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Greater Grison Galictis vittata (left) and Lesser Grison G. cuja (right) from the Amazon region of Maranhão state (northern Brazil). Similar in appearance, they differ is several characters, particularly size and colour pattern. 

Greater Grison Galictis vittata (left) and Lesser Grison G. cuja (right) from the Amazon region of Maranhão state (northern Brazil). Similar in appearance, they differ is several characters, particularly size and colour pattern. 

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Ten species of small carnivores occur in Brazil, including four procyonids, four mustelids (excluding otters), and two mephitids. On the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species eight are assessed as Least Concern and two as Data Deficient. The state of knowledge of small carnivores is low compared to other carnivores: they are among the least known of...

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... . Typically, the genus’s range is divided in two, with the larger G. vittata in the mid-central and northern parts and the smaller G. cuja in mid-central and southern Brazil (Emmons & Feer 1997, Eisenberg & Redford 1999). There are no barriers or other obvious reasons to explain this pattern. All specimens I ob- served in museums and zoos from outside the Amazon basin were G. cuja , whereas all specimens from the Amazon basin were G. vittata . Although the two species are similar in appearance, there are several differences, of which colour and size are most easily seen in live specimens (Fig. 1). Typically, G. vittata is larger with silver-white dorsal hair, whereas G. cuja is smaller with yellowish dorsal hair. In the northern part of its range G. cuja is smaller than in the south, with some individuals that could be similar in size to G. vittata ; and from this, some misidentifications have been made. If this distribution pattern is correct, I infer that G. vittata would be restricted to the Amazon basin, whereas G. cuja would occur elsewhere in Brazil. What seems to limit their distribution is the Amazon rainforest – Cerrado borderline, even though G. cuja occupies rainforest areas outside the basin. Interestingly, two live captures from two different localities, besides several specimens collected at highways in the Amazonian part of the state of Mara- nhão were also of the latter species. Galictis cuja specimens have been collected in the Cerrado (savanna) biome of this state, but their presence in Amazonian localities is rather intriguing. One explanation is that, with loss of rainforest on its eastern border, this species could be expanding its range into highly degraded and open (anthropogenic) vegetation of former rainforests of the Ama- zon region, where G. vittata is typically found. Alternatively, but less likely to be so, G. cuja could have always been there but was not detected. The Amazon Weasel is the least known carnivore in Brazil. Its distribution appears widespread but patchy throughout the Am- azon basin. Most records were of specimens collected in the first half of the 20th century, with few additional recent observations, including those of live specimens (Izor & Peterson 1985, ...

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... Os registros de ocorrência sobre a distribuição geográfica de G. cuja são escassos quando comparados com de outros carnívoros (Oliveira, 2009). Os poucos dados registrados sobre os padrões de distribuição dessa espécie são mal documentados para algumas regiões brasileiras, como é o caso da Caatinga (Feijó & Langguth, 2013). ...
