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# Heartwood of (a) Dalbergia cultrate, (b) Dalbergia latifolia and (c) Dalbergia melanoxylon.

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Dalbergia cultrate, Dalbergia latifolia, and Dalbergia melanoxylon are precious and valuable traded timber species of the genus Dalbergia. For chemotaxonomical discrimination between these easily confused species, the total extractive content of the three wood species was determined using four different organic solvents. Fourier transform infrared...

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... Therefore, compound 2 was reported from Acacia farnesiana (Hussein et al., 2002), while compound 4 was previously obtained from Senna alata (synonym of Cassia alata) (Chimi et al., 2021), and compound 9 was already obtained from twigs and leaves of Caesalpinia spinosa (He et al., 2015). Additionally, pilloin (10) was identified by GS-MS from Dalbergia melanoxylon (Yin et al., 2018). Hence, this evidence further supports the taxonomy of the plant species G. ehie and enriches its chemistry. ...
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Thirteen compounds (1− 13) were isolated and identified during phytochemical analysis of the leaves and stem bark of Guibourtia ehie (A. Chev) J. Leonard. Spectroscopic and spectrometric methods and the comparison of their results with those given in the literature were used to ascertain their structures. Furthermore, the acetylation of 3,3 ′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4 ′-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (2) afforded a new derivative 3,3 ′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4 ′-O-β-D-(4,2 ′′ ,4 ′′-triacetyl)-xylopyranoside (2a). Extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were assessed for their antioxidant, urease, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compound 1 demonstrated potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH with an IC 50 value of 36.4 ± 0.2 µM, while rhaponticin (3), 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (4), and taraxerol (6) exhibited a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC 50 values of 35.5 ± 0.1, 25.5 ± 0.2 and 43.4 ± 0.3 µM, respectively. The present study enriches the chemistry of Guiboutia ehie and provides further evidence on its bioactive constituents, which might help in the development of hypoglycaemic drugs.
... Ten neoflavonoids were recovered from hydro-ethanolic extract of D. latifolia heartwood [29] . GC-MS analysis of D. latifolia heartwood identified eight compounds viz, Phenol,4-methyl-2-[5-(2-thienyl)pyrazol-3-yl]-, 13-Docosenamide, (Z)-, Naphtho [2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-isopropyl-, 1-Thioflavone,7-methoxy, 1,7,7-Trimethyl-3phenethylidenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, Phenol, 4,4′methylenebis[2,6-dimethyl-, 1,1′-Biphenyl,4,2′,3′,4′tetramethoxy-5′-methyl-6-methylaminomethyl-, (4-Methylsulfanylphenyl) carbamic acid, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl ester [30] . β-eudesmol, catechol, elemicin, formononetin, 2,6dimethoxy-4-allylphenol and 7-hydroxy-3-(4methoxyphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one were the major components isolated from D. latifolia wood using GC-MS, Py-GC/MS and TD-GC/MS methods [31] . ...
... (6), all-E-lutein (7), catechin (8), dalbergin (9), dalbergiphenol (10), dalbin (11), dalbinol (12), dibutyl phthalate (13), ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (14), eucomic acid (15), isoparvifuran (16), latifolin (17), methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (18), phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (19), phthalic acid butyl isobutyl ester (20), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (21), quercetin (22), R-(-)-latifolin (23), stigmasterol (24), β-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin-3-palmitate and 3-acetoxy-oleanoic acid (25) βsitostenone (26), β-sitosterol (27), extracted from various parts of Dalbergia latifolia [26-28, 33-36, 20-21] . (7), (4-Methylsulfanylphenyl) carbamic acid, 2,6-dimethoxyphenyl ester (8), identified from heartwood of Dalbergia latifolia using GC-MS [30] . ...
... The quantity of extractives in ABW heartwood has been estimated to be over 15 wt% in ethanol/benzene (1:2 v/v) solvent extraction, which is much higher than in other Dalbergia species, such as Dalbergia cultrate and Dalbergia latifolia [22]. The high concentrated extractives potentially work to promote flow deformation by heating beyond the thermal softening point of them. ...
... The high concentrated extractives potentially work to promote flow deformation by heating beyond the thermal softening point of them. Although identification and isolation of extractives obtained from ABW heartwood have been partly reported [22][23][24][25], there is little information about the effect of extractives on the thermal behavior of ABW. ...
... In this study, EB showed a significantly higher extraction rate than WT: 16.12% (EB) and 1.89% (WT) on average ( Table 1). The ethanol/benzene-soluble extractives comprising over 16 wt% of ABW heartwood (Table 1) [22], apparently have a large impact on ABW deformation characteristics. ...
