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HPLC -Phenolic compounds in date palm fruits extracts 

HPLC -Phenolic compounds in date palm fruits extracts 

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Date palm fruits are one of the most popular fruits packed with an impressive list of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that are required for normal growth, development and overall well-being. They contain health benefiting polyphenolic antioxidants. This work is aimed to determine the phenolic profile and phenolic content of date palm fr...

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... obtained from HPLC chromatogram of water and ethanol date palm extracts are given in (Table 2). The results in the table showed the detected phenolic compounds and their concentrations. ...

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The present study investigates the comparative antioxidant ability of the date fruits (DF's) (Phoenix dactylifera) of three major date palm varieties such as Fardh, Khasab and Khalas grown in the Sultanate of Oman at two edible maturation stages, namely Rutab (fresh) and Tamr (dried). Antioxidant ability was assessed by using 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethyl...

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... [50,91] Polyphenolics, including flavonoids, found in plants have been reported to be strong ROS scavengers, antioxidants, and protectors of neurons from lethal damage and are able to chelate metal ions. [92][93][94] Flavonoids exert diversity of neuroprotective actions within the brain which includes potential to protect neurons against injury triggered by neurotoxins and ability to suppress neuroinflammation. [95,96] Thus, AFPD could benefit the brain through its neuroprotective property, protecting neurons from the actions of ROS by utilizing its antioxidant property, [97][98][99] and could be a potential candidate for application in the management and treatment of ROS-induced neurodegenerative diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Mercury is a widespread environmental and industrial pollutant that exerts toxic effects on vital organs. The cerebrum, composed of cortical areas such as the primary motor cortex (M1), is a vulnerable target of mercury toxicity within the central nervous system. Phoenix dactylifera is used in folk medicine to treat diverse disorders, such as loss of consciousness, memory disturbances, and nervous disorders. Aim: This study microscopically evaluated the neuroprotective effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of P. dactylifera (AFPD) on mercury‑triggered M1 changes in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty‑four Wistar rats were divided into six groups (I–VI; n = 4). Group I was administered distilled water (2 ml/kg); Group II administered mercuric chloride (MCL, 5 mg/kg); Group III administered Vitamin C (100 mg/kg) + MCL (5 mg/kg); Groups IV, V, and VI were administered AFPD (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) followed by MCL (5 mg/kg). Neuroprotective property was evaluated by microscopic assessment of M1 region applying histological techniques and analysis of histometric features of M1 neurons. Statistical Analysis Used: One‑way ANOVA and paired sample t‑test were used. Results: Microscopic examination of MCL‑treated cerebral sections revealed M1 histoarchitectural distortion and neurodegenerative changes such as pyknosis, neuronal shrinkage, chromatolysis, loss of pyramidal neurites, and altered Nissl substance reactivity, relative to the control. Administration of AFPD remarkably ameliorated MCL‑triggered M1 changes, especially at dose 500 mg/kg with neuroprotective property comparable to the reference drug, Vitamin C. Conclusion: AFPD is potentially efficacious in ameliorating mercury‑triggered microscopic alterations in M1 region of Wistar rats. The neuroprotective property of AFPD could be attributed to antioxidant properties of constituent phytochemicals. Keywords: Histochemistry, histology, histometry, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, primary motor cortex
... Apart from the rich nutritional value, date fruits exhibit a wide range of beneficial health effects, including antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and nephroprotective activities [160,166,167]. Furthermore, a number of antibacterial properties have been observed in dates including the inhibition of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus cereus [168,169]. This can be due to the high dietary fiber content of dates and its lignin and tannin [170]. ...
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Date (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) fruits and their by-products are rich in nutrients. The health benefits of dates and their incorporation into value-added products have been widely studied. The date-processing industry faces a significant sustainability challenge as more than 10% (w/w) of the production is discarded as waste or by-products. Currently, food scientists are focusing on bakery product fortification with functional food ingredients due to the high demand for nutritious food with more convenience. Utilizing date components in value-added bakery products is a trending research area with increasing attention. Studies where the researchers tried to improve the quality of bakery goods by incorporating date components have shown positive results, with several drawbacks that need attention and further research. The objective of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the utilization of date components in bakery products and to identify gaps in the current knowledge. This review will help focus further research in the area of valorization of date by-products and thereby contribute to the generation of novel functional bakery products that meet consumer expectations and industry standards, thus generating income for the relevant industry and considerable alleviation of the environmental burden this waste and by-products contribute to. Only a few studies have been focused on utilizing date by-products and their extracts for baked goods, while a research area still remaining under-explored is the effect of incorporation of date components on the shelf life of bakery products.