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Fauna Silvestre (ECOFAUNA). Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Resumo: Amplamente distribuído em quase toda a América do Sul, o mustelídeo Galictis cuja é um carnívoro pouco conhecido no Brasil, apesar de apresentar ocorrência em quase todos os biomas. Há poucas ocorrências documentadas da espécie para a Caatinga, tendo sido registrada no Rio Grande do Norte apenas em três documentos recentes. Aspectos básicos como a distribuição geográfica são necessários para melhor compreensão da biologia da espécie, principalmente na Caatinga, onde há escassez de estudos. Realizamos o levantamento de registros de G. cuja através de dados de atropelamento dos últimos oito anos (2013-2021) em estradas circundantes a duas unidades de conservação do estado, dos relatórios de impacto ambiental (RIMA) dos últimos 11 anos (2010-2021) e de buscas na literatura. Quatro espécimes de G. cuja foram registradas através do monitoramento de estradas, um registro através de RIMA, e três registros publicados. A escassez de registros de G. cuja evidencia a raridade da espécie e faz necessárias a otimização e a padronização da metodologia utilizada para levantamento de espécies pelas empresas de consultoria ambiental, cujos RIMA gerados podem ser utilizados como ferramentas valiosíssimas para o conhecimento das espécies da região, especialmente daquelas com carência de estudos, como a Caatinga. Palavras-chave: Furão-pequeno. Caatinga. Distribuição. Mortes por atropelamento. EIA-RIMA. Abstract: Widely distributed in almost all of South America, the mustelid Galictis cuja is a little known Brazilian carnivore, despite occurring in almost all the biomes of the country. There are few records of the species in the Caatinga biome, having been recorded in Rio Grande do Norte (RN) state in only three recent documents. Basic aspects such as geographic distribution are necessary for a better understanding of the species' biology, especially in the Caatinga biome, where there is a lack of studies. We carried out a survey of the records of G. cuja through roadkill data from the last eight years (2013-2021) on roads surrounding two conservation units in RN, from the Environmental Impact Reports (RIMAs) of the last 11 years (2010-2021), and literature searches. Four specimens of G. cuja were recorded through road monitoring from four records through RIMAs and three published records. The scarcity of records of G. cuja show the rarity of the species and makes it necessary to optimize and standardize the methodology used for surveying species by environmental consulting companies, whose RIMAs generated can be used as valuables tools for gaining better knowledge of the species, especially in regions that lack studies, such as the Caatinga biome.
... Os registros de ocorrência sobre a distribuição geográfica de G. cuja são escassos quando comparados com de outros carnívoros (Oliveira, 2009). Os poucos dados registrados sobre os padrões de distribuição dessa espécie são mal documentados para algumas regiões brasileiras, como é o caso da Caatinga (Feijó & Langguth, 2013). ...
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Amplamente distribuído em quase toda a América do Sul, o mustelídeo Galictis cuja é um carnívoro pouco conhecido no Brasil, apesar de apresentar ocorrência em quase todos os biomas. Há poucas ocorrências documentadas da espécie para a Caatinga, tendo sido registrada no Rio Grande do Norte apenas em três documentos recentes. Aspectos básicos como a distribuição geográfica são necessários para melhor compreensão da biologia da espécie, principalmente na Caatinga, onde há escassez de estudos. Realizamos o levantamento de registros de G. cuja através de dados de atropelamento dos últimos oito anos (2013-2021) em estradas circundantes a duas unidades de conservação do estado, dos relatórios de impacto ambiental (RIMA) dos últimos 11 anos (2010-2021) e de buscas na literatura. Quatro espécimes de G. cuja foram registradas através do monitoramento de estradas, um registro através de RIMA, e três registros publicados. A escassez de registros de G. cuja evidencia a raridade da espécie e faz necessárias a otimização e a padronização da metodologia utilizada para levantamento de espécies pelas empresas de consultoria ambiental, cujos RIMA gerados podem ser utilizados como ferramentas valiosíssimas para o conhecimento das espécies da região, especialmente daquelas com carência de estudos, como a Caatinga.
... Além disso, essas espécies diferem-se quanto à morfologia da cúspide no primeiro molar inferior e pelas suas distribuições geográficas. Neste sentido, G. vittata apresenta um metaconídeo no primeiro molar inferior e sua ocorrência se restringe à bacia amazônica e em florestas úmidas da América Central (Oliveira 2009;Bornholdt et al. 2013), enquanto G. cuja não possui o metaconíedeo e pode ser encontrado em diversos habitats (savanas, desertos, matas, planícies alagadas e campos) (Kasper et al. 2013;Pinto et al. 2022). ...
