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Grèce. Le Parthénon a ` Athènes. Steel engraving after a daguerreotype by Pierre Gustave Gaspard Joly de Lotbinière, October 1839. Plate 22, with accompanying text by Joly de Lotbinière, in N. M. P. Lerebours Excursions Daguerriennes: Vues et Monuments les Plus Remarquables du Globe. Part I (Paris 1841). Collection Centre Canadien d'Architecture/Canadian Centre for Architecture, Montréal (PH1982:0789.01:022).

Grèce. Le Parthénon a ` Athènes. Steel engraving after a daguerreotype by Pierre Gustave Gaspard Joly de Lotbinière, October 1839. Plate 22, with accompanying text by Joly de Lotbinière, in N. M. P. Lerebours Excursions Daguerriennes: Vues et Monuments les Plus Remarquables du Globe. Part I (Paris 1841). Collection Centre Canadien d'Architecture/Canadian Centre for Architecture, Montréal (PH1982:0789.01:022).

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An 1851 stereoscopic daguerreotype entitled,The Geography Lesson, frames this exploration of photography, travel and geography in the mid-nineteenth century. I argue that, at a time when travel was embraced as a way of seeing and knowing the world, photographs offered a new means of acquiring, ordering and disseminating geographical information. Th...

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... the "daguerreotypomania" [42] that followed the disclosure of Daguerre's process, he was among the writers and artists equipped and commissioned by Paris optician N.M.P. Lerebours to take daguerreotype views while travelling. Joly de Lotbinière sailed from Marseilles on 21 September 1839, and, after a storm at sea and a stop in Malta, he arrived in Greece where he became the first to photograph the Parthenon (Figure 2): ...

Citations

... Indubbiamente la fotografia, fin dalla sua comparsa, in un momento in cui il viaggio era già diventato un potente metodo per acquisire sistematicamente la conoscenza (Schwartz 1996) è diventata parte integrante della ricerca sul campo. Secondo alcuni studiosi la geografia è definibile persino come una disciplina quasi esclusivamente "visuale" in quanto responsabile di un continuo coinvolgimento con immagini ben oltre la metodologia di analisi visuale utilizzata oggi da una nicchia di ricercatori (Tolia-Kelly 2012). ...
... La letteratura riguardante la ricerca visuale è molto ampia e radicata da tempo nei paesi anglosassoni in diversi ambiti di ricerca (Cosgrove 1985;Pink et al. 2004;Rose 2016); in particolare si possono citare alcune pubblicazioni geografiche specifiche sulla fotogra-fia (Schwartz 1996;Sidaway 2002;Griebling et al. 2013;Keeling 2020). Tuttavia, questa corrente si sta diffondendo recentemente anche in Italia con pubblicazioni sia di taglio epistemologico e metodologico (Rossetto 2005;Bignante 2011) sia di taglio applicativo (Gemignani 2007;Bignante 2010;Aru, Bignante 2015;Cassi 2015;Aru et al. 2016;Davico et al. 2016;Primi, Marchioro 2020;Brocada 2020). ...
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La Comunità Autonoma della Catalogna è situata fra il Mar Mediterraneo e la catena montuosa dei Pirenei nel nord della Penisola Iberica. Negli ultimi anni la regione è stata teatro di tensioni politiche a causa della crescita del movimento indipendentista che ha portato nel 2017 alla dichiarazione unilaterale di indipendenza dal Regno di Spagna proclamata, ma non ottenuta, dall’allora governatore della Generalitat de Catalunya Carles Puigdemont in seguito a un referendum. Questo studio si propone di analizzare la percezione del movimento indipendentista catalano attraverso l’ideoscape rilevato tramite l’applicazione di metodologie di ricerca visuale alla geografia politica. In dettaglio, sono state scattate fotografie sul campo, inserite in un database e geolocalizzate in una carta multimediale online tramite la versione open-source di ArcGis. In seguito è stata svolta un’analisi quali-quantitativa e semiotica del database fotografico.
... Photography's copying and recording capabilities were certainly appealing and, during the 1840s, the medium of photography became quickly integrated in various projects and ways of making sense of the world. These included colonisation, land surveying, portraiture as well the documentation of landscapes, war conflicts, road constructions and scientific expeditions (Kossoy, 2001;Schwartz, 1996;Schwartz & Ryan, 2003). The above photographic practices were intrinsically connected to European understandings of place and landscape, as well as an agenda of aestheticisation and consumption of the land. ...
