Figure - available from: Current Psychology
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Hardiness and personal vulnerability factors in the JD-R model (N = 430). Note. ***p < .001, **p < .01, *p < .05

Hardiness and personal vulnerability factors in the JD-R model (N = 430). Note. ***p < .001, **p < .01, *p < .05

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
We examine the role of personal resources (hardiness) and personal vulnerability factors (external locus of control and helplessness) at work, among 430 teachers at private schools. Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model and the conservation of resources theory, we parallel tested both motivational and health-impairment processes on the te...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Background: Health care practitioners are at highest risk of COVID-19 disease. They experience an enormous overload of work and time pressures. The objective of the study was to assess nurses' life satisfaction. Method: The study included professionally active nurses. The research method was an author's questionnaire and a standardized questionn...

Citations

... The beneficial role of occupational hardiness has been confirmed in numerous studies, both in relations to well-being of workers and benefits for organizations. As for employee well-being, the research results show that hardiness, on the one hand, mitigate the negative effects of occupational stress on health (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020), buffer the negative impact of emotional demands on feelings of emotional exhaustion (Mazzetti et al., 2020), reduce the likelihood of having any sickness absence and the number of absences (Hystad et al., 2011); on the other hand, hardiness turns out to be a significant predictor of job satisfaction (Khosravi & Kasaeiyan, 2019), self-efficacy, high self-esteem, and high quality of life (Asadi Sadeghi Azar et al., 2006). Hardiness is also associated with profits for the entire organization in the form of a wealth of job resources, work engagement (Guglielmi et al., 2019), job performance (Tahmasebzadeh Sheikhlar et al., 2019), and organizational commitment (Hwang et al., 2013). ...
... Hardiness can be treated as a personal resource that buffers the negative impact of occupational stress and translates into higher work engagement (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020). This is especially important in professions where the scope of work includes building relationships with other people, since, as the results of research (e.g., Lubrańska, 2012) show that it is this type of work that is most predisposed to job burnout. ...
Article
Occupational hardiness is a pattern of attitudes and strategies that stimulates an individual to perceive stressful work situations as controllable, worth dealing with, and contributing to professional development. One of the popular tools in the world to measure this construct is the Occupational Hardiness Questionnaire (OHQ) developed by Moreno-Jiménez et al. It has a three-factor structure, proven construct validity, and good internal consistency. The overarching aim of the study was to prepare a Polish adaptation of the OHQ based on a sample of Polish employees working in health care, education and science, and customer service. The questionnaire-based research was conducted in two stages, with two independent samples. The first study was cross-sectional. Their results were used to estimate the factorial validity, construct validity, and internal consistency of the adapted tool. Participants in the first study were 1,212 employees (originally 1,315) of health care (n = 400), education and science (n = 410), and customer service (n = 400) sectors. The second study, which was longitudinal in nature, included two measurements and was used to estimate test–retest reliability. Of the 400 participants (employees of customer service), 205 completed the questionnaire in two measurements. The Polish version of the OHQ has a three-factor structure, confirmed construct validity and good internal consistency. The Polish version of the OHQ is ideal for scientific research, but can also be used in practice: in career counseling, recruitment, selection, or screening.
... One located study was in India (Dixit, & Upadhyay, 2021) while the other one was in China (Xia et al., 2020) and in both cases the academic staff members were surveyed using questionnaires. Another related study was among teachers in Peru private schools (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020). This indicates a gap in studies conducted in public organizations found in an African context using a qualitative approach. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to apply the job demands-resources (JD–R) theory in a public university as a lens to ascertain the extent of measures undertaken by academic supervisors to provide physical environment resources that support administrative employees and enhance their performance of the demanding duties they constantly perform. Supervisors’ understanding of their role in catering to the physical environment needs of administrative employees has been ignored in previous studies conducted in the university sector. The research design was qualitative since data collection relied on semi-structured interviews with six academic heads of departments who supervised office administrative employees in a public university context. The participants’ responses indicated a high understanding of the importance of providing resources such as updated equipment and eliminating any physical environmental factors that could enhance office employees’ performance in their demanding administrative duties. The challenges expressed were mainly with the budget that proved to constrain them. This finding on supervisors is significant as it addresses a research gap in which the focus on physical environment factors has mainly been on employees’ perceptions and experiences in the business sector with less interest in the public sector and developing countries. The success of an organization requires a caring leadership that strives to provide enabling workplace physical environment resources that meet the work demands of employees.