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African blackwood (ABW: Dalbergia melanoxylon) is a valuable tree in Tanzanian local community forests, and heartwood has been mainly utilized as an irreplaceable material in musical instruments, e.g., clarinet, oboe and piccolo. Since its use is generally for the production of musical instruments only, most of the harvested volume is wasted due to defects that would affect the quality of final products. Wood flow forming can transform bulk woods into materials in temperature/pressure-controlled mold via plastic flow deformation. The main object of this study was to evaluate the deformation characteristics of ABW heartwood in developing the potential of wasted ABW parts in terms of the effective material use. The deformation characteristics of heartwood were examined by free compression tests. Specimens were compressed along the radial direction at 120 °C, and air-dried heartwood was dramatically deformed in the tangential direction. The plastic flow deformation of ABW was amplified by the presence of both extractives and moisture. In particular, the ethanol/benzene (1:2, v/v) soluble extractives in heartwood may have contributed to flow deformation. The results of the dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the air-dried heartwood exhibited softening in a temperature range over 50 °C. The ethanol/benzene-soluble extractives contributed to the softening behavior. The clarified deformation characteristics of ABW can contribute to more efficient material use of local forests.
... With an air-dry density of its heartwood ranging between 1100 and 1400 kg/m 3 , it is one of the woods with the highest density among all commercial timbers in the world (Zadro 1975;Gérard et al. 2017;Sproßmann et al. 2017;Liu et al. 2020). Additionally, it possesses a high extractive content, up to 16 to 25% (Jankowska et al. 2016;Gérard et al. 2017;Yin et al. 2018), many of them from the category of neoflavanoids (Donnelly et al. 1975). These extractives possibly contribute to its high hygroscopic stability-which, however, remains to be proved through meticulous testing-and natural durability against timber-decaying organisms (Hillis 1971;Van Heerden et al. 1980;Rowell and Banks 1985;Gérard et al. 2017). ...
... This shows the possibility of other factors in play for the diffusion in L direction, such as the presence of extractives, which has been known to be very abundant in Dalbergia wood, with a strong presence in lumens (Donnelly et al. 1975;Gérard et al. 2017;Yin et al. 2018), and their role in moisture transfer in wood has been shown, mostly because of their water solubility properties (Choong 1969;Chen and Choong 1994). Furthermore, it has been found that extractives lower the dynamic sorption process and hygroscopicity of wood (Yang et al. 2018). ...
... At the same time, grenadilla has been known to possess high level of extractives, which is a non-structural part of the wood but still contribute to its mass (Donnelly et al. 1975;Sjostrom 1993). Yin et al. (2018), specifically, have conducted a thorough study regarding the extractives of grenadilla wood and found that the extractive percentage could reach up to 16.05% from extractions using a mixture of benzene/ethanol alone. This value could be considered high compared to subtropical wood, but in fact quite normal for this tropical wood, which could possess extractive content up to between 20 and 25% (Jankowska et al. 2016), a significant part of which is located in the lumens. ...
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Grenadilla wood (Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr.) is a hardwood species found in Tanzania, Mozambique, and other countries in the tropical part of Africa, especially in the Eastern-Central region. Thanks to its high density and good hygroscopic stability, it is used in the making of various musical instruments and fine furniture. Due to the scarcity of published data on this wood species, more studies on its properties are needed to improve its processing and use, and even to search for sustainable alternative materials as its trade is increasingly limited by new regulations. This work is focused on the hygromechanical properties, which hold an important role in the applications of this wood: diffusion coefficients and adsorption–desorption curve (both measured at $$T = 20\,^{\circ }\hbox {C}$$), swelling–shrinkage coefficients and full orthotropic elastic constants using an ultrasonic method. Results show that grenadilla wood possesses small water diffusion coefficients (from $$1.54\pm 0.49\times 10^{-7}\,\hbox {cm}^2/\hbox {s}$$ in T direction to $$4.58\pm 0.84\times 10^{-7}\,\hbox {cm}^{2}/\hbox {s}$$ in L direction), which is probably related to its high density ($$1250.0\pm 26.2\,\hbox {kg}/\hbox {m}^{2}$$); unique equilibrium moisture content (sorption) curve with a lower fiber saturation point ($$0.173\pm 0.003$$); smaller swelling–shrinkage coefficients ($$0.20\pm 0.03$$ and $$0.32\pm 0.05$$ in T and R directions, respectively); and elastic constants lower in the longitudinal direction ($$15.56\pm 1.79$$ GPa) and higher in the transverse ones ($$5.10\pm 0.46$$ GPa and $$4.05\pm 0.35$$ GPa in R and T directions, respectively) than what could be expected with a standard model based on the density only. Several explanations were described here, from the effects of a high extractive content to the possibility of a high microfibril and/or fiber angle.
... The C-N stretching (amide III groups) of the chitosan material was observed at 1318 cm −1 [34], and the peaks at 1153, 1064 and 1027 cm −1 represented the C-O conjugation [35][36][37]. The observed peak at 1153 cm −1 was the FT-IR peak property for the C-O-C bridge [38]. As for the peaks at 1064 and 1027 cm −1 , they were attributed to the C-O stretching of the sorbents [39]. ...