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Contemporary photographic practice has evolved into a broad field of possibilities, a flux of representational modes that represent emotions, experiences and feelings. In parallel the depth and layering of places offers a stimulating challenge to researchers and artists whom are willing to creatively explore nuances of land and nature as well as the multi-sensorial and spatial “reality” of places. The Waikato River is my research locale, located in the central North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand. I draw on contemporary photography practice and theory to develop multimodal approaches to my research place, expanding objective modes of landscape and place representation. I trace a timeline from early landscape photography practice particularly during the British colonisation in New Zealand juxtaposing my photography practice as a counter approach to Eurocentric modes of place representation. This is informed by local Waikato Māori cosmologies and more contemporary readings on place. As a result I conceptualised a theoretical framework around the notion of place imaginaries as a creative platform for the development of expanded photographic modalities.
... Ater-se apenas ao textual é correr o risco de obscurecer as práticas cotidianas e corpóreas da geografia (Lorimer, 2003a(Lorimer, , 2003b. Portanto, continua importante o trabalho a ser feito sobre a codificação e canonização das práticas nãotextuais da geografia, particularmente em relação ao seu papel pedagógico (ver, por exemplo, Phillips e Johns, 2012;Ploszajska, 1996;Schwartz, 1996). Nosso foco na cultura impressa da geografia reflete, porém, a importância do cânone textual -e dos debates sobre ele -para a compreensão da historiografia disciplinar e da circulação do pensamento geográfico. ...
... Photographs have been effectively and widely used in research since the advent of photography and have proved their importance for geography's scholarly paradigm. The fundamental use of photography is for gathering and evidencing information (Schwartz 1996). Equally important is its role in constructing and transmitting geographical knowledge (Rose 2008), thereby having a long tradition in schooling (Hall 2015). ...
... However, it was only at the end of the twentieth century that photographs became a subject of geographical inquiry. Its usefulness as a research subject is based on the fact that photographs (including scientifically conceived photographs) have 'layers of meaning beyond the visual facts presented in the images themselves' (Schwartz 1996). One of the most influential analyses of photography is Lutz and Collins (1993) content analysis of the National Geographic journal. ...
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The paper focuses on the representation of landscapes and the depiction of landscape features in the photographic images of textbooks, the perception, recognition and imagination of landscapes by the school population, and the possible link between both. The empirical element of the study is based on the case of Slovenia and includes quantitative and qualitative analysis of photographs in textbooks and questionnaires completed by primary and secondary school students (aged 10-18 years). The results show that the photographs emphasise natural, rural, and tangible aspects of landscapes, while students' imagination also includes urban, dynamic and, especially, intangible elements. We discuss the relevance of stability, generational gap, image retention, and recognisability. One of the key conclusions is that there is a dichotomy between the representation of landscape in textbooks and in students' imagination, but it is not clear-cut. ARTICLE HISTORY
... http://www.e-publicacoes.uerj.br/index.php/espacoecultura/ Todos esses fatores reforçaram a superioridade cultural europeia, elemento-chave para, inclusive, justificar seu papel colonial (SCHWARTZ, 1996). ...
Article
Baseado nos três principais sustentáculos das coleções fotográficas, ideia central, patrocínio e circulação, o presente trabalho tomará a obra Gênesis, do fotógrafo brasileiro Sebastião Salgado, como um livro que traz à baila as práticas científicas que vincularam geografia, viagens de expedição (ou exploração) e fotografia. Primeiramente, a imagem será aqui apresentada como importante instrumento de apreensão do mundo. Por torná-lo inteligível, as coleções fotográficas, garantiram larga audiência e permaneceram até os dias atuais, sendo Gênesis uma delas. Posteriormente, será proposta uma análise dos relatos do próprio autor e da mídia jornalística como forma de apresentar a sobrevivência da “cultura da exploração” não só por meio de imagens, mas também através das práticas.
... Photography has been attracting the attention of geographers since its invention. 13 Although its popularity within the discipline cannot be compared with that of other visual media, such as cartography and film, some scholars have recognized its importance as both an instrument and an object of geographical knowledge. 14 In his account of the relationship between geography and the media, Paul Adams has defined photography as an 'enigmatic space of encounter'. ...
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This article reflects on the relationship between photography and migration from a cultural geography perspective, with particular reference to the visual construction of the Mediterranean border regime. The contemporary aesthetics of Mediterranean migration is one of the domains in which visual and social norms are most closely intertwined. My main purpose is to unveil these processes of mutual (re)production by analysing how photographs forge our everyday perceptions of migration and affect our very ability to produce ethical and political responses to the events they portray. Drawing on a range of fields and approaches, including cultural geography, visual culture studies, and postcolonial theories, I attempt here to develop a critical topography of looking, mapping out some of the performances and places involved in looking at Mediterranean migration. In the final part of the paper, I seek to reinforce my theoretical statements by focusing on two photographic images of people being rescued along the Mediterranean route, in order to illustrate how photography can actually interfere with our ability to create spaces of cultural and political responsibility.
