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Head shape comparison. Mean head shapes of Chinese and Western subjects as seen from the top. © Xi, Pengcheng. This image was generated as part of a collaborative statistical shape analysis study between the National Research Council of Canada’s Digital Human Modeling Lab and SizeChina. Image courtesy NRC. 

Head shape comparison. Mean head shapes of Chinese and Western subjects as seen from the top. © Xi, Pengcheng. This image was generated as part of a collaborative statistical shape analysis study between the National Research Council of Canada’s Digital Human Modeling Lab and SizeChina. Image courtesy NRC. 

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Feature at a glance: The vast majority of consumer products for the head and face, such as helmets and sunglasses, are designed for Western populations using Western anthropometric data. These products do not fit the shape of the Chinese population well. The SizeChina survey aimed to correct this problem. The survey collected over 1,500 high-resolu...

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... substantial differences between Asian and Western head shapes (Annis, 1978). Even though some traditional anthropometric studies have been conducted in large populations and successfully used to design many products, including uni- forms and equipment for the U.S. Army (Gordon et al., 1989) and NASA (Rajulu & Klute, 1993), traditional anthropometric head data have suffered from two limitations. First, the complex geometry of the head and face is not well described by traditional univariate measurements, which capture head length, width, and circumference only as numerical values. High-resolution 3-D data are crucial for the design of products such as helmets, which require exact body contact fit. Second, univariate anthropometric surveys have traditionally examined only Western populations; few surveys have collected data on Chinese populations. Using 3-D data from the recent SizeChina ( . sizechina.com) anthropometric survey (Figure 1), we created the first 3-D design tools for Chinese fit with applications in the product design, engineering, and fashion industries, described in the following pages. Some anthropometric information is not well suited for use in design. Numerical dimensions, spreadsheets, and un- processed 3-D scans cannot be immediately integrated into the established methodology of design, which centers on sketching, model-making, rapid prototyping, animation, digitizing, computer-aided design (CAD), tooling, and manufacturing. Designers are often unwilling or unable to spend large amounts of time reviewing specialized anthropometric data to extract from it the specific information relevant to their practice. Fur- thermore, the aspects of anthropometric information that are critical to designers are often different from those that are important to other users of the same material, such as doctors and biologists. Professional design consulting firms are under ever- increasing demands to design better and faster. The research phase of a design project examining basic anthropometric data can be as short as a few weeks or even a few days in rush projects. As a result, designers may often create products that do not benefit from anthropometric insight. Any anthropometric study that aims to make its information available to designers must address the issue of communications and must create anthropometric information tools that suit designers’ needs. As a client group, designers are characterized by a bias toward visual styles of thinking rather than verbal or mathematical styles. In addition, as a group, designers are creative; they tend to react to new information in ways that are innovative and unexpected. Information tools intended for use by designers should permit open-ended or intuitive interaction. Finally, data tools for designers must pay close attention to international standards in areas such as helmet safety, so that the design tools match all accepted standards in sizing and safety testing. Anthropometric data standards are undergoing a quiet revolution with the emergence of digital three-dimensional (3-D) scanning as a measurement tool. More accurate and more consistent than measurements done manually, 3-D scanning also captures far more information. For the first time, the full spatial shape of the human body can be recorded. Three-dimensional data are well adapted to use by designers. Because the information exists as computer data, it can be readily displayed in the form of a pictorial image, so that one can intuitively and easily understand the forms being described. It can also be manipulated within the computer’s virtual environment, offering potential compatibility with the 3-D design programs used by designers. However, there are drawbacks to 3-D scan files. The vast majority of surveys collect full-body scans that aim to define the size and shape of the body overall, for applications in the clothing and intimate apparel industries (Robinette, Daanen, & Paquet, 1999). As a result, these surveys do not capture at high resolution small and geometrically complex parts of the body, such as feet, hands, heads, and ears. Those body parts are very important to designers of consumer products such as shoes, power tools, eyewear, helmets, and facemasks. Finally, as a new product, these 3-D scan files are not yet fully integrated with design software. The original scan files must be laboriously converted into popular CAD formats in order to fully migrate the data. Product design and engineering today are dominated by the use of sophisticated, highly functional software programs in the general areas of CAD, animation, finite element analysis, and rapid prototyping. Design software is used extensively for visualization and animation, as well as for more mundane tasks, such as engineering specification, mold flow analysis, and material utilization studies. These programs have revo- lutionized design practice, introducing a level of precision, speed, and control unknown to previous generations of designers, who worked with clay models and manual drafting. At the same time, the immateriality of the software has severed it from a tactile awareness of the human body. Designers working with physical models can check those models intuitively and work directly on top of them to create castings, prototypes, and design models. Designers working with software packages have no such reference point, because none of these powerful 3-D software packages offers human body templates. Perhaps because they are so accustomed to the limitations of their current software tools, designers do not seem to ques- tion the absence of body templates. A designer creating shoes or sunglasses seems perfectly content to conceptualize the product floating in isolated cyberspace, without reference to the human form. Clearly, much better results could be achieved if the starting point was an accurate 3-D anthropometric model of the face or feet, allowing exploratory forms for the glasses or shoes to be “sketched” over the critical body shape right from the start. The creation of physical and virtual body forms – 3-D anthropometric design tools – was the focus of the SizeChina project (described in more detail later). The first design tools created by SizeChina were a range of physical headforms suitable for use in helmet design. The European EN 960 standard “is the most widely accepted international standard specifying the performance of the headforms used in testing and design” (British Standards Institution, 1995). The EN 960 headform makes use of a total of four reference planes for cranial ...

