Figure 2 - uploaded by Zuzana Vidholdova
Content may be subject to copyright.
Growth of the mycelium of brown-rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum after mycological test according to the standard EN 113 (16 weeks) on the beech and spruce wood samples 

Growth of the mycelium of brown-rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum after mycological test according to the standard EN 113 (16 weeks) on the beech and spruce wood samples 

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Natural durability of wood species is variable. Chemical wood preservatives, such as biocides are necessary for extension of their service life. Many methods have been developed to increase the resistance of wood and wood products against wood-destroying organisms during the last years. The most frequently used methods are chemical and thermal modi...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... samples treated only with the Paraloid (series P 2 and P 10 ) did not show any increase in their resistance against tested fungi (Table 1 and 2), without statistical differences to untreated ones (Figure 3). Fungi were able to penetrate the polyacrylate film on the inner surface of the wood cell walls and to attack this natural material. Fungi created abundant mycelium on the surface of samples (Figure 2). A higher resistance of beech and spruce samples was achieved only with the combination of Paraloid and TCMTB fungicide. Mass loss of by such a mode modified wood samples, both in the case of double impregnation (series D 0.1 and 2 , D 0.1 and 10 , D 0.33 and 2 and D 0.33 and 10 ) and impregnation with the mixture of Paraloid and TCMTB (series M 0.1 and 2 , M 0.1 and 10 , M 0.33 and 2 and M 0.33 and 10 ), have been statistically different to untreated ones (Figure 3). For double impregnation technique, the average mass loss of modified beech and spruce samples were close to zero (Table 1 and 2). Only set of beech samples impregnated at first by 0.1 % TCMTB and subsequently by 10 % Paraloid and decayed by the fungus Coniophora puteana showed considerably higher mass loss – 15.9 %. On the other hand, in case of the impregnation with the mixture a relatively worse effect of the TCMTB fungicide against fungi was observed. In this situation the durability of modified wood was diminished, probably due to blocking of the fungicide molecules by the larger polyacrylate ...

Similar publications

Thesis
Full-text available
This dissertation is devoted to explicitly investigate the suitability of titania and silica based precursors for wood modification. Novel TiO2 / SiO2 wood inorganic composites were prepared by two-step process. In first step, freshly prepared precursor solutions of silicon and titanium alkoxides were vacuum impregnated (one or more cycles) to oven...

Citations

... PEG 6000 did not increase the decay resistance of beech wood. Similarly, other studies with synthetic polymeric stabilizers and consolidants, such as polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, or polyacrylates, have also shown no or poor efficiency with regard to the colonization and degradation of wood by fungi [13,[37][38][39][40][41]. On the contrary, nano-ZnO evidently increased the decay resistance of beech wood. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Central Europe, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood has a high potential for the production of construction and decorative materials, with the aim of replacing Norway spruce, oaks, and other traditionally used tree species. However, the biological resistance of beech wood—to decaying fungi, molds, and insects—is low, and in damp conditions its resistance must be increased with suitable preservatives or modification methods. In the present experiment, beech wood was first treated with water systems of nano-zinc oxide (0.1 to 3.3 wt.% of nano-ZnO) and/or polyethylene glycol 6000 (20 wt.% of PEG 6000), without/with additional thermal modification at 190 °C/2 h. In the presence of nano-ZnO, the decay resistance of beech wood to the brown-rot fungus Rhodonia placenta and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor significantly increased, mainly after its additional thermal modification. The presence of nano-ZnO in beech wood—(a) alone, (b) with a subsequent application of PEG 6000, (c) with additional thermal modification—had a more apparent inhibition effect on T. versicolor than on R. placenta. PEG 6000 alone did not improve the resistance of beech wood to rot.
