al., 2014aand b, Ariraman et al., 2016, Gaafar et al., 2016and Ezzat et al., 2019. Molecular markers are highly heritable and polymorphic enough to enable the discrimination of closely related genotypes. ...
Article
Full-text available
HIS study was carried out to identify the genetic variations in yardlong bean plants irradiated by various doses (75, 150, 300, 450 and 600Gy) of gamma rays using RAPD and ISSR markers techniques as well as, their effect on some vegetative traits were studied. ten RAPD and 10 ISSR markers were used in this investigation. The obtained results showed that the ten RAPD primers produced 117 bands only 94 of them were polymorphic while 23 bands were monomorphic. The percentages of polymorphism among primers ranged from 0.0% to 100%. All of the RAPD primers produced unique bands except OPK-06 primer which did not produced any unique bands. Meanwhile, 62 amplified bands including 26 polymorphic and 36 monomorphic bands were generated by ten ISSR primers. All of the ISSR primers did not produce any unique bands except ISSR4 primer which produced only one unique band, these results demonstrated that this unique sequence could be used as a molecular marker associated with gamma irradiation. The field results showed that the emergence percentage decreased with increasing doses up to 600Gy treatment which gave the lowest emergence percentage. Inconstant values of vegetative characteristics were obtained after each treatment with gamma ray doses; 300Gy treatment gave the highest value of plant height, number of branches, pod length and number of seeds per pod compared to control and other treatments. The values of coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic variation, heritability and expect genetic advance did not follow regular increase or decrease with the radiation doses in both seasons. The present data demonstrate that using gamma rays to induce DNA polymorphism in this plant genome which might be lead to appearance of a desired phenotype and genetic characteristics which could be used in yardlong bean improvement programs.
... Low doses of gamma irradiation have been used for mutant isolation in conventional plant breeding (Albokari et al., 2012). Several studies have shown that exposure to gamma rays have stimulatory effects on specific morphological parameters and can increase the yield of plants and their resistance to drought (Hanafiah et al., 2010, Badr et al., 2014aand b, Ariraman et al., 2016, Gaafar et al., 2016and Ezzat et al., 2019. Molecular markers are highly heritable and polymorphic enough to enable the discrimination of closely related genotypes. ...
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Jerusalem artichoke is a hardy plant with high photosynthetic efficiency. It is used for many purposes such as human food and animal feedstock. Currently, it is important as a source of inulin, which is considered a functional food ingredient. Inulin or fructan depends on many factors such as photosynthesis and temperature. This study was conducted to investigate the horticultural characteristics, the yield of tubers and inulin content of Egyptian Jerusalem artichoke under Middle Egypt growing conditions. Results showed that there were differences in the shape and size of tubers. The morphological parameters; plant height was (201.0 and 204.33 cm) in the first and second seasons, respectively and the number of branches/plant, it was 42.67 and 41.67 in the first and second seasons, respectively. This study proved that tubers contain a high percentage of inulin which is widely found in nature as a storage carbohydrate, especially in the plants of the family of Asteraceae. So it is important to cultivate these plants in Egypt to bridge the gap of sugar needed to feed diabetics. Also, these plants grow under drought conditions and therefore suitable for cultivation in new lands in Egypt for local marketing or for export to increase the national income of Egypt from hard currency.
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are considered major and important globally vegetable crops and in Egypt in particular. Tissue culture techniques have encouraged the utilization of mutation methods in crop improvement. The mutation induction in vegetative crops through tissue culture may be the optimal method to improve these crops. Induced genetic variation in tomato plantlets by using gamma radiation and identified these changes through SCoT and ISSR markers. Egyptian tomato cultivar Idkawy explant was cultured onto MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg-l BAP. The resulted plantlets were irradiated with γ radiation doses (50, 100, 150, 200 or 250 Gy). The survival, growth rate, and mean of shoot length were decreased with increasing gamma radiation dose. The irradiated plantlets survival percentages were ranged from 78.75% to (50 Gy) and 18.75% to (250 Gy), whereas, the shoot length decreased by a rate of 2.71 cm for the dose (50 Gy) and 1.2 cm for dose (250 Gy). Genetic diversity was evaluated by SCoT and ISSR markers using ten primers for each. It was noticed that the polymorphism percentage mean of SCoT marker (60.53%) is higher than the ISSR marker (39.6). The PIC values average for both markers SCoT and ISSR were 0.429 and 0.347, as well, MI values were 0.345 and 0.156, respectively. On the other hand, the effective no. of alleles (Ne), Nei’s genetic diversity (H) and Shannon’s information index (I) parameters, it was found that the dose 100 Gy caused the highest genetic variation compared with other doses using SCoT marker, however, in ISSR marker was dose of 150 Gy the highest dose for induced genetic variation. The obtained results demonstrate that SCoT marker was more accurate and efficient than ISSR marker for distinguishing and genetic variation analysis of irradiated tomato plantlets. The relationships within treatments were assessed through cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on SCoT and ISSR analysis.