... In fact, positive pychological resources may help to effectively cope with adverse situations, reducing the risk of burnout and enhancing work engagement. Basically, these resources refer to the individuals' sense to successfully control or adapt to the demands of their environment (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Hobfoll et al., 2003;Luthans & Youssef-Morgan, 2017). In this context, resilience, the ability to overcome or endure adverse situations (Garmezy et al., 1984;Masten et al., 1990), is a popular construct which has been positively associated with work engagement (Kašpárková et al., 2018;Mache et al., 2014) and negatively associated with burnout (Corso- de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Menezes de Luzena et al., 2006). ...
... Basically, these resources refer to the individuals' sense to successfully control or adapt to the demands of their environment (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Hobfoll et al., 2003;Luthans & Youssef-Morgan, 2017). In this context, resilience, the ability to overcome or endure adverse situations (Garmezy et al., 1984;Masten et al., 1990), is a popular construct which has been positively associated with work engagement (Kašpárková et al., 2018;Mache et al., 2014) and negatively associated with burnout (Corso- de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Menezes de Luzena et al., 2006). However, these effects may also be attributed to the relationship that resilience has with other positive constructs, such as self-efficacy (Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2017) or optimism, which may be also implicated in coping with stressful or adverse situations (Haglund et al., 2007;Lamont et al., 2019). ...
... A number of studies have compared resilience and optimism as predictors of psychological well-being in different samples, including informal caregivers (Maguire et al., 2019) or war prisoners (Segovia et al., 2012). Hence, both personal resources involve the enhanced perception of control to face adversity, decreasing the probability of suffering burnout (Garrosa et al., 2011;Pan et al., 2017), whereas the prolonged perception of lack of control to cope with work demands may result in psychological stress and burnout (Akça & Yaman, 2010;Brosschot et al., 1994;Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020). Thus, it has been suggested that burnout, usually associated with depression, may result from helplessness in an adverse working environment (Bianchi et al., 2021;Welp et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Resilience and optimism have been proposed as psychological resources which may help to cope better with work demands, preventing negative consequences of stress, whereas external locus of control (ELC) is considered an intra-psychic vulnerability factor associated with increased burnout. Noteworthy, the specific role of these overlapping constructs on the prevention of burnout and promotion of work engagement, respectively, remains unclear. Objective The main aim of this study was to compare the differential significance of resilience and optimism, joined with ELC, on the prediction of burnout and work engagement. Method A sample of 265 professional caregivers of dependent older adults was assessed using an extensive standardized protocol. Optimism and ELC were measured using the Palenzuela's Battery of Generalised Expectancies of Control, and the Connor-Davidson Scale was used to estimate resilience. Moreover, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used to measure burnout and work engagement, respectively. Different hierarchical regression models were conducted with burnout and work engagement as dependent factors. Results The results showed that more than half (51%) variance in resilience was accounted by grounded optimism scores. The ELC was the main explanatory factor of burnout, whereas optimism and resilience were the best predictors of work engagement. Finally, even after controlling the effect of resilience, the effect of optimism remained significant for predicting work engagement. Conclusions These findings support distinctive role resilience and optimism, two closely related psychological constructs, for promoting work engagement and reducing burnout in professional caregivers of older adults.
... According to the JD-R model, job demands and job resources vary depending on the particular occupational setting, meaning that different occupational settings may be best described in terms of different job demands and job resources (Bakker et al., 2003). For example, emotional and quantitative work demands, administrative rigidity, pupil misbehaviour and low student motivation are among the demands that have been identified as stressors among teachers (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2018;Tuxford & Bradley, 2014), whereas decision authority, supportive relations with colleagues, and relatedness with students have been identified as resources among teachers (Collie et al., 2020;Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Fernet et al., 2013;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2018). The job demands and resources variables that were examined in the present study were selected based on these studies and were also derived from the literature on work stress in human service professions (Aronsson et al., 2018;Cérdas et al., 2019), of which teachers constitute a large group. ...
Article
Full-text available
The high level of stress among teachers is a frequently reported problem globally but less is known about how demands and resources among teachers affect depressive symptoms, and to what extent gender differences in these conditions can explain potential differences in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated gender differences in teachers’ self-reported depressive symptoms, and differences in their demands and resources in both work and home spheres. Associations between demands and resources, respectively, and depressive symptoms as well as gender differences in these associations were examined. Results from univariate and parallel growth modelling ( N = 1,022), using data from six time points (2008 to 2018), found higher levels of depressive symptoms, higher emotional and quantitative work demands, and more time doing unpaid work among female teachers, whereas male teachers reported more time on leisure activities. Emotional and quantitative work demands were associated with depressive symptoms at baseline, and these associations also developed in parallel over time. Leisure time had a negative association with depressive symptoms at baseline. There were no gender differences in the strength of these associations. Findings suggest that gender differences in teachers’ depressive symptoms could be attributable to women’s greater demands in the work sphere and fewer resources in the home sphere than men as opposed to their being more vulnerable to workplace stressors.
