Fig 3 - uploaded by Aleš Kralj
Content may be subject to copyright.
Historical inventiveness as the rate of innovations per billion people per year. Population data is from (Kremer 1993). The first seven data points from the left are counts from (Timeline of Historic Inventions 2017), while the last two data points are calculated from (Youn et al. 2015), assuming that 2% of patent applications actually see any real use. The 2% ratio is derived from 40,000 U.S. triadic patents (Triadic patent families 1984–2014 2017) and 1.76 million patent filings in the U.S. (Total number of patents in force worldwide tops 6 million 2008). Triadic patent families are patents granted in the U.S., the EU, and Japan. It is presumed that triadic patents represent the most realistic proxy for real-world innovations 

Historical inventiveness as the rate of innovations per billion people per year. Population data is from (Kremer 1993). The first seven data points from the left are counts from (Timeline of Historic Inventions 2017), while the last two data points are calculated from (Youn et al. 2015), assuming that 2% of patent applications actually see any real use. The 2% ratio is derived from 40,000 U.S. triadic patents (Triadic patent families 1984–2014 2017) and 1.76 million patent filings in the U.S. (Total number of patents in force worldwide tops 6 million 2008). Triadic patent families are patents granted in the U.S., the EU, and Japan. It is presumed that triadic patents represent the most realistic proxy for real-world innovations 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
It has been ten years since the 2006 work of Abel and Trevors wherein the cybernetic path of life’s origin was proposed as an alternative to the widely held views of such origin being self-ordering and self-organisation. Cybernetic adaptation is now recognised as a cornerstone of biological and technological evolution and as well as of artificial i...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Increasing energy efficiency is commonly viewed as providing a key stimulus to economic growth, through investment in efficient technologies, reducing energy use and costs, enabling productivity gains, and generating jobs. However, this view is received wisdom, as empirical validation has remained elusive. A central problem is that current energy-e...
Article
Full-text available
The use of an ejector as expansion device is one of the alternative ways to improve the performances of an air source heat pump at low ambient temperature. This article presents a theoretical energetic and exergetic analysis of an ejector expansion vapor compression heat pump with on/off control. By using the ejector, the expansion throttling proce...
Article
Full-text available
Application of evaporative air cooling in various technologies allows reducing energy costs for improving environmental performance. Considering the promise of using air coolers with a capillary-porous structure, a mathematical model of the working process for such devices of contact heat of mass transfer was developed. The model takes into account...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experimental performance of a solar assisted vertical ground source heat pump system (VGSHP) for the winter climatic conditions of Mardin, which is in the South-Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. For this aim, an experimental analysis was performed on solar assisted VGSHP system, which was designed to me...

Citations

... The elusive exploitation search is the main and most difficult part of the CE that remains to be seen and experimentally explained. An experiment to test for the exploitation search in CE was proposed in [1] and here: https://www.researchgate.net/project/Inventive-processes-in-nature-from-chemical-evolution-totechnology (A Miller Urey (MU)-like experiment proposed to test bio-functionality of tholins). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In my discussions on the RG, I become aware that biologists and bioinformaticists have severe difficulty with understanding that chemical evolution (CE) plausibly works just like any other evolutionary optimisation, containing exploratory search and as well as elusive exploitation search which is needed for reaching presently observed complexity of life. Two important articles have been brought to my attention: 1. Chemical Analysis of a “Miller-Type” Complex Prebiotic Broth Part II: Gas, Oil, Water and the Oil/Water-Interface, by Sabrina Scherer, et al., where detailed analysis of the resulting chemicals in a Miller-Urey (MU) experiment setup is given and 2. Semantic information, autonomous agency and non-equilibrium statistical physics, by Artemy Kolchinsky and David H. Wolpert, where emergence of observed semantic (meaningful or functional) information is statistically described; Importance: When combined the two articles provide evidence on the existence of exploratory search and selection process in the chemical evolution (CE). Exploratory search and selection process give birth to functional information in CE.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird für die breite Leserschaft erörtert, ob und wie die Thermodynamik dazu beitragen kann, das Leben grundlegend zu beschreiben. Statt einzelne Merkmale des Lebens aufzuzählen, werden hier zunächst die Begriffe der Entropie, Emergenz und Komplexität allgemein verständlich herangezogen. Wesentliche Bestandteile dieses Kapitels sind auch die Unterscheidung zwischen der Selbstordnung und Selbstorganisation und die davon ausgehende Frage, ob Leben synthetisch nachempfunden werden kann. Die Leserschaft wird zuletzt mit einem naturalistischen Konzept konfrontiert, demzufolge es zwischen dem Leben und Nicht-Leben keine qualitative Unterscheidung geben muss, sondern in dem das Leben im Sinne einer Vereinheitlichung lediglich eine Teilklasse vieler chemisch-physikalischer Prozesse repräsentiert, zu der auch wir selbst gehören.