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Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the predominant species responsible for cyanobacterial-harmful algal blooms (Cyano-HABs) in water bodies. Cyano-HABs pose a growing number of serious threats to the environment and public health. Therefore, the demand for developing safe and eco-friendly solutions to control Cyano-HABs is increasing. In the present study, the adsorptive strategy using chitosan was applied to remove M. aeruginosa cells from aqueous phases. Using a simple immobilization process, chitosan could be fabricated as a fiber sorbent (chitosan fiber, CF). By application of CF, almost 89% of cyanobacterial cells were eliminated, as compared to those in the control group. Field emission scanning electron microscopy proved that the M. aeruginosa cells were mainly attached to the surface of the sorbent, which was correlated well with the measurement of the surface area of the fiber. We tested the hypothesis that massive applications of the fabricated CF to control Cyano-HABs might cause environmental damage. However, the manufactured CF displayed negligible toxicity. Moreover, we observed that the release of cyanotoxins and microcystins (MCs), during the removal process using CF, could be efficiently prevented by a firm attachment of the M. aeruginosa cells without cell lysis. Our results suggest the possibility of controlling Cyano-HABs using a fabricated CF as a non-toxic and eco-friendly agent for scaled-up applications.
... In particular, the high anti-feedant effects of some flavonoids, which included taxifolin and quercetin, against C. formosanus had been demonstrated (Ohmura et al. 2000). Other flavonoids, e.g., polyphenols, isoflavonoids, and neoflavonoids, had also been obtained from Fabaceae trees, which included the Dalbergia and Pterocarpus species (Seshadri 1972;Sekine et al. 2009;Yin et al. 2018), and their resistance against termites and fungi had been determined with laboratory tests (Sekine et al. 2009). Considering these facts, the higher mortality rates of the MS-HW and PA-HW samples could be dependent on the presence of these extractives. ...
... The extractives found in ABW-HW were reported to be different from those of other Dalbergia species, as well as at higher concentrations, which would contribute to the advantages of ABW as a material (Yin et al. 2018). The flavonoids including neoflavonoids, e.g., melanoxin, have been previously isolated from the extractives of ABW heartwood (Donnelly et al. 1969;Donnelly and O'reilly 1975), and Amri and Juma (2016) confirmed the antimicrobial potential of the extractives from the stem bark of ABW with the presence of flavonoids. ...
Article
African blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon) is known as an indispensable material for the production of musical instruments, e.g., clarinets, oboes, and piccolos. The authors focused on the biological performance of African blackwood and other local Tanzanian species in order to collect preliminary data for developing further uses for these local timbers. Five local species, including African blackwood, were exposed to both subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus) and two wood decay fungi (White rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) and Brown rot fungus (Fomitopsis palustris)) according to Japanese standard test methods. African blackwood heartwood had high durability against both termite and fungal attacks, as well as the highest air-dried density of all test species. Some species also indicated a higher durability, even though they had a lower density than African blackwood heartwood. The authors showed the importance of heartwood extractives in terms of biological performance for the local Tanzanian timbers. The authors findings suggested that African blackwood heartwood was clearly useful as a high-durability material in addition to current major applications. The potential of the other local species was also suggested in terms of further timber utilization. These results presented fundamental information about sustainable forest management based on the effective utilization of local timbers.
... Infrared spectroscopy is widely used to identify modification of functional groups (He et al., 2017;Yin et al., 2018). This technique is used to characterize cellulose and lignin, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in woods submitted to heat treatment (Timar et al., 2016;Özgenç et al., 2017;Lopes et al., 2018). ...
... In those continents, approximately 250 Dalbergia species have been cataloged. 5 In Brazil, the genus is found throughout different ecosystems showing 21 endemisms. 6 Various plant extracts from Dalbergia have demonstrated a wide range of biological activities such as analgesic, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, 7 anti-anxiety, antidepressant, 8 antileprotic, 9 antimicrobial, 10,11 antioxidant, 11 antifungal, 12 among others. ...
... Subfraction EB3.9 (4.2 mg) was purified through semi-preparative HPLC, leading to the isolation of 8-O-methylretusin (3, 1.4 mg). Fraction EB5 (619.0 mg) was thrice purified through exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 (2.0 cm × 125.0 cm) as the stationary phase and isocratic elution with methanol (100%), which yielded 6.2 mg of duartin (4) and 1.1 mg of sativan (5). The latter was obtained after purification by semipreparative HPLC. ...
... Compounds 4 and 5 showed typical resonances for oxymethylene and benzylic protons at C-2 and C-4, respectively, which confirmed 4 and 5 as isoflavans derivatives. After 1D and 2D NMR experiment, and comparison with those of reported in the literature, 21-25 these isoflavonoids were identified as prunetin(1), di-Omethyldaidzein (2), 8-O-methylretusin(3), duartin (4) and sativan(5). The stereochemistry of 4 and 5 was defined by comparison of their specific rotation with those of reported in the literature. ...
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