Green facade (Left) and living wall (Right) 

Green facade (Left) and living wall (Right) 

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Using vertical greenery systems to reduce heat transmission is becoming more common in modern architecture. Vertical greenery systems are divided into two main categories; green facades and living walls. This study aims to examine the thermal performance of vertical greenery systems in hot and humid climates. An experimental procedure was used to m...

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... I NTRODUCTION Greenery systems as a part of a building are a response to growth and urbanization that cause large expanses of concrete and other impermeable surfaces such as buildings, roads, and pavement [1]. There are different kinds of greenery systems in cities such as public green areas, green roofs, and vertical greenery systems [2]. Vertical greenery systems [3, 4], vertical landscaping [2], and vertical gardening refer to techniques used to grow plants on vertical surfaces [5, 6]. These systems can be natural or manmade and they can be installed inside buildings as bio statues, interior walls, or partitions. Outside, vertical greenery systems take the form of fences, surrounding balconies, or building covers [7]. Using vertical greenery systems dates back to ancient times when the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were an early example [1]. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the original Seven Wonders of the World and they were built by the Chaldean King, Nebuchadnezzar, around 600 BC. More recently, the methods and purposes of vertical landscaping have been updated using modern technique and technologies. Vertical greenery systems provide numerous economic, environmental, and social benefits for urban dwellers as well as benefiting the structure of the building [8]. They clean the air by absorbing dust and reducing air pollution [1, 9] and they provide fresh air by consuming carbon dioxide and restore oxygen [10]. At the same time, they provide shade and their evapotranspiration capabilities control the temperature of the building [4, 11]. Consequently, greenery systems reduce urban heat islands and global warming [12] while providing pleasant and aesthetic views [1, 13]. Vertical landscaping are composed of the plants, growing media, and systems [7]. Plants are significant, and they should be selected based on the type of the system used, environment factors, expected degree of maintenance, and budget. Growing media is where the roots of the plants find their nutrition. It can be a regular soil, lightweight soil, felt, or foam [7]. Regular soil is produced by decaying plants and animals, and it provides nutrients for plants growth. Lightweight soil is a balanced soil, made of compost, peat moss, and minerals. Felt is a soil substrate that provides a platform for plant growth. Plants are potted into felt pockets and nutrients are provided through watering. Foam is a light and stable substrate that transfers nutrients from the water to the plants [7]. The type of growing media determines the type of system that can take the form of a green facade or living wall. All vertical greenery systems are divided into green facades and living walls [8, 14, 15]. In vertical greenery systems, the growing media is placed on the ground and the plants grow vertically to cover the wall. It is also possible to place the growing media vertically on the surface of the wall. The first configuration is called a green facade and the second configuration is called a living wall or vertical garden [8, 14, 15]. Both of these vertical greenery systems can reduce air [11], ambient, and surface temperatures as well as heat flux [16]. Fig. 1 illustrates both greenery systems in front of a sample box. Green facades are inexpensive and they do not require much experience or money. They were commonly used in traditional architecture, especially because of their aesthetic impact, but also for heat reduction effects [17]. The efficiency of green facades is directly dependent on the shape and density of leaves [4]. Small leaves can grow between larger leaves, fill holes, and provide dense foliage for shading. Moreover, air can flow through the leaves and ventilate the whole system. In dry Mediterranean continental climates, green facades not only reduce heat, but they also decreases the temperature of the air cavity located between green facade and wall surface [18]. An experiment in Thailand revealed the effective integration of natural ventilation and green facade on temperature reduction in hot and humid climates [19]. Growing enough plants to cover the entire surface of a building takes time. Additionally, in a green facade, if one plant becomes damaged or dies, the entire facade may need to be replaced. Other kind of vertical greenery systems, such as living walls or vertical gardens, provide a solution. These systems use modular pre-vegetated panels that are installed on the wall structure or on independent vertical structures in front of the main facade. There are different modules for living walls such as G-sky, Green Wall Containers, Woolly Pockets, VertiGarden, Philly Green Wall, and Fytowall [7]. G-sky and Green Wall Containers are produced in the United States and Canada for non-residential projects. Woolly pocket systems are popular and consist of plants stack on vertical surfaces in pouches. A British company produces VertiGardens that are composed of plastic panels in zinc-plated steel frames. Philly Green Walls are produced in the United States, and they are constructed of recyclable aluminum and stainless steel. Fytowalls are cells used in commercial and residential buildings and produced by an Australian company [7]. Growing plants in each module of a living wall to cover an entire surface needs less time in comparison with green facades and if one plant is damaged or dies, it is possible to change only that module instead of the entire façade. Based on the materials used in a living wall, they can provide extensive shading to the wall and this effect will reduce the temperature of the building while limiting airflow [20]. Blocked air acts as insulation for internal spaces and leads to temperature increases [20]. The effect on temperature between direct green facades, indirect green facades and living walls was studied by Dutch researchers [14]. They found that living walls 4cm from the building blocked the air behind it [14]. This property is preferred in colder climates to protect buildings against cold, outside conditions. In a study conducted in Singapore, the heat reduction capabilities of eight different types of vertical greenery systems were compared [4]. This study examined the vertical greenery system, and the plants, substrate materials, and growing media used by each system. All vertical greeneries studied reduced the temperature behind the walls, but wider plant coverage and denser plant leaves provided greater temperature reduction. Living walls with modular panels achieved better levels of temperature reduction in comparison with other vertical greenery systems [4]. The study was based on surface and ambient temperatures, but inside temperature and humidity were not considered. Both shading and airflow are essential to reducing inside, ambient, and surface temperatures. Living walls have strong shading effects and the success of green facades depends on the ventilation effect provided by the foliage. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that compare the thermal performance of living walls and green facades in hot and humid climates like Malaysia. Accordingly, this study attempted to discover the different thermal effects of dense and full cover leaves for green facades with modular living walls covered with felt substrate in Malaysia in order to understand their effect on indoor temperatures and humidity. These effects were also studied for the air cavities between the vertical greeneries and the ...
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... It is also possible to place the growing media vertically on the surface of the wall. The first configuration is called a green facade and the second configuration is called a living wall or vertical garden [8], [14], [15]. Both of these vertical greenery systems can reduce air [11], ambient, and surface temperatures as well as heat flux [16]. Fig. 1 illustrates both greenery systems in front of a sample ...

