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History of development of primary batteries in view of energy density. Data is taken from literature. 5

History of development of primary batteries in view of energy density. Data is taken from literature. 5

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The average increase in the rate of the energy density of secondary batteries has been about 3% in the past 60 years. Obviously, a great breakthrough is needed in order to increase the energy density from the current 210 Wh kg−1 of Li-ion batteries to the ambitious target of 500–700 Wh kg−1 to satisfy application in electrical vehicles. A thermodyn...

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... 3,4 Table 1 compares the well-known battery chemistry of different metal elements. 5,6 To replace the organic liquid electrolytes, SSEs should possess the following functional physical−chemical−mechanical properties to find applications: 7−10 • Ionic conductivity on the order of 10 −3 −10 −2 S/cm with negligibly electronic conductivities (<10 −10 S/cm) over a wide battery operating temperature and the chemical potential ranging between the that of the metallic Li or Na anode (activity: unity) and that of the cathodes. ...
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... The current research lacks studies on cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) [27], the reasons could be: (1) The CEI film is generally much thinner than SEI film, creating great challenges in its observation. (2) The unstable structural changes in the cathode material under high voltage during cycling and gas production. (3) The instability of the applied electrolyte under high voltages on LMR materials. ...
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... Therefore, the present article is mainly devoted to the application of high-voltage electrolytes on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) anode based on predecessors [40,41]. The application of optimized electrolytes in high-energy-density cathodes based on LMR materials is also investigated in situ [42][43][44]. ...
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... Tabulated data for (A) were obtained from (126). Data for (B) were obtained from (19,59,127,128). Data for (C) were obtained from (47,126,129). ...
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... Monolayer In 2 Se 3 is chosen as it is achievable in the experiment and its gravimetric energy density is higher than that of multilayer In 2 Se 3 according to the definition of gravimetric energy density. 35 The calculated lattice constant is a = b = 4.1 Å. Its noncentrosymmetric ground-state structure leads to intrinsic in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations. ...
... Additionally, LIBs have become an attractive power source for electrical vehicles (EVs) and stationary energy storage systems, which are of supreme importance to enable greener and more sustainable societies. Differing from the evolution of computer science, where the memory of chips doubles every 18 months, as indicated by Moore's law, the energy density of LIBs has been increasing at a low growth rate in the last 60 years (approximately 3% per year) 1 . This growth rate will not fulfil the stringent requirements of next-generation rechargeable batteries for emerging applications, in particular EVs, which require a driving range comparable to petrol-fuelled vehicles. ...
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