... These activities have been associated with neuroprotective properties of P. dactylifera. [45,[59][60][61][62] Thus, AFPD, especially at dose 1000 mg/kg, possesses neuroprotective properties comparable to the reference drug, L-dopa. ...
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Background: Herbicides including paraquat (PQ) have been reported to have deleterious effects on biological systems and normal functioning of the brain, especially regions related to motor functionality and coordination like the cerebrum and substantia nigra resulting in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. Phoenix dactylifera has high nutritional value and is beneficial in the management and treatment of diverse ailments. Aim: This study assessed the protective properties of Aqueous fruit extract of P. dactylifera (AFPD) on PQ‑triggered cortico‑nigral neurotoxicity in rats. Neuroprotective properties of AFPD were assessed using beam walking performance (BWP) for motor coordination, oxidative stress biomarkers (Malondialdehyde [MDA], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and glutathione [GSH]) and histological examination (H and E stained) for cytoarchitectural changes. BWP across the study period revealed no motor coordination deficit with PQ exposure. Materials and Methods: Twenty‑five rats were categorized into five groups (n = 5); the control was administered 2 ml/kg distilled H2O, another group received 11.35 mg/kg PQ, another received 11.35 mg/kg PQ + 10 mg/kg L‑dopa as reference drug, while two other groups received 11.35 mg/kg PQ + 500 mg/kg AFPD and 11.35 mg/kg PQ + 1,000 mg/kg AFPD, respectively, for 28 days. Results: PQ‑treated group revealed oxidative stress by significant elevation of MDA levels and decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH). Remarkable cytoarchitectural distortions were observed with PQ treatment. However, AFPD treatment showed ameliorative properties by a significant decrease in MDA levels and increased SOD and GSH activities. Mild distortion‑to‑relatively normal neuronal cytoarchitecture relative to the control was also observed with AFPD treatment. Conclusion: AFPD possesses potential neuroprotective properties against PQ‑triggered pathological changes in cortico‑nigral structures of Wistar rats. Keywords: Beam walking performance, cytoarchitecture, motor coordination, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress
... These activities have been associated with neuroprotective properties of P. dactylifera. [45,[59][60][61][62] Thus, AFPD, especially at dose 1000 mg/kg, possesses neuroprotective properties comparable to the reference drug, L-dopa. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Herbicides including paraquat (PQ) have been reported to have deleterious effects on biological systems and normal functioning of the brain, especially regions related to motor functionality and coordination like the cerebrum and substantia nigra resulting in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. Phoenix dactylifera has high nutritional value and is beneficial in the management and treatment of diverse ailments. Aim: This study assessed the protective properties of Aqueous fruit extract of P. dactylifera (AFPD) on PQ‑triggered cortico‑nigral neurotoxicity in rats. Neuroprotective properties of AFPD were assessed using beam walking performance (BWP) for motor coordination, oxidative stress biomarkers (Malondialdehyde [MDA], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and glutathione [GSH]) and histological examination (H and E stained) for cytoarchitectural changes. BWP across the study period revealed no motor coordination deficit with PQ exposure. Materials and Methods: Twenty‑five rats were categorized into five groups (n = 5); the control was administered 2 ml/kg distilled H2 O, another group received 11.35 mg/kg PQ, another received 11.35 mg/kg PQ + 10 mg/kg L‑dopa as reference drug, while two other groups received 11.35 mg/kg PQ + 500 mg/kg AFPD and 11.35 mg/kg PQ + 1,000 mg/kg AFPD, respectively, for 28 days. Results: PQ‑treated group revealed oxidative stress by significant elevation of MDA levels and decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH). Remarkable cytoarchitectural distortions were observed with PQ treatment. However, AFPD treatment showed ameliorative properties by a significant decrease in MDA levels and increased SOD and GSH activities. Mild distortion‑to‑relatively normal neuronal cytoarchitecture relative to the control was also observed with AFPD treatment. Conclusion: AFPD possesses potential neuroprotective properties against PQ‑triggered pathological changes in cortico‑nigral structures of Wistar rats. Keywords: Beam walking performance, cytoarchitecture, motor coordination, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress
... In contrary to results obtained in this work, leaves and fruits from P. dactylifera (data palm) extracts have been found to display strong and moderate antimicrobial potential against some drug sensitive microorganisms. Some previous literature works also reported the antioxidant activities of this plant [34][35][36][37]. Weak inhibitory power of this plant obtained herein is due to the fact that studied bacteria were multidrug resistant phenotypes. ...