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... For this, the green façades or Greenery systems are a solution to reduce energy and evaluated thermal comfort, in the hot dry climate. These systems are different kinds of greenery systems in cities, consistent vertical improving, and vertical garden used to grow plants on vertical surfaces [8][9][10]. These systems can be natural or artificial installed inside buildings as bio statues, interior walls, or outside, vertical greenery with form of fences, balconies or building covers [11]. ...
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Green roofs such as green roofs (GRs) and green walls (GWs) have been one of the greatest attentions of architects and designers. In arid regions it is necessary to plant vertically, when urbanization continued due to the destruction of green spaces, it became very difficult to plant horizontally. In this regard, the methodology followed consists in evaluating the thermal effects of vegetation on the facade and the roof, covered with plants specific to the hot and arid climate. Then, using a dynamic simulation with Energy plus, we can measure the thermal impact of these green properties on the facade applied in an existing building. With a technical-economic analysis, we obtained a reduction of the various energy consumption values; cost benefits for green walls, and even reduce the effect of CO2 emissions. Finally, we can effectively improve the exterior surface temperature, the thermal comfort inside the houses with low energy consumption thanks to the green facade.
... Furthermore, they reported a high cooling effect on the exterior wall up to 20.8 K which led to a reduction in the interior surface temperature and room air temperature by up to 7.7 K and 1.1 K respectively. Similar results were shown by Safikhani et al. [10], who indicated a reduced indoor air temperature by 4 K and 3 K when a living wall and a green facade were implemented, respectively. Cuce [11] conducted numerical assessments in addition to experimental investigation and reported a promising average of 2.5 K reduction in interior wall temperature when a green wall with climbing ivy (hedera helix) is used. ...
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... Research by Safikhani et al. [42] examined the thermal performance of green walls between the wall surfaces and cavity of VGS frameworks and the internal temperatures in the tropical climate, such as Malaysia. The findings showed that living walls can reduce the temperature by up to 8.0 • C as compared to green facades that can only reduce 4.0 • C for the heat transfer from external to internal temperature [42]. There was a major difference in temperature reduction between the green façade and the living wall [42]. ...
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