... The SET posits that the mutual exchange between two parties produces a norm of reciprocity (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005;Uhl-Bien and Maslyn, 2003), whereby favourable treatment received by one party highly obligates him or her to provide favourable treatment in return (Gouldner, 1960). Meanwhile, the JD-R model mainly focuses on actively motivating employees by furnishing them with adequate resources to meet their job demands (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020). The findings of this study are in line with these theoretical frameworks, such that, when employees perceive feelings of satisfaction and commitment as well as less stress from their organisations, they reciprocate by staying with the organisation. ...
... We argue that viewing health solely as an outcome of work falls short as it fails to consider the fact that not every person enters the workforce or a job with the same baseline health and evidence that implies quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work" (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008, p. 210). Work engagement is positively associated with life satisfaction and negatively associated with depressive symptoms (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Hakanen & Schaufeli, 2012). ...
... Researchers often conceptualize health problems as a distal outcome of job characteristics and burnout (Ahola & Hakanen, 2014;Hakanen et al., 2006;Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004a). Job burnout is linked to and viewed as a predictor of general ill health, depressive symptoms, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disorders, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sickness absence and sickness absence (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Hakanen & Schaufeli, 2012;Honkonen et al., 2006;Melamed et al., 2006;Toker et al., 2012;Toppinen-Tanner et al., 2005). Past research theorized that "prolonged burnout may set the stage for various pathophysiological processes, such as chronic, acute phase response, inflammatory processes, and metabolic events, which may culminate in health impairment" (Ahola & Hakanen, 2014, p. 14). ...
... The inclusion of personal resources into the JD-R model is a more recent development (Xanthopoulou et al., 2007)rooted in the definition of resources according to Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989(Hobfoll, , 2012. Amongst the personal resources investigated within the JD-R framework are hardiness, which was negatively associated with burnout and positively associated with work engagement in a study amongst teachers (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020), self-efficacy, and optimism (Xanthopoulou et al., 2009). The exact role of personal resources within the processes outlined in the JD-R model has not yet been thoroughly investigated; however, it is assumed that they can directly impact employee outcomes above and beyond the effects of job characteristics (Schaufeli & Taris, 2014). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of autoimmune diseases is increasing. Although evidence implies that people with chronic illnesses experience higher levels of burnout, there are few available insights for developing preventative interventions. This paper builds on the Conservation of Resources (COR) and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework to investigate the association between impaired health, burnout, and work engagement. In two studies, we research the role of health status as a resource, respectively, autoimmune illness symptom severity as a diminished resource, and investigate its variance explanation in burnout and work engagement above and beyond the effects of job demands and resources. Study 1 investigated the hypotheses among 87 employees with inflammatory bowel diseases. Controlling for job demands and resources, symptom severity was positively associated with (exhaustion) burnout and negatively associated with work engagement. In Study 2, we applied mixed model analyses using a sample of 129 employees with multiple sclerosis. We found significant associations of symptom severity on burnout and vigor work engagement above and beyond the effects of job demands and social support. Our studies provide important insights for employees with chronic illnesses and the organizations in which they work and give indications for theory development, future research, and the development of interventions.
... Based on the definition of the diversity of life as well as various manifestations of such a quality as resilience, we can talk about the multifaceted phenomenon of hardiness. Applied research has identified a personal construct of "hardiness", which characterizes the degree of individual ability to withstand a stressful situation, maintaining internal balance without reducing the success of the activity [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main challenges of today is to increase the resilience of individuals to stressful environmental factors and preserve the quality of life and efficiency. Hardiness is a psychological phenomenon, the essence of which is a productive way out of the crisis towards personal growth. Taking into account the effectiveness of information and technological progress, the issue of internalization of AR technologies in the process of training a competitive, viable specialist who is able to mobilize and self-realize internal potential resources is vital. The scientific article analyzes the possibilities of using innovative AR technologies in the process of developing the hardiness of the future specialist on the basis of the implementation of competence and subject-personal approach to the introduction of AR technologies in the educational process in the system of higher education. The article describes the experience of integrated implementation of elements of augmented reality in the program of development of hardiness - Hardiness Enhancing Lifestyle Program based on the concept of BYOD. According to the results of the obtained empirical data the efficiency of using innovative AR technologies in the structure of mobile applications in the process of development of the components of hardiness of the personality of the future specialist is proved. Prospect for further research is the development of a methodology for integrated implementation of AR technologies in the practice of higher education in order to optimize the training of future professionals.