... Os exploradores não só superavam distâncias como também popularizavam mitos e fantasias sobre o mundo não europeu e, por conseguinte, as geografias imaginativas (SAID, 2007(SAID, [1978) impulsionadas pelas imagens. As fotografias feitas pelos europeus fixavam-se na imaginação, servindo para manter os valores culturais, as crenças sociais e as relações políticas dos discursos colonialistas e orientalistas (SCHWARTZ, 1996;RYAN, 1998). ...
... As fotografias de viagem tornaram-se símbolo desse momento da expansão territorial dos estados centrais em direção aos países que ofereciam mercado, mão de obra e matéria-prima. Elas representavam, portanto, a expansão imperial, o desenvolvimento colonial e o conhecimento científico consistindo em um instrumento cultural que ajudou a estabelecer e afirmar identidade nacional, estimulando o patriotismo e reforçando o senso de lugar no mundo (SCHWARTZ, 1996). ...
... Os viajantes ocidentais retratavam o mundo segundo suas visões, possibilitando estudos sobre os "tipos de raça", o conhecimento dos espaços e de seus habitantes para melhor dominar. A intenção era identificar, ordenar, categorizar de forma objetiva os habitantes nativos das terras imperiais, reforçando a superioridade cultural europeia, elemento-chave para justificar seu papel colonial (SCHWARTZ, 1996 viajante fotógrafo, assemelham-se ao movimento de caça, espreitando a floresta densa da cultura (FLUSSER, 2011). ...
Article
ResumoO presente artigo desenvolve-se em torno da relevância das imagens fotográficas na construção de geografias imaginativas e na produção de um forte sentimento de alteridade e nacionalidade. Inicialmente, dissertarei sobre os primeiros registros de espaços inóspitos e como tais imagens faziam parte da cultura da exploração que objetivava deter o conhecimento do mundo. A segunda parte explora brevemente a fotografia do século XX, onde há um imenso potencial de divulgação viabilizado pela imprensa. Na terceira parte, utilizarei o livro Gênesis, de Sebastião Salgado, como referência para pensar a importância de registrar e testemunhar culturas, paisagens e identidades ainda presentes no mundo.Palavras-chave: Imagem, Fotografia, Sebastião Salgado, Exploração Geográfica. AbstractThis article develops around the relevance of photographic images in imaginative geographies in the construction and production of a strong feeling of otherness and nationality. Initially, I will discuss about first records of inhospitable spaces and as such images were part of the culture of exploration that aimed to prevent the knowledge of the world. The second part briefly explores the twentieth century photography, where there is a huge potential for disclosure made possible by the press. In the third part, I will use Genesis book, Sebastiao Salgado, as a reference to think the importance of recording and witness the cultures, landscapes and still presents identities in the world.Keywords: Image, Photography, Sebastião Salgado, Geographical Exploration. ResumenEste artículo se desarrolla en torno a la relevancia de las imágenes en la construcción de geografías imaginativas y producción de un fuerte sentido de la alteridad y la nacionalidad. Primero hablaré sobre los primeros registros de espacios inhóspitos y cómo estas imágenes eran parte de la cultura de la exploración que tenía como objetivo detener el conocimiento del mundo. La segunda parte explora brevemente la imagen del siglo XX, donde hay un enorme potencial para la divulgación hecha posible por la prensa. En la tercera parte utilizará el libro de Génesis, Sebastiao Salgado, como una referencia a pensar la importancia de la grabación y el testimonio de las culturas y paisajes todavía presentes identidades en el mundo.Palabras clave: Imagen, Fotografía, Sebastião Salgado, Exploración Geográfica
... Geographers have long understood photographs as technical achievements, as well as "repre- sentations fraught with cultural meaning" (Rose 2008, 152; see also Schwartz 1996). Photographs do not simply capture the past, they actively shape it: "the production, circulation and consumption of photographs produce and reproduce the imagined geographies of the social group or institution for which they were made" (Rose 2000, 555; see also Schwartz 1996Schwartz , 2000Ryan 2013). ...
... Geographers have long understood photographs as technical achievements, as well as "repre- sentations fraught with cultural meaning" (Rose 2008, 152; see also Schwartz 1996). Photographs do not simply capture the past, they actively shape it: "the production, circulation and consumption of photographs produce and reproduce the imagined geographies of the social group or institution for which they were made" (Rose 2000, 555; see also Schwartz 1996Schwartz , 2000Ryan 2013). Photographs contain visual agendas that reflect the contexts of their commission, production, and circulation (Schwartz 1996). ...
