Iberian Peninsula and Portugal main sites mentioned in the text: (1) São Pedro de Canaferrim and Lameiras (Sintra), (2) Correio-Mor cave (Loures), (3) Lapa do Fumo cave (Sesimbra), (4) Nossa Senhora da Luz'cave (Rio Maior), (5) Santarém (Santarém), (6) Almonda Spring cave (Torres Novas), (7) Caldeirão cave (Tomar), (8) Valada do Mato (Évora), (9) Cabranosa (Sagres), and (10) Junqueira e Várzea do Lírio (Figueira da Foz). Cartography after Trabajos de Prehistoria and Boaventura (2009).

Iberian Peninsula and Portugal main sites mentioned in the text: (1) São Pedro de Canaferrim and Lameiras (Sintra), (2) Correio-Mor cave (Loures), (3) Lapa do Fumo cave (Sesimbra), (4) Nossa Senhora da Luz'cave (Rio Maior), (5) Santarém (Santarém), (6) Almonda Spring cave (Torres Novas), (7) Caldeirão cave (Tomar), (8) Valada do Mato (Évora), (9) Cabranosa (Sagres), and (10) Junqueira e Várzea do Lírio (Figueira da Foz). Cartography after Trabajos de Prehistoria and Boaventura (2009).

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Western Iberia Early Neolithic has been described as an ultimate and very altered form of the Mediterranean Neolithisation process. Despite its Atlantic position, this territory – corresponding mainly to Central/Southern Portugal – is, in its physical and cultural geography, a Mediterranean landscape deeply connected to a historical process arrivin...

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Context 1
... pottery groups were identified through quantitative analysis of large assemblages, where the dominant and the peripheral decoration motifs and techniques -as the impressed stripes style -could be recognised, but also through qualitative information from sites with no quantitative data available. As expected, different pottery traditions do not represent hermetic assemblages, and even if some almost exclusive decoration areas are documented reflecting strong regional preferences, the overall picture shows that some general motifs present large distribution areas due to social interaction among groups (Figure 2). ...
Context 2
... far, boquique/punto y raya technique also appears in assemblages where cardial or impressed stripes seem the most significant trait and is almost absent from false acacia leaf sites (Cardoso, Silva, & Soares, 2008, Simões, 1999). However, in the area herein discussed, the large geographic dispersion of punto y raya, combined with its large chronological duration (Carvalho, 2018, Figure 2), depletes this technique of a particular chrono-cultural dimension. ...
Context 3
... groups arriving by land and, in the Mediterranean/ Atlantic area, mainly by sea, in small canoes carrying domestic juveniles and fresh seeds, presenting a low genetic diversity, suggest that a particular branch of a larger group reached and rapidly spread along the Iberia façade and its interior. This Iberian Early Neolithic low genetic diversity was coupled by an initial small and heterogenous hunter-gatherer contribution to the gene pool ( Brace et al., 2019;Valdiosera et al., 2018, Figure 2b; Villalba- Mouco et al., 2019), which is according to the archaeological record where Mesolithic-Neolithic interactions are not well documented (Diniz, Arias, Araújo, & Stjerna, 2021). The genetic data suggest that, during the first phase, a small, homogenous, and somehow closed population reached Iberia in a scenario resembling the bottleneck situation that is frequently documented in human diasporas. ...
Context 4
... this genetically homogenous, small, and fastmoving Early Neolithic groups present distinct patterns of material culture in deep contrast with those data (Figure 4). Figure 4: Genetic admixture between hunter-gatherers and Neolithic groups after Valdiosera et al. (2018). Unlike the diversity observed in material culture (Figure 2), genetic analysis points to low variability within groups. Iberia's Early Neolithic communities present a considerably small amount of genetic information from previous hunter-gatherers. ...

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