... The SET posits that the mutual exchange between two parties produces a norm of reciprocity (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005;Uhl-Bien and Maslyn, 2003), whereby favourable treatment received by one party highly obligates him or her to provide favourable treatment in return (Gouldner, 1960). Meanwhile, the JD-R model mainly focuses on actively motivating employees by furnishing them with adequate resources to meet their job demands (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020). The findings of this study are in line with these theoretical frameworks, such that, when employees perceive feelings of satisfaction and commitment as well as less stress from their organisations, they reciprocate by staying with the organisation. ...
The main objective of this study was to understand the impacts of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job stress, and safety climate on turnover intention among Malaysian employees working in multinational corporations (MNCs). A total of 130 valid responses were collected from MNC employees through both online and offline surveys. The data was then analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Notably, our findings showed that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are negatively related to turnover intention, while job stress is positively related to turnover intention. The outcomes of this study provide valuable insights to practitioners, particularly in reducing the turnover rate in MNCs.
... We also found that the satisfaction of BPN partially mediated the effects of hardiness on soldier's engagement. Previous studies showed that both psychological hardiness (Corso-de-Zúñiga, Moreno-Jiménez, Garrosa, Blanco-Donoso, & Carmona-Cobo, 2020;Lo Bue et al., 2013;Mazzetti et al., 2019) and satisfaction of BPN (Albrecht, 2015;Sulea, van Beek, Sarbescu, Virga, & Schaufeli, 2015;Van den Broeck et al., 2008) predict higher levels of engagement. However, no studies have jointly integrated hardiness and need satisfaction for explaining the mechanism leading to higher engagement. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between psychological hardiness, basic psychological need (BPN) satisfaction (Self-Determination theory, Deci & Ryan, 2000), soldiers’ engagement, and general self-reported health. We hypothesized that the effect of psychological hardiness on soldiers’ engagement and general health is mediated by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Data from a questionnaire survey was collected among soldiers of the Lithuanian Armed forces (N = 506) using The Hardiness – Resilience Gauge (HRG), Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES – 9) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ – 12). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the hypothesis of a mediating role of BPN satisfaction within the relationship between hardiness and soldier’s engagement and general health. The results showed mediating effects of satisfaction of BPN on psychological hardiness and health, and engagement relationship, thus providing support for our hypothesis. Implications of the results are discussed.
... In fact, positive pychological resources may help to effectively cope with adverse situations, reducing the risk of burnout and enhancing work engagement. Basically, these resources refer to the individuals' sense to successfully control or adapt to the demands of their environment (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Hobfoll et al., 2003;Luthans & Youssef-Morgan, 2017). In this context, resilience, the ability to overcome or endure adverse situations (Garmezy et al., 1984;Masten et al., 1990), is a popular construct which has been positively associated with work engagement (Kašpárková et al., 2018;Mache et al., 2014) and negatively associated with burnout (Corso- de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Menezes de Luzena et al., 2006). ...
... Basically, these resources refer to the individuals' sense to successfully control or adapt to the demands of their environment (Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Hobfoll et al., 2003;Luthans & Youssef-Morgan, 2017). In this context, resilience, the ability to overcome or endure adverse situations (Garmezy et al., 1984;Masten et al., 1990), is a popular construct which has been positively associated with work engagement (Kašpárková et al., 2018;Mache et al., 2014) and negatively associated with burnout (Corso- de-Zúñiga et al., 2020;Menezes de Luzena et al., 2006). However, these effects may also be attributed to the relationship that resilience has with other positive constructs, such as self-efficacy (Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2017) or optimism, which may be also implicated in coping with stressful or adverse situations (Haglund et al., 2007;Lamont et al., 2019). ...
... A number of studies have compared resilience and optimism as predictors of psychological well-being in different samples, including informal caregivers (Maguire et al., 2019) or war prisoners (Segovia et al., 2012). Hence, both personal resources involve the enhanced perception of control to face adversity, decreasing the probability of suffering burnout (Garrosa et al., 2011;Pan et al., 2017), whereas the prolonged perception of lack of control to cope with work demands may result in psychological stress and burnout (Akça & Yaman, 2010;Brosschot et al., 1994;Corso-de-Zúñiga et al., 2020). Thus, it has been suggested that burnout, usually associated with depression, may result from helplessness in an adverse working environment (Bianchi et al., 2021;Welp et al., 2015). ...