... Photographs do not simply capture the past, they actively shape it: "the production, circulation and consumption of photographs produce and reproduce the imagined geographies of the social group or institution for which they were made" (Rose 2000, 555; see also Schwartz 1996Schwartz , 2000Ryan 2013). Photographs contain visual agendas that reflect the contexts of their commission, production, and circulation (Schwartz 1996). Scholars of British Columbia's colonial history have long noted photography's role in crafting hegemonic notions of "Indian-ness" and cultural authenticity (Braun 2002;Raibmon 2005;Savard 2005), as well as forms of resistance and refusal (Marr 1990). ...
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This article, part photo-essay and part treatise, explores the interplays of history, photographic representation, and archival circulation at work in colonial imaginings of coastal canoes. Inspired by the work of Walter Benjamin, we analyze the archival photographic record in British Columbia to challenge narratives of progress; instead, we insist that Benjamin’s notion of the “optical unconscious” provides a method for reading canoe photos against broader logics of representation and colonial modernity. Our empirical reading of the colonial archives produces a circumscribed account of the representation of the canoe as a persistent technology of Indigenous mobility, labor, and lifeways, but also as a technology, the “disappearance” of which was used to assert narratives of decline and colonial progress. We conclude by suggesting that this article could be read as part of an emerging convergence of critical visual methods within both human geographies of the sea and mobility studies. In this sense, we suggest that the photography-based methods taken here hold potential for growing geographical engagements in marine mobility studies.
... The camera is the glass eye. The eye of the researcher in photography, in a similar manner to the representative glass wall, and through its communicative potential, continues the Enlightenment project of valuing facts (Schwartz, 1996). Or as Knowles and Sweetman (2004) state, with respect to making visible the invisible other, "The camera acts as window that opens out onto the street and through which the street looks back in, allowing for the recognition of those who are usually not recognized" (p. ...
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This article brings glass architecture and geophilosophy into a relationship with one another with the further aim of studying surface aesthetics of urban photography. First I present a selected history of glass architecture and its previous methodological applications. Then, I focus on the characteristics of glass architecture—its permeability/reflectivity and capacity to act with light—in relation to the geophilosophies of Nietzsche and Deleuze. I aim to formulate surface aesthetics through which I contemplate the materialities and the fabulative landscape of urban photography. Urban photography is valued for its characteristic of combining the practices of art and research. In this article, urban photography is also understood as an affectual encounter. However, for urban photography to be seen as a creative medium, it has to be acknowledged as not merely making aesthetic representations of the world but also opening a landscape in order to see it differently and ask new questions.
... 107ss.), ma nel caso del cinema essa è legata in particolare all'indessicalità dell'immagine foto-cinematografica. Con la cartografia l'immagine foto-cinematografica condivide alcuni aspetti fondamentali: l'interesse per la fisionomia, cioè per l'aspetto superficiale delle cose del mondo, e una conseguente retori- L'evidenza del mondo ca della trasparenza -una «subdola retorica della neutralità» (Schwartz, 1996;Schwartz-Ryan, 2009;Harley, 1989) -che tende a contrabbandare come puramente denotativa la descrizione del mondo visibile, censurando i codici e le regole della rappresentazione e i criteri di selezione. Dalla considerazione dell'ontologia dell'immagine fotografica discendono riflessioni sull'immobilizzazione e sulla conservazione del mondo per certi versi analoghe a quelle che talvolta si rivolgono alla carta geografica. ...
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In che modo un medium con un'antica propensione geografica oggi interpreta, commenta ed elabora la «crisi della (propria) ragione cartografica»? Giorgio Avezzù insegna Linguaggi e forme espressive dello spettacolo all'università Cattolica di Milano. Suoi articoli sono apparsi in riviste e pubblicazioni nazionali e internazionali, e ha recentemente curato con Giuseppe Fidotta un numero monografico di «Cinergie» intitolato Il mondo in forma disciplinata. Cinema, geografia e cultura visuale. È redattore delle riviste «Cinéma & Cie» e «L'avventura». Qualcosa accomuna, dall'origine, geografia e cinema: l'intento di descrivere, di dare un senso al mondo rappresentandolo per immagini, di dargli forma, di archiviarlo, di renderlo visibile nella sua interezza, appropriabile in termini intellettuali, se non proprio materiali. Il cinema contemporaneo mostra di considerare in modo più problematico questa propria " geograficità ". Sembra talvolta essersi accorto (o essersi convinto) che il proprio ruolo è cambiato, che non può più – forse non deve – guardare " in un certo modo " , e che come dispositivo ha dei limiti fondamentali: i limiti della propria logica, del proprio modo di pensare il mondo.