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Background: Bacterial infections involving the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains are among the top leading causes of death throughout the world. Healthcare system across the globe has been suffering from an extra-ordinary burden in terms of looking for the new and more potent antimicrobial compounds. The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of some Cameroonian edible plants (Garcinia lucida bark, Phoenix dactylifera pericarps, Theobroma cacao pod, Solanum macrocarpon leaves and Termitomyces titanicus whole plant) and their antibiotics-potentiation effects against some MDR Gram-negative bacteria phenotypes expressing efflux pumps (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia stuartii strains). Methods: The antibacterial activities of plant extract alone and in combination with usual antibiotics were carried out using the micro-dilution method. The effects of the most active plant extract (Garcinia lucida bark) on H+-ATPase-mediated proton pumps and on bacterial growth kinetic were performed using experimental protocols, while qualitative reference methods were used to highligh the major groups of secondary metabolites present in the extracts. Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening of plant extracts indicated that all analysed secondary metabolites were present in Theobroma cacao and Termitomyces titanicus while one (saponins) of them was absent in Garcinia lucida and Solanum macrocarpon. Only three of them (polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins) were detected in Phoenix dactylifera. Antibacterial essays showed that G. lucida was the most active plant as it inhibited the growth of all studied bacteria with strong activity (MIC<100 µg/mL) against E. coli ATCC8739, significant activity (100≤MIC≤512 µg/mL) against 80% of bacteria and moderate activity (512<MIC≤2048 µg/mL) against E. coli AG100A and E. aerogenes (EA289 and CM64). It was followed by T. cacao and S. macrocarpon extracts which exhibited an antibacterial potential against 95% and 80% of bacterial strains, respectively. These three extracts exhibited a bactericidal effect on a few bacteria. Extracts from T. titanicus and P. dactylifera were less active as they moderately (512<MIC≤2048 µg/mL) inhibited the growth of 35% and 10% of bacteria. All extracts selectively potentiated the activities of all antibiotics with improvement activity factors (IAF) ranging from 2 to 256. G. lucida, T. cacao and S. macrocarpon potentiated the activities of 100%, 89% and 67% of antibiotics respectively against more than 70%, suggesting that they contain bioactive compounds which could be considered as efflux pumps inhibitors. Whereas T. titanicus and P. dactylifera improved the activities of almost 40% and 20% of antibiotics, respectively. This increase of activities also characterizes synergistic effects between antibiotics and these bioactive compounds. G. lucida extract at all tested concentrations, strongly inhibited the growth of bacterial strain E. coli ATCC8739 and exhibited an inhibitory effect on this bacterial H+-ATPase-mediated proton pumps increasing the pH of the medium. Conclusion: The overall results indicated that food plants among which G. lucida, T. cacao and S. macrocarpon could have a benefit interest in combatting resistant types of bacteria. Keywords: Food plants; infectious diseases; MDR bacteria; efflux pumps; antibiotics; secondary metabolites.
... In a disc diffusion method, aqueous and ethanol extracts of P. dactylifera fruits were highly antibacterial against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Bacillus subtilis, while Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis were moderately inhibited by P. dactylifera fruits extracts. This antibacterial activity is caused by the inclusion of P. dactylifera extracts of esculetin, tannic acid, gallic acid, itaconic acid and ferulic acid (El Sohaimy et al. 2015). ...
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Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) products have been widely consumed for thousands of years in Islamic countries. It has many varieties in different countries including Ajwa, Bouskri, Bousrdon, Bousthammi, Boufgous, Jihl, and Medjool. Date palm is a useful traditional medicinal plant containing numerous bioactive compounds that have free radical scavenging, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-cancer, and immunostimulant activities. These biological activities are due to the nutritive and bioactive compounds that are present in its fruits, seeds, pollen, and other parts. Phoenix dactylifera contains fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, and steroidal substances of nutritive value. Also, it contains many valuable phytochemical constituents like phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids. More research is needed to investigate the pharmacological potentials of P. dactylifera bioactive constituents either in free- or in nano-forms. Therefore, we encourage researchers to investigate the molecular and biochemical effects of P. dactylifera supplementation on reproduction, hormonal homeostasis, intestinal nutrient transport proteins, apoptosis, and antiapoptotic molecules. In addition, the effect of P. dactylifera supplementation on glucose uptake by peripheral tissues with evaluation of glucokinase and hexokinase genes and protein expression is the main future recommendation of our study, in addition to the investigation of gluconeogenic, glycogenic, and glycogenolytic enzymes gene and protein expression. Finally, we encourage researchers to further determine the mechanisms by which P. dactylifera induces its biological activities.