... Previous studies show that wood modification affects the basic wood properties, such as dimensional stability, hardness, durability, and UV stability [44]. Several studies also indicated the higher resistance of modified wood against the wood-destroying fungi [45,46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment of wood with various physical and chemical factors can change the number of wood parameters, which can also lead to changes in resistance to wood-destroying fungi. This study evaluates the effects of hydrothermal treatments (additives Fe2O3 or FeCl3 with and without commercial tannins, also without additives and fresh wood) on decay and mould fungi resistance of modified wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), walnut (Juglans regia), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides). For wood samples, the resistance against wood decay fungi Trametes versicolor (white rot) and Coniophora puteana (brown rot) and the resistance against mould fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were assessed. The study findings showed that wood modified with iron compounds could cause a higher resistance to wood-destroying fungi. The weight losses of the modified and control wood, caused by T. versicolor and C. puteana, differed for coniferous and deciduous: the average weight loss of treated pine, spruce, and fir wood caused by C. puteana was higher than that caused by T. versicolor, while these differences on maple and walnut wood were not significant. The wood hydrothermal treatment with Fe2Cl3 with and without tannins significantly reduced the weight loss caused by T. versicolor and C. puteana, and the treatment with Fe2O3 slightly improved the decay resistance. For the wood, hydrothermally modified with FeCl3 and FeCl3 + tannins, the mould area for both tested Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. was smallest for the wood of all tested tree species compared to other treatments. A different response was obtained for coniferous and deciduous tree species wood. The spruce wood, followed by fir wood, treated with FeCl3 with and without tannins, was the most resistant against the mould fungi. Relatively low resistance against the mould fungi was fixed for the maple wood treated by various iron compounds, except the treatment with Fe2O3 + tannins, which gave a very positive response against the Penicillium sp.
... Results of the SEM are in agreement with previous works wherein at 2% or 10% Paraloid B-72, no increases in the resistance of beech and spruce wood were observed against Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum [31], and weak activity was observed against Poria vaillantii [32]. In addition, some fungi are able to grow on Paraloid B-72 [70]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, novel mixed additives of Chitosan or Paraloid B-72 combined with nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag, ZnO, or cellulose (NCL) were examined for their effects on the mechanical, optical, and fungal inhibition properties of the papersheets produced. The highest tensile, tear, and burst indices of the papersheets were observed for flax pulp treated with additives of Paraloid B-72 + ZnO NP (1%), Chitosan + ZnO NP (3%), and Chitosan + NCL (3%) at levels of 59.93 N·m/g, 18.45 mN·m2/g, and 6.47 kPa·m2/g, respectively. Chitosan + ZnO NP (1%) added to flax pulp showed the highest fungal mycelial inhibition (FMI) (1.85%) against Aspergillus flavus. Chitosan + Ag NP (1%) exhibited the highest FMI percentage (11.48%) when added to pulp against A. terreus. Pulp treated with Paraloid B-72 + Ag NP (1%) exhibited the highest activity against Stemphylium solani with an FMI value of 3.7%. The results indicate that the technological properties of the papersheets were enhanced with the addition of novel mixtures to the pulp.
... It can be explained by a worse contact of BAC with the lignin-polysaccharide matrix of wood cell walls if this fungicide was used together with MTMS. Similar results related to worse efficiency of the one step technology compared to two step technology were reported by Tiralová and Reinprecht (2004), when wood was preserved with organic fungicides and acrylic resin. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents possibilities for increasing the decay and mould resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by treatment: (1) in one step with mixtures of aqueous solutions of methyltrimethoxysilane (0, 5, 10, 20 or 30 % MTMS) and benzalkoniumchloride (0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 % BAC), and (2) in two steps, first with BAC and then with MTMS. Prior to fungal resistance tests, the treated and reference specimens were not or were subjected to artificial ageing in distilled water and in Xenotest, respectively. Insufficient anti-decay efficiency of MTMS against the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was improved in the presence of BAC, usually more apparent if this fungicide was used first and in higher concentrations. After both artificial ageing modes, the decay resistance of treated pine specimens decreased approximately 1.2–1.8 times. The none anti-mould efficiency of MTMS improved in the presence of BAC—significantly against the mould Penicillium brevicompactum but only minimally against the mould Aspergillus niger.
... Paraloid B-72 is an acrylic resin that has been used as a wood surface consolidant (Yang et al. 2007;Vaz et al. 2008). However, this polymer at 2% or 10% has a weak resistance against the growth of fungi (Tiralová and Reinprecht 2004;Pohleven et al. 2013). The authors' previous studies reported F. culmorum was grown over an Acacia saligna wood surface that was treated by Paraloid B-72 (5% and 10%). ...
... Furthermore, the linear growth was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced with values of 13.3 mm, 13.3 mm, and 11.3 mm, for T. harzianum, A. tenuissima, and F culmorum, respectively, using the wood treated with Paraloid B72/TiO2 nanocomposites at a concentration of 10%.Table 3, the linear growth of the three molds incubated with the treated wood samples with Paraloid B-72 reached the maximum, which was not significantly different from the control treatments. These results are in agreement with previous works (Tiralová and Reinprecht 2004;Yang et al. 2007;Vaz et al. 2008;Pohleven et al. 2013;Reinprecht and Vidholdová 2017). Also, Paraloid B-72-only treated wood specimens were observed to have the highest weight losses in decay tests (Reinprecht et al. 2015;Muhcu et al. 2017) and practically the polyacrylate Paraloid B-72 had no effects against molds (Reinprecht and Vidholdová 2017). ...
