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Hydrolysis of starch to glucose as catalyzed by alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase

Hydrolysis of starch to glucose as catalyzed by alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase

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Objective: Pu-erh tea was presumed to have anti-hyperglycemic effects via inhibition on alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. However, no integerated literatures were published to substantiate such presumption. Methods: Current study adopted systemic review method to validate inhibitory effects on alpha amylase and alpha-glucosidase. Five English...

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... α-amylases cleave the α-(1 → 4)-D-glycosidic bonds of starch at random sites, forming smaller oligosaccharides or disaccharides. Alfa glucosidase is located in brush borders of small intestines, where this digestive enzyme hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing α-1 → 4 linkage of oligosaccharides or disaccharides and releases glucose molecules (Fig. ...

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Nuxia oppositifolia is traditionally used in diabetes treatment in many Arabian countries; however, scientific evidence is lacking. Hence, the present study explored the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts and their purified compounds. The methanolic crude extract of N. oppositifolia was partitioned using a two-solvent sys...

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... The first step in digestion of starch is catalyzed by α-amylase [35], that present in salivary and pancreatic secretions and catalyzing the hydrolysis of α-(1,4)-glycosidic linkages in starch, forming an oligosaccharides or disaccharides. The second step α-glucosidase that is fond on luminal surface of enterocytes, hydrolyzes nonreducing α- (1,4) bond of oligosaccharides or disaccharides and releases glucose molecules [36,37]. The AcAE and AcEE (250 mg/kg) inhibit the hyperglycemia level due to administration of starch and sucrose as an α-amylase and αglucosidase substrates respectively in normal and diabetic rats, in a short time significantly compared to the control and exhibit a similar activity as acarbose (10 mg/kg). ...
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Background: Carbohydrate digestive enzymes play a major role in the management of the postprandial hyperglycemia. A chronic hyperglycemia can lead to serious health problems due to excessive production of several reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzyme and the use of antioxidant natural product can be an important strategy to control the glycaemia level and prevent against the complication of diabetes. Aim: The study aims to perform a phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, inhibitory effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (in vitro and in vivo) and the intestinal glucose absorption in Wistar rats of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (AcAE) and hydro-ethanolic extract (AcEE). Results: The test of total phenolic content, show that the AcAE has the highest quantity of polyphenol (44.65 ± 0.54 µg GAE/mg extract) compared to the AcEE (31.7 ± 0.53 µg GAE/mg extract) significantly. The amount of flavonoid and condensed tannins content in AcAE is 24.41 ± 3.57 µg QrE/mg extract, 14.31 ± 5.26 µg CE/mg respectively. The AcAE has also exhibit a great antioxidant activity in DPPH-scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) compared to AcEE with an IC50 = 0.355 ± 0.057 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.269 ± 0.025 mg/mL. However, in a β-carotene bleaching assay the AcEE has the highest effect with an IC50 = 0.319 ± 0.097 mg/mL. The both extract of Artemisia campestris L. (250 mg/kg) decreased postprandial hyperglycemia in the normal and alloxane diabetic rats in a very significant manner after starch or sucrose administration as an α-amylase and α-glucosidase substrate respectively. This result is confirmed in vitro by a remarkable inhibitory effect on α-amylase digestive enzymes by an IC50 = 1.259 ± 0.128 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.602 ± 0.072 mg/mL receptively for AcAE and AcEE. For the α-glucosidase enzyme, the both extracts significantly inhibit α-glucosidase activity compared to the control and they are almost similar to each other. Using a jejunum perfusion technique (in situ), Artemisia campestris L. decrease the intestinal D-glucose absorption activity significantly compared to the control and comparable to the Phlorizin used as a positive control by an amount of glucose absorbed equal a 6.53 ± 0.57, 5.34 ± 0.64 and 4.71 ± 0.24 mg/10 cm/h, for AcAE, AcEE and Phlorizin respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that the Artemisia campestris L. has highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and demonstrated a postprandial anti-hyperglycemic effect via the inhibiting of the carbohydrate digestive enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and the intestinal glucose absorption.
... Therefore, these enzymes play an important role in the regulation of postprandial blood sugar. In some cases, the hyperactivity of these enzymes, insulin resistance, or insulin deficiency leads to hyperglycemia, and to correct this problem αamylase or α-glucosidase inhibitors have been given orally to prevent the digestion of carbohydrates [89,90]. ...
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... Oligosaccharides that enter the gastrointestinal tract, predominantly after food intake, are hydrolyzed into maltose and maltotriose by a key enzyme named α-amylase (Gong et al., 2020). Pancreatic and salivary α-Amylase act as catalyzers to the hydrolysis reaction of α-1,4-glucan linkages, creating smaller disaccharides (Yang et al., 2019). Furthermore, α-Glucosidase, another carbohydrate found on the surface of intestinal mucose cells, continues the process by cleaving disaccharides' linkages and releasing absorbable monosaccharides that are transported into the circulation (Patil et al., 2015;Zaklos-Szyda et al., 2015). ...