... This neutralisation was attributed to a steroidal compound (Abuharfeil et al., 1999). Other researchers found that aqueous and methanolic date extracts had strong antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Bacillus sabtilis (El Sohaimy, Abdelwahab, Brennan, & Aboul-Enein, 2015). This effect could be due to the presence of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin and tannic acid, as well as the moderate concentration of gallic and itaconic acid, and the traces of ferulic acid existent in date extracts (El Sohaimy et al., 2015;El-Far et al., 2019). ...
... Other researchers found that aqueous and methanolic date extracts had strong antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Bacillus sabtilis (El Sohaimy, Abdelwahab, Brennan, & Aboul-Enein, 2015). This effect could be due to the presence of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin and tannic acid, as well as the moderate concentration of gallic and itaconic acid, and the traces of ferulic acid existent in date extracts (El Sohaimy et al., 2015;El-Far et al., 2019). The specific composition of date extract (lignin and tannins) has been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the antimicrobial capacity of dates (Shafiei, Karimi, & Taherzadeh, 2010 It should be noted that, although date extracts are effective antimicrobial agents against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, they are more efficient in the case of Gram positive bacteria (El-Far et al., 2019). ...
Article
Date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) has traditionally been grown in South-West Asia and North Africa, principally for date fruit consumption. Nevertheless, its cultivation has recently spread to other areas of America, sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Southern Europe. During date fruit processing, several by-products are generated, like low-quality dates, pits, leaves and pollen. These wastes, together with the date fruit, constitute an important source of biocomponents such as hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonoids, tannins, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytoestrogens. This review provides detailed information about the sensory properties, nutritional profile and biocompounds with health-promoting properties present in date fruit and its by-products. Furthermore, recent findings regarding the potential of these products to develop new functional foodstuffs was also highlighted. Several studies have reported that the date fruit and its by-products present an outstanding richness in bioactive compounds with potential healthy properties that make them suitable to be used as nutraceutical ingredients in several foodstuffs. Their incorporation in the formulation of foods would contribute to cover the increasing demand of consumers by products elaborated with natural ingredients. Moreover, an important aspect to take into account is that food matrixes are an excellent vehicle for the availability of biomolecules present in the date palm products.
... Antioxidant activities have been implicated for neuroprotective property of P. dactylifera (Kalantaripour et al., 2012;Agbon et al., 2017;Essa et al., 2019). Phytochemicals including flavonoids, saponins and tannins have been reported to be potent scavengers of reactive oxygen species, metal ions chelators (El Sohaimy et al., 2015;Komaki et al., 2015), protectors of neurons from lethal damage induced by neurotoxins (Pujari et al., 2011) and, exert multiplicity of neuroprotective actions in in vivo and in vitro models of neurological disorders (Lobo et al., 2010;Chang et al., 2012;Hussain et al., 2020). Relevance of the structural and physiological integrity of CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subregions in hippocampal functionality has been established by several researchers (Kesner et al., 2005;Drew and Huckleberry, 2017;Liang et al., 2020). ...
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Mercury is an environmental neurotoxicant that triggers structural and physiological alterations in different brain parts. The hippocampus is associated with learning and memory, and injury to this brain part may lead to behavioural and cognitive changes. Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) has been demonstrated to possess a variety of medical benefits. This study comparatively assessed the neuroprotective property of aqueous and ethanol fruit pulp extracts of P. dactylifera in a rat model of mercury-triggered hippocampal changes using microscopic examinations. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (I-VII, n=4). Group I (control) was administered distilled water (2ml/kg); group II was administered mercuric chloride, HgCl2 (5mg/kg); group III was administered vitamin C (100mg/kg) as reference drug +HgCl2; groups IV and V were administered aqueous extract (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, respectively) +HgCl2, while groups VI and VII were administered ethanol extract (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, respectively) +HgCl2. Extracts' neuroprotective property were evaluated using histological and histometric assessments of CA1 and CA3 hippocampal sub-regions. Results revealed cytoarchitectural changes including karyopyknosis, basophilic necrosis and remarkably decreased histometric features of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in HgCl2-treated group relative to control. Administration of the extracts remarkably ameliorated mercury-induced degenerative changes by preservation of cytoarchitectural features comparable to reference drug. Comparatively, neuroprotective efficacies of the extracts are relatively similar, especially at doses of 500mg/kg and could be attributed to antioxidant activities of constituent phytochemicals. Results suggest that aqueous and ethanol fruit pulp extracts of P. dactylifera may prove efficacious in ameliorating mercury-triggered microscopic alterations in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.