Article
Acacia saligna wood was impregnated with 5% and 10% concentrations of Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites using a soaking technique and evaluated for their antifungal activity against the growth of three molds in vitro, namely, Alternaria tenuissima, Trichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum. The Titanium (Ti) element peak of 0.14% and 0.23%, was found in the A. saligna wood treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10%, respectively. Consolidant polymer Paraloid B-72 mixed with TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10% showed antifungal activity against the three studied molds, while the linear growth of the studied molds reached the maximum in the control and Paraloid B-72 treatments. The results concluded that using synthesized Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposite could be considered as a new agent in the wood preservation field by prevention of mold fungal growth over the wood surfaces.
... Therefore for conservation of damaged historical artefacts permanently exposed in a humid environment (suitable for moulds and decaying fungi) is recommended combination of acrylates with stable bioactive compounds, e.g. hetorocycles (Tiralová and Reinprecht 2004) or nano-metals (Trăistaru et al. 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals about an anti-mould efficiency of nano-zinc oxide applied into wood alone (0.1%, 0.33%, 1% and 3% ZnO) or in combination with polyacrylate (5% Paraloid B-72) and essential oils (1% and 3% clove, oregano or thyme oil). Treatment of lime tree and maple samples 50×10×5 mm (L×R×T) with these chemicals was performed by one-step or two-step dipping at 20°C/1 h. The anti-mould efficiency of used chemicals was determined by the standard STN 49 0604 - evaluating effect of chemicals against growth of four moulds (mixture of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus Niger, Penicillium brevicompactum and Chaetomium globosum) in the 7th 14th, 21st and 28th day. The anti-mould efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles was relatively poor, however, it was evidently improved in presence of clove and oregano oils, mainly in the first 7 days of the mould test.
... On the other hand, biological resistance of wood treated with the monomer acrylates is a good. For example, MMA applied into wood as monomer increased wood's bioresistance after its in-situ polymerization (Unger & Unger, 1995), but polyacrylate copolymers applied into wood in organic solvents only slightly increased its biological resistance (Unger et al., 1996;Tiralová & Reinprecht, 2004). The reason is a different distribution of polyacrylates in the wood, present either just in the lumens of cells (polyacrylate applied in an organic solvent) or simultaneously in the inside of the cell walls (application of an acrylate monomer and its subsequent polymerization in the wood). ...
Chapter
Abiotic material and energetic potentials have different intensities in interior and exterior environments, which corresponds with the modes and intensity of wood abiotic degradation. At higher temperatures, the solubility of photochemically disrupted wood components is increased and they can be better washed away from weathered surfaces of wood by water. At higher speeds of air flow, the intensity of secession of cellulose fibrils from the photochemically weakened surfaces of wood is increased. The ignition and burning of wood is the opposite process to that of the origin of wood, and its components with high values of chemical energy are gradually split up into flammable gases and then further to carbon dioxide and water. The level of wood degradation depends mainly upon its age and the conditions of the wet environment, in particular whether it found in shallower or deeper layers of soil, and on the bottom of seas or rivers.
... Paraloid B-72 (The acrylic resin) is well-known for surface consolidant for many materials such as wood (Yang et al. 2007; Vaz et al. 2008). In beech and spruce woods, the application of Paraloid B-72 at 2 or 10% did not increase the resistance against brown-rot fungi (Tiralová and Reinprecht 2004). Additionally, it exhibited the weakest resistance against the growth of Poria vaillantii and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pohleven et al. 2013). ...
... Paraloid B-72 (The acrylic resin) is well-known for surface consolidant for many materials such as wood (Yang et al. 2007; Vaz et al. 2008). In beech and spruce woods, the application of Paraloid B-72 at 2 or 10% did not increase the resistance against brown-rot fungi (Tiralov? and Reinprecht 2004). Additionally, it exhibited the weakest resistance against the growth of Poria vaillantii and Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pohleven et al. 2013). ...