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... Numerical dimensions, spreadsheets, and unprocessed 3-D scans cannot be integrated easily into the established methodology of design, which centres on sketching, model-making, rapid prototyping, animation, digitising, computer-aided design (CAD), tooling, and manufacturing. 12 We show early geographical mapping of the cephalic index from 1896 ( Figure 1). This equation does not account for idiosyncrasies in racial cranial traits. ...
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... The European EN 960 is the widely accepted international standard that specifies the performance of the head forms used in helmet design [11]. This standard identifies four reference planes for head dimensions. ...
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In cycling accidents, head injuries have been one cause of high injury rates. Therefore, the protection of the head from injuries is essential to any cyclist. Helmets are an effective head protective system. The protective capabilities of helmets are provided by inner liners made of expanded polystyrene foams (EPS). However, it is not easy to adopt this material to obtain more protective capabilities, limited by weight requirements and wearing comfort. Therefore, it is still significant to propose a new helmet design method. The honeycomb structure is a structure with excellent properties such as lightweight and energy absorption. The use of honeycomb structures in helmet design can improve energy absorption. This also does not add extra weight to a helmet. Since helmets are curved in shape, the design of honeycomb structures needs to adapt to curved surfaces. This paper proposes a new parametric design method. It enables the more flexible creation of honeycomb structures on curved surfaces. Finally, we apply the developed method to complete the design of a honeycomb-shaped helmet.
... Most of the consumer products such as helmets and sunglasses are not compatible with the Asian populations since they are designed for the Caucasian population using their anthropometric data [1]. It is well known that there is a wide variation between the Asian and European countries in terms of anthropometric measurements and it is the reason for the incompatibility of imported products [2]. ...
... Therefore, population grouping and customisation become key approaches to design fitting helmets. Considering anthropometry when designing consumer products ensures maximum benefits to the users [1]. In addition, research suggests that using anthropometric data in the conceptual design stage may minimize the size and shape alterations needed later [13] and also reduce the risk of injuries both in the short and long term [14], [15]. ...
... For creating wearables on other body parts, a SSM for that body part should be sourced or constructed. Nevertheless, it has become easier to construct an SSM in recent years due to the increasing availability of 3D scanners, and the abundance of largescale anthropometric databases such as the CAESAR project [19] or SizeChina [20]. In addition, automatic model construction pipeline such as that developed by Booth et al. [21] for building a SSM of faces has been made publicly available in recent years. ...
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... It would have been ideal to also use 3D scanners, but there are none available in Chile. 3D scans, which are a very good complement to assess bio-type, and body/head shapes [31,32]. Findings of the present paper are somewhat limited by the fact that these are based on the analysis of only two regions of Chile (two most populated ones). ...
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The aim of this study was to update the Chilean male workers’ anthropometric database to be used for design purposes and to examine the secular changes observed in a group of anthropometric variables for Chilean male workers. Data collection involved a sample of 2,346 male workers with ages ranging from 18 to 65+, assigned to the Mutual de Seguridad C.Ch.C in the two most populated regions of Chile (Valparaíso and Metropolitana) distributed in nine economic activities branches. Data collection was performed by two teams of 3 physiotherapies each. Before starting the collection process, the measurement teams underwent a training session of one week that included a theoretical session on the basic concepts of anthropometrics, as well as some practical instructions. A total of 32 anthropometric measures were gathered following the ISO standard 7250-1. Before applying the data, a checking process was carried out, trying to identify errors related to the data collection process. The magnitude of the positive secular trend for the stature was 1.0 cm per decade and the highest value was found for shoulder breadth, with a positive increase of 2.7 cm per decade. The results obtained allowed to observe the existence of a positive secular trend for most of the selected body measurements. Finally, it was also possible to verify that the current research may be used for design purposes and to establish the baseline data for long-term observation regarding anthropometric changes among Chilean male workers.