... [50,91] Polyphenolics, including flavonoids, found in plants have been reported to be strong ROS scavengers, antioxidants, and protectors of neurons from lethal damage and are able to chelate metal ions. [92][93][94] Flavonoids exert diversity of neuroprotective actions within the brain which includes potential to protect neurons against injury triggered by neurotoxins and ability to suppress neuroinflammation. [95,96] Thus, AFPD could benefit the brain through its neuroprotective property, protecting neurons from the actions of ROS by utilizing its antioxidant property, [97][98][99] and could be a potential candidate for application in the management and treatment of ROS-induced neurodegenerative diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Mercury is a widespread environmental and industrial pollutant that exerts toxic effects on vital organs. The cerebrum, composed of cortical areas such as the primary motor cortex (M1), is a vulnerable target of mercury toxicity within the central nervous system. Phoenix dactylifera is used in folk medicine to treat diverse disorders, such as loss of consciousness, memory disturbances, and nervous disorders. Aim: This study microscopically evaluated the neuroprotective effect of aqueous fruit pulp extract of P. dactylifera (AFPD) on mercury‑triggered M1 changes in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty‑four Wistar rats were divided into six groups (I–VI; n = 4). Group I was administered distilled water (2 ml/kg); Group II administered mercuric chloride (MCL, 5 mg/kg); Group III administered Vitamin C (100 mg/kg) + MCL (5 mg/kg); Groups IV, V, and VI were administered AFPD (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) followed by MCL (5 mg/kg). Neuroprotective property was evaluated by microscopic assessment of M1 region applying histological techniques and analysis of histometric features of M1 neurons. Statistical Analysis Used: One‑way ANOVA and paired sample t‑test were used. Results: Microscopic examination of MCL‑treated cerebral sections revealed M1 histoarchitectural distortion and neurodegenerative changes such as pyknosis, neuronal shrinkage, chromatolysis, loss of pyramidal neurites, and altered Nissl substance reactivity, relative to the control. Administration of AFPD remarkably ameliorated MCL‑triggered M1 changes, especially at dose 500 mg/kg with neuroprotective property comparable to the reference drug, Vitamin C. Conclusion: AFPD is potentially efficacious in ameliorating mercury‑triggered microscopic alterations in M1 region of Wistar rats. The neuroprotective property of AFPD could be attributed to antioxidant properties of constituent phytochemicals. Keywords: Histochemistry, histology, histometry, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, primary motor cortex
... The date fruit is a source of soluble sugars and is abundant in fiber and various phenolic compounds [1]. Thus, consuming dates provides a variety of health benefits, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antimutagenic effects [2][3][4][5]. Research suggest that dates are rich in phenolic antioxidants, with their content varying depending on the variety of date and agronomic and environmental conditions [6][7][8][9][10]. Total antioxidant activity assays have been used for rapid comparison of samples to determine their relative importance as dietary sources of antioxidants [7,[10][11][12][13][14]. ...
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Background: Phenolic compounds in date palm fruit (dates) contribute to the color, antioxidant activity, and nutritional value of the fruit. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the Folin–Ciocalteu, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS.+), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods for measuring the total antioxidant activity of date fruit extracts. Methods: A total of 26 date varieties from the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan that varied in color and shape were analyzed in terms of their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using the Folin–Ciocalteu, ABTS.+, FRAP, and DPPH methods. Two extracts were obtained from each date variety to study the soluble and insoluble phenolic fractions. Results: The total phenolic content varied 46–397 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight (FW) using the Folin–Ciocalteu method, 0.9–4.3 μmol TE/100 g FW using ABTS.+, 355–2421 μmol TE/100 g FW using FRAP, and 0.0–1.8 mg/mL using DPPH. These results suggest large variations in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity among the date varieties. However, the results of the four total antioxidant activity assays were not correlated with each other and exhibited large disparity. Conclusions: These findings put in question the ability of these total antioxidant activity assays to accurately assess the phenolic compounds of dates.