Table 1 - uploaded by Michael D Hill
Content may be subject to copyright.
Hypertension causes* Essential hypertension Renovascular hypertension Chronic renal failure or disease, including polycystic kidney disease 

Hypertension causes* Essential hypertension Renovascular hypertension Chronic renal failure or disease, including polycystic kidney disease 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension is the most important modifiable cause of stroke. The Canadian Hypertension Educational Program, representing Canada's experts in the field of hypertension, publishes annual evidence-based recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. We present the 2005 Canadian Hypertension Educational Program guidelines regarding t...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
We report here the case of a patient with perindopril intoxication inducing severe bradycardia together with a profound hypotension. Initiation of a naloxone infusion completely resolved those symptoms. As a consequence, we could recommend as a first step the use of naloxone in order to prevent the use of more invasive therapeutic tools.
Article
Full-text available
2017 marks the 50th anniversary of the discovery of pulmonary angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE inhibitor in 1967. The article is a historical and personal accounts of the discovery. It is written as a tribute to Sir John R. Vane, the 1982 Nobel Laureate for Physiology and Medicine.

Citations

... Worldwide, approximately 1 billion individuals are hypertensive; by 2025, this number is projected to increase to 29%, 1.56 billion, and more than 50% of Canadians aged from 55 to 74 years old are hypertensive. [1] A new therapeutic approach, such as the dietary intervention, could increase the percentage (5%-23%) of patients with normal blood pressure (BP) (<140/90 mmHg), in so doing, it will increase the successful rate of the pharmacotherapy and decrease the number and severity of adverse effects associated with the use of pharmacotherapy. [2] Various data support the therapeutic effects of the cruciferous vegetables (mustard family) of the genus brassica including cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts in several diseases. ...
... The specific pathogenesis of IS remains unclear, but increasing evidence indicates that both environmental and genetic factors play a crucial role in its etiology. Observational studies have shown that hypertension [5], diabetes [6], smoking [7], drinking [8], hypercholesterolemia [9], lack of exercise among young people [10] may be clinically relevant risk factors for IS. Nevertheless, a large body of scientific research have indicated that IS was greatly affected by genetic factors [11], and gene polymorphisms may regulate the pathophysiological process of IS and confer a small to moderate risk [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Stroke is a serious cardiovascular disease and is also the leading cause of long-term disability in developing and developed countries. Because matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is associated with the risk of many cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP-9 and the risk of Ischemic stroke (IS) in a southern Chinese Han population. Methods This study included 250 stroke patients and 250 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using the Agena MassARRAY system, and chi-squared tests and genetic models were used to evaluate the associations between MMP-9 SNPs and the risk of IS. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age. Results Polymorphism rs3787268 was associated with increased the risk of IS. Specifically, the genotype “G/A” significantly correlated with IS risk in the co-dominant model [odds ratio (OR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–2.41; p = 0.035)], while genotypes “G/A” and “A/A” may increase the risk of IS based on the dominant model (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.12–2.35; p = 0.0097). This SNP was also significantly associated with IS risk in the log-additive model (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.03–1.70; p = 0.026). Conversely, haplotype “C/G” appears to reduce the risk of IS (OR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54–0.95; p = 0.019). Conclusions Our study showed that the rs3787268 locus in the MMP-9 gene may increase risk of IS in a southern Chinese Han population and thus provide insight into the IS pathogenesis.
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Asian population, diabetes mellitus is increasing and has become an important health problem in recent decades. In Iran, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly 46% of the total costs spent for diabetes-associated diseases. Because individuals with diabetes have highly increased CVD risk compared with normal individuals, it is important to diagnosis factors that may increase CVD risk in diabetic patients. The study objective was to identify predictors associated with CVD mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to develop a prediction model for cardiovascular (CV)-death using a competing risk approach. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 2638 T2D (male = 1110, female = 1528) patients aged ≥35 years attending from Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center in Isfahan for a mean follow-up period of 12 years; predictors for different cause of death were evaluated using cause specific Cox proportional and subdistribution hazards models. Results: Based on competing modeling, the increase in blood pressure (BP) (spontaneously hypertensive rats [SHR]: 1.64), cholesterol (SHR: 1.55), and duration of diabetes (SHR: 2.03) were associated with CVD-death. Also, the increase in BP (SHR: 1.85), fasting blood sugar (SHR: 2.94), and duration of diabetes (SHR: 1.68) were associated with other death (consist of cerebrovascular accidents, cancer, infection, and diabetic nephropathy). Conclusions: This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to the management of CV risk in type 2 diabetic patients with high cholesterol, high BP, and long diabetes duration.
Article
1. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that in vivo chronic inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase reduces cerebrovascular fibronectin expression in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). 2. The RHRSP model was induced by two clips and NAD(P)H oxidase was inhibited with apocynin. The mRNA and protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p22(phox) in brains of RHRSP and Sprague-Dawley (control) rats was determined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expression of fibronectin protein was localized immunohistochemically in cerebral vessels and then quantified by western blot. 3. Cerebrovascular fibronectin levels in RHRSP (n = 6) were significantly higher than control (n = 5) levels 8 weeks after operation (1.29 +/- 0.04 vs 1.15 +/- 0.02, respectively; P = 0.007). The p22(phox) immunopositive reactivity was localized in the cerebral vasculature of control rats and RHRSP. Furthermore, chronic treatment of RHRSP with apocynin, a selective NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, in the drinking water for 4 weeks (1.5 mmol/L, 5 weeks after operation) resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of p22(phox) protein (0.85 +/- 0.01 vs 0.93 +/- 0.01 in non-treated RHRSP; n = 5; P = 0.002), with a concomitant reduction of fibronectin levels in the cerebral vasculature (1.31 +/- 0.03 vs 1.56 +/- 0.05 in non-treated RHRSP; n = 5; P = 0.002). No significant differences were detected in the expression of p22(phox) mRNA and protein between RHRSP (4 and 8 weeks after renal artery constriction) and the control group. 4. These findings suggest that the chronic inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase in vivo by apocynin reduces cerebrovascular fibronectin levels, which may lessen hypertensive cerebrovascular fibrosis.
Article
Full-text available
Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death around the world. We conducted a systematic review of peer reviewed articles published since 1999 on the topics of public education and policy for stroke prevention. A research librarian conducted the search using Pubmed and the International Pharmacy Abstracts (IPA). We reviewed the abstracts from the search results to determine if they met the inclusion criteria. Then we abstracted the relevant data from the articles using an evaluation criteria and data abstraction instrument. The searches of Pubmed and the IPA returned 446 articles, of which 36 were included in the review. Thirty-two were educational programs and four were policies. Twenty-two of the programs were directed at patients, four at providers, and seven at both. Seven of the educational programs were judged successful using the evaluation criteria. They included two large scale programs and five narrowly targeted programs. The policies included two articles presenting guidelines for treatment for stroke prevention in specific patient populations and two articles presenting recommendations for changes in systems of care for stroke prevention and treatment. Future efforts to evaluate these programs will require global efforts with a special emphasis on testing and validating with international patient populations. Barriers remain for translating stroke prevention policies into clinical practice. "This material is based upon work supported by the North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, the Office of Research and Development, Rehabilitation R&D Service, and Health Services R&D Service, Department of Veteran Affairs."