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... Therefore, inhibitors of α-amylase or α-glucosidase can reduce the release of glucose from carbohydrate hydrolysis, slow down the absorption of glucose in the small intestine and effectively lower postprandial blood glucose level [6,7]. In clinical, several oral drugs have been widely used as α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors in T2DM patients. ...
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This study investigated the antioxidant activities, inhibitory activities and the interaction mechanisms of artocarpin and α-mangostin on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results showed that artocarpin and α-mangostin had obvious antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The inhibitions of two compounds on α-glucosidase were reversible and non-competitive according to the kinetics studies. Fluorescence intensity measurements indicated that the interaction mechanisms between the inhibitors and the two enzymes were static processes. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis showed that the binding between the inhibitors and the enzymes complex was all spontaneous. The main driving forces between α-mangostin and artocarpin with α-glucosidase might be hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions, respectively. While the forces between the two inhibitors and α-amylase might be hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, molecular docking results showed that artocarpin and α-mangostin could bind the allosteric site of the two enzymes, except for artocarpin in the active site pocket of α-amylase. All the results indicated that artocarpin and α-mangostin might be promising candidates for hypoglycemic functional products.
... Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province is located on the southwestern border of China and has many Pu-erh tea gardens. Pu-erh tea is a world-famous tea with a range of health values and contains a variety of active substances, including catechins and tea polyphenols (Huang et al., 2019;Yang et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2021). Owing to its unique climatic and geographical conditions (Reeve and Toumi, 1999;Williams, 2005), Xishuangbanna has a high frequency of thunderstorms and is the center of strong thunderstorms in China, with an annual average of more than 110 thunderstorm days. ...
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... By blocking the enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, carbohydrate digestion is slow down, glucose uptake is delayed, and blood sugar levels are reduced. In practice, medications like acarbose and miglitol suppress such enzymes; however, they cause many side effects, like flatulence and diarrhea [45,46]. According to this approach, and after evaluating their antioxidant activity, the capacity of the C. oblonga seeds' extracts to inhibit porcine αamylase and yeast α-glucosidase was assessed to determine their antidiabetic potential. ...
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There is an unequivocal relationship between oxidative stress and diabetes development, progression, or both. In recent years, some novel bioactive compounds derived from plants have shown antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than the oral hypoglycaemic medications used in clinical therapy, implying a bright future for diabetes treatment. In this work, the powdered quince dried seeds were subjected to extract with ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-hexane, and diethyl ether using sonication-catalyzed extraction. Then, a set of tests were used to conduct preliminary phytochemical screening. In vitro, hydroxyl radical-and DPPH radical-snaring assays were used to assess the antioxidant activity of the acquired extracts. The inhibition assays for α-glucosidase and α-amylase were used to determine the antidiabetic efficacy of the extracts. Compared to ethanol extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-hexane, and ether extracts had weaker free radical-snaring, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The results of this study revealed that the crude extracts of quince seeds are good sources of key phytochemical components with significant antioxidant and antidiabetic properties and can be considered a promising source of lead compounds for the management of diabetes mellitus. K E Y
... Because monosaccharides are the type of carbohydrates that are absorbed through the mucosal boundary in the small intestine, inhibiting these enzymes lowers blood glucose levels. Alpha-amylase inhibitors have been discovered to be effective with various enzymatic agents, which has led researchers to express an interest in generating powerful alphaamylase inhibitor compounds (Ameri et al., 2020;Okechukwu et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2019). The concept of polyherbal formulation is well documented in the ancient literature. ...
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Ichnocarpus frutescens, Ficus dalhousie, Crateva magna, Alpinia galangal, and Swertia chiraita are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of the individual plant parts is well known, but the synergistic or combined effects are unclear. Polyherbal formulations enhance the therapeutic action and reduce the concentrations of single herbs, thereby reducing adverse events. The aim of the present study is to formulate a polyherbal tea bag formulation and evaluate its in vivo antidiabetic potential. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the crude powder of the plants. The herbal formulation depicts hyperglycemic effects in both normal and experimentally induced hyperglycemia rats. The antidiabetic activity of the polyherbal formulation (100 mL/kg b.w.) was screened against streptozotocin�nicotinamide induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The infusion extract was administered for 21 consecutive days, and the effect of the polyherbal formulation on blood glucose levels was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation (SGOT and SGPT). Polyherbal tea bag formulation showed significant antidiabetic activity