... Principal component analysis is used to deal with feature https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.11.002 Received 5 May 2018; Received in revised form 1 November 2018; Accepted 2 November 2018 analysis of human related design frequently, which was proved to effectively solve problems of engineering design (Dutta et al., 2003), human body recognition (Turk and Pentland, 1991;Kumar and Wu, 2012;Lei et al., 2016), anthropometric analysis (Hammond et al., 2004) and ergonomic design (Peres et al., 2017), especially determining the shape variation of head for developing prototypes based on statistical data (Ball, 2009;Lacko et al., 2017). Therefor PCA was performed for the categorization of measurements and products in this study. ...
... Principal component analysis is used to deal with feature https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.11.002 Received 5 May 2018; Received in revised form 1 November 2018; Accepted 2 November 2018 analysis of human related design frequently, which was proved to effectively solve problems of engineering design (Dutta et al., 2003), human body recognition (Turk and Pentland, 1991;Kumar and Wu, 2012;Lei et al., 2016), anthropometric analysis (Hammond et al., 2004) and ergonomic design (Peres et al., 2017), especially determining the shape variation of head for developing prototypes based on statistical data (Ball, 2009;Lacko et al., 2017). Therefor PCA was performed for the categorization of measurements and products in this study. ...
... Several major projects focusing on mass product designs have aimed to survey large sections of adult populations. For example, recent projects surveyed the South Korean population (Kim, You, and Kim 2017), European and US adults (Harrison and Robinette 2002) and Chinese adults, and these focused on head/face shape differences (Ball 2009;Du et al. 2008). At present, there is no comprehensive anthropometric dataset for the general adult population in Chile, and the only currently known dimensions for this population are height, weight, neck and waist circumference. ...
... In fact, anthropometric studies have accounted for ethnic differences because these characteristics can definitively have an impact on design and safety. For example, worker differentiations by ethnic group can be detected in Malaysia (Karmegam et al. 2011), Iran (Sadeghi, Bahrami, and Joneidi Jafari 2014;Sadeghi, Mazloumi, and Kazemi 2015), Indonesia (Widyanti et al. 2015;Wibowo, Soni, and Salokhe 2013), Bangladesh (Akhter et al. 2010), the UK (Stirling 2005), the US (Hsiao et al. 2014;Yang, Shen, and Wu 2007;Guan et al. 2015), East Asia (Schwekendiek and Jun 2010;Lin, Wang, and Wang 2004) and China (Yang, Shen, and Wu 2007;Ball 2009). Migrants in Chile were initially employed in informal jobs but are currently taking part in many formal ones; thus, further studies should address any changes in the anthropometrics of Chilean worker by focusing on and differentiating based on ethnicity. ...
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... Using three-dimensional (3D) principle component analysis and Procrustes superimposition, the group found significant overall head shape differences between the Chinese and Caucasian heads. 9 The authors then used these findings to design a set of anthropometrically representative Chinese surrogate headforms to test newly designed helmets and headgear and, more importantly, surrogate headforms that can be used to adequately test these Asian-fit helmets. Studies like these provide invaluable insights which translate into better ergonomics and potentially safer headgear. ...
... Studies like these provide invaluable insights which translate into better ergonomics and potentially safer headgear. 9 A study by Chang et al. 12 focused on motorcycle helmet impact attenuation. The researchers measured the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) using a finite element model for different combinations of allometrically scaled 50th percentile Hybrid III headforms (0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 scale ratios) with a close-faced motorcycle helmet and allometrically scaled variations of the helmet with the 50th percentile Hybrid III headform. ...
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Ice hockey helmets must pass standardized impact tests to be certified for sale. However, these tests are performed with the helmet attached to a surrogate headform. Human head shapes are not uniform, and very few standards exist for helmet fitting for the common user. The goal of this study was to develop an accurate and cost-effective three-dimensional acquisition protocol to assess the geometric fit of human subject heads to a variety of ice hockey helmets. The study had three main objectives: First, a photogrammetry-based three-dimensional acquisition system was developed. Second, the researchers populated a database of both male human heads and ice hockey helmets by scanning five different helmet models from various manufacturers. Finally, the system accuracy and error were calculated using root mean squared errors between the dimensional difference curves of repeated scans. Errors were calculated by repeating the entire protocol error with 20 comparisons (root mean squared error = 2.83 mm), the alignment error with 5 comparisons (root mean squared error = 1.14 mm), and scaling error with 4 comparisons (root mean squared error = 1.84 mm). Suggestions are provided in the section “Discussion” on how to create a system that is more time efficient with higher resolution renders and lower error. A method that quantifies three-dimensional fit is the first step toward studying the relationship between helmet fit and user-specific helmet protection.
... Computers & Industrial Engineering 117 (2018) 121-130 measurement surveyed by the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Ball (2009) identified 10 representative head forms of Chinese civilians through the Size China survey for design of headwear. In this study, digital or 3D printed representative head forms generated by the 3D-ASAS have been applied to the design and/or evaluation of head products such as headphones and headmounted displays using CAD models and physical prototypes. ...
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