Article
Natural compounds from certain timber trees are highly valued and recommended to protect wood and wood products against mold fungi. This study highlighted the use of some natural extracts and Paraloid B-72 against the growth of two mold fungi, namely Alternaria tenuissima and Fusarium culmorum. From the in vitro experiment, the methanol extracts of Callistemon viminalis bark were effective against the growth of F. culmorum, as were Magnolia grandiflora leaves against A. tenuissima. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of treated Acacia saligna wood with the two fungi and Paraloid B-72 demonstrated the clear hyphal growth of F. culmorum and A. tenuissima and changes in elemental chemical composition. After three months, no fungal growth on the wood surface treated with the methanol extract of M. pomifera bark was found. After three months of treating wood with Paraloid B-72 at 5% and 10%, the mold growth was visible. Almost all of the wood treated with methanol extracts showed growth of the A. tenuissima hypha, as well as some contamination by other microorganisms, except for the wood treated with the methanol extract of M. pomifera bark.
... Používa sa na obnovu a zachovanie umeleckých diel vrátane artefaktov z dreva. Z doterajších výskumov je však zrejmé, že drevo konzervované Paraloidom B-72, ale aj inými typmi polyakrylátov, neodoláva plesniveniu a ani hnilobe vplyvom drevokazných húb (REINPRECHT et al. 2001, TIRALOVÁ  REINPRECHT 2004. V situáciách, keď sa konzervované drevo opätovne vystaví do vlhkého prostredia je teda nutné, aby sa v technologickom procese akrylátová živica kombinovala aj s vhodným biocídom. ...
... 1). Tým sa potvrdili poznatky iných autorov (REINPRECHT et al. 2001, TIRALOVÁ  REINPRECHT 2004, ANDRES  MAŃKOWSKI 2011 o tom, že samotné polyakryláty nedokážu zjavnejšie potlačiť aktivitu drevokazných húb v porovnaní s ich aktivitou v nekonzervovanom -referenčnom dreve. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wooden artefacts have to be in some situations conserved with the aim to restore their aesthetical, strength and durability properties. Various types of conservation agents can be used for these purposes. In this work, there is searched individual and combined anti-fungal effect of the oxide nanoparticles (0.1 %, 0.33 % and 1 % ZnO-Nano) and the ethylmethacrylate-methylacrylate copolymer (5 % Paraloid B-72). These compounds have been introduced to the lime wood (Tilia cordata) samples 25 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm (LxRxT) by dipping method in one or two steps. Lime wood conserved with the 1 % ZnO-Nano had about 56 % higher resistance against the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, but only about 40 % higher resistance against the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Anti-fungal effect of the ZnO-Nano was partly inhibited in presence of the acrylic macromolecules used before or after wood protection with this nanometal fungicide. The acrylic resin Paraloid B-72 itself had no anti-fungal effect.
... Používa sa na obnovu a zachovanie umeleckých diel vrátane artefaktov z dreva. Z doterajších výskumov je však zrejmé, že drevo konzervované Paraloidom B-72, ale aj inými typmi polyakrylátov, neodoláva plesniveniu a ani hnilobe vplyvom drevokazných húb (REINPRECHT et al. 2001, TIRALOVÁ  REINPRECHT 2004. V situáciách, keď sa konzervované drevo opätovne vystaví do vlhkého prostredia je teda nutné, aby sa v technologickom procese akrylátová živica kombinovala aj s vhodným biocídom. ...
... 1). Tým sa potvrdili poznatky iných autorov (REINPRECHT et al. 2001, TIRALOVÁ  REINPRECHT 2004, ANDRES  MAŃKOWSKI 2011 o tom, že samotné polyakryláty nedokážu zjavnejšie potlačiť aktivitu drevokazných húb v porovnaní s ich aktivitou v nekonzervovanom -referenčnom dreve. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wooden artefacts have to be in some situations conserved with the aim to restore their aesthetical, strength and durability properties. Various types of conservation agents can be used for these purposes. In this work, there is searched individual and combined anti-fungal effect of the oxide nanoparticles (0.1 %, 0.33 % and 1 % ZnO-Nano) and the ethylmethacrylate-methylacrylate copolymer (5 % Paraloid B-72). These compounds have been introduced to the lime wood (Tilia cordata) samples 25 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm (LxRxT) by dipping method in one or two steps. Lime wood conserved with the 1 % ZnONano had about 56 % higher resistance against the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, but only about 40 % higher resistance against the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Anti-fungal effect of the ZnO-Nano was partly inhibited in presence of the acrylic macromolecules used before or after wood protection with this nanometal fungicide. The acrylic resin Paraloid B-72 itself had no anti-fungal effect.