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HH index for patents, publications and other variables

HH index for patents, publications and other variables

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In this paper we exploit a unique and rich dataset of patent applications and scientific publications in order to answer several questions concerned with two current phenomena on the way knowledge is produced and shared worldwide: its geographical spread at the international level and its spatial concentration in few worldwide geographical hotspots...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... that by taking the reciprocal of the HH index (that is: 1-HH) we obtain a measure of international dispersion. Figure 1 reports the yearly HH index for 195 countries, for several indicators: total exports, inward foreign direct investments (FDI), R&D (as measured by either the expenditures or staff employed, in full time equivalent), internationally oriented patents, and scientific publications (plus total population, as benchmark). 1 Two stylized facts stand out. First, knowledge-related and innovation activities, such as R&D expenditures, patents, and publications, are way more concentrated than population, trade and FDI. ...
Context 2
... further stylized facts emerge from Figure 1, which are worth stressing. First, R&D expenditures are more concentrated than R&D personnel. ...
Context 3
... again, globalization of science and technology follow different paths. In Figure 10, we split the patents and publications by international teams in three groups, namely those whose teams include only inventors or authors from within the U.S., Japan, Canada and Western Europe (as defined above) (G4), inventors or authors from only the rest of the world (RoW), and inventors or authors from both G4 and the rest of the world (RoW) -with a dashed line indicating intra Germany-Japan-US ties. 1998-2002 1998-2002 2011-2015 2011-2015 Source: Authors based on PATSTAT, PCT and Web of Science data. ...
Context 4
... strikingly, the share of teams comprising authors from the rest of world only follows clearly an upward trend, but remains small compared to the two other. Figure 11 shows the top-10% largest collaboration corridors, for patents and publications, and for two time-windows. Although concentration of collaborations is decreasing as new stakeholders enter the various collaboration networks, it is only a few countries besides the G4 that explain the trend. ...
Context 5
... the following one we examine to what extent they are connected and participate to the Global Innovation Network. Figure 12 shows a preliminary view of the distribution of patents and publications, for two different time windows, on a spiky map. Patents and publications are grouped across the smallest available administrative areas within each country, as provided by GADM maps (https://gadm.org). ...
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... administrative units in Figure 12, however, do not distinguish between types of agglomeration. Nor they are entirely comparable across countries, at least for two reasons. ...
Context 7
... innovation is more concentrated than both general economic activity and population. Figure 13 places a large number of GIHs (orange) and NCs (blue) on the maps of selected continents or subcontinents, with night light as background so to compare their presence with actual economic activity. Innovation follows a similar pattern of economic agglomeration, but it does not overlap entirely with it -witness the several bright spots that do not take any orange or blue color. ...
Context 8
... Figure 14 we look at the cumulative patents that GIHs host over time (by country). We draw blue lines for the total GIHs and for the GIHs in the top 25% of size rankings. ...
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... clearly observe that highly-cited, highly-valuable patents are systematically more concentrated than the average patents. We see similar patterns of increasing concentration for R. Korea, the U.K. and, especially, China and India (Figure 15, for China and India, where top-cited patents concentration is removed). The evolution in Germany is more stable (though with a slight increase in recent years), and stable or even decreasing in France. ...
Context 10
... right panels of Figure 14 and Figure 15 reproduce these same figures for the case of scientific publications. Again, we do not see a spatial spread of scientific activities over time in most countries (except for France and, especially, China), and even see slight increases in recent years for some countries. ...
Context 11
... right panels of Figure 14 and Figure 15 reproduce these same figures for the case of scientific publications. Again, we do not see a spatial spread of scientific activities over time in most countries (except for France and, especially, China), and even see slight increases in recent years for some countries. ...
Context 12
... Figure 16, we look at the time evolution of unequal contribution of clusters. In this case, both GIHs and NCs are included in the analysis. ...
Context 13
... this case, both GIHs and NCs are included in the analysis. As shown in Figure 16 (left panel), despite only 10% of GIHs and NCs (49) concentrate 70-80% of all patent production, the concentration has gone down from almost 80% in the 1980s to around 70% at the end of the period. There is a slight increase of concentration in the last years, though one would need to wait some extra years to see whether there is indeed a change of tendency. ...
Context 14
... GIHs and NCs we detected form a veritable GIN. Figure 17 reports GIHs as orange nodes and NCs as blue ones, linked one another by national ties (blue) and international ones (green). The thickness of the links represents the amount of bilateral collaborations between clusters, measured using co-inventorship data. ...
Context 15
... China, this hierarchical structure is also evident, with Shanghai, Beijing, and Shenzhen acting as the top gatekeepers. For completeness, Figure 18 repeats the same analysis for publication data. ...
Context 16
... drawing proper network graphs, as in Figure 19 (in two time periods), we can appreciate the position of individual GIHs or NCs in the network. An innovation agglomeration is more "central" within this global network the more international connections it concentrates. ...
Context 17
... what extent the internationalization process we examined in section 3 did impact on the GIN of GIHs and NCs? In Figure 21 we split patents in two groups  the patents produced by clusters, which we defined as those whose teams count at least one inventor address in a GIH or NC, ...
Context 18
... D., Kazuyuki, M., 2018. Inventor Name Disambiguation with Gradient Boosting Decision Tree andInventor Mobility in China (1985-2016) (No. 18018), Discussion papers. Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry ...

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