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p>O mustelídeo Galictis cuja possui uma vasta distribuição na América do Sul, porém ainda existem algumas lacunas quanto a sua distribuição geográfica, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro. Desse modo, este trabalho apresenta o primeiro registro documentado de G. cuja no estado do Piauí e fornece um mapa atualizado da distribuição geográfica da espécie na região Nordeste do Brasil. Uma fêmea adulta foi encontrada acidentalmente no município de Lagoa de São Francisco, norte do Piauí, nordeste do Brasil. Assim, acrescentamos informação importante acerca da ampliação da distribuição geográfica da espécie, na expectativa de contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia e da conservação desse mustelídeo.</p
... Compared to West Java, Indonesia, Thailand, Mexico, the proportion of carnivorous species from other mammals is higher (Briceño-Méndez et al. 2017;Husodo et al. 2019;Sukmasuang et al. 2020;Clements et al. 2021). There are more species of carnivorous mammals in Brazil (26) than in Mordovia (Oliveira 2009). This is a differing feature Mordovia of many other mammal faunas, where representatives of the other animal orders predominate (Wirdateti et al. 2013;Sulistyadi 2016;Medina et al. 2018). ...
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Andreychev A. 2021. Proportion faunal assemblages of carnivorous mammals in geoecological districts of Mordovia, Russia. Biodiversitas 22: 4625-4632. In the forest-steppe area, carnivorous mammals are represented by species of different faunistic assemblages. This circumstance makes the study region a priority since the species of which faunistic assemblages prevail is of interest. Fifteen carnivorous species have been identified in the territory of Mordovia. Among them, the family Mustelidae predominates in terms of the number of species. The species are found in all geoecological districts, but their distribution is uneven. The most notable species in the region are located in coniferous and broad-leaved forests (40%) and species widely distributed in several natural areas (40%). 13% of the total number of noted species belong to the taiga fauna types. The steppe type of fauna is represented by only 7% of the total number of recorded species. For each geoecological region, the fauna features are given, and a list of rare and exciting species is given. The forest-steppe zone to which Mordovia belongs is compared by the fauna of carnivorous mammals with other regions from three typical faunal assemblages.
... Galictis vittata sólo puede ser confundido con el hurón menor G. cuja, aun cuando existen algunas diferencias externas entre ellos, de las cuales el tamaño (Oliveira 2009) y la densidad y largo del pelaje (Bornholdt et al. 2013) se pueden observar más fácilmente en los especímenes vivos (Oliveira 2009). Galictis vittata es de mayor tamaño, pues su longitud total varía entre 60 y 76 cm (Yensen & Tarifa 2003) y alcanza a pesar unos 4,4 kg (Smith et al. 2013), mientras que su cola es pequeña y peluda (Yensen & Tarifa 2003). ...
... Galictis vittata sólo puede ser confundido con el hurón menor G. cuja, aun cuando existen algunas diferencias externas entre ellos, de las cuales el tamaño (Oliveira 2009) y la densidad y largo del pelaje (Bornholdt et al. 2013) se pueden observar más fácilmente en los especímenes vivos (Oliveira 2009). Galictis vittata es de mayor tamaño, pues su longitud total varía entre 60 y 76 cm (Yensen & Tarifa 2003) y alcanza a pesar unos 4,4 kg (Smith et al. 2013), mientras que su cola es pequeña y peluda (Yensen & Tarifa 2003). ...
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Aunque el hurón grande (Galictis vittata) presenta una amplia distribución, a la fecha en Argentina apenas existen tres registros limitados a la provincia de Misiones, siendo el más reciente de una antigüedad mayor a treinta años. Confirmamos la presencia de la especie en el país a través de fotografías obtenidas con trampas cámara en el Parque Provincial Moconá (provincia de Misiones). Confirmation of the presence of the greater grison Galictis vittata in Argentina, after thrity years without records. Although the greater grison (Galictis vittata) has a wide distribution, only three recorded localities limited to Misiones province were known in Argentina, being the most recent one older than thirty years. Through photographs obtained with camera traps in the Moconá Provincial Park (Misiones province), we confirm the presence of the species in the country.
... This observation increases the known distribution (Bornholdt et al., 2013) of the species 800 km to the north, to central Tocantins state, and indicates that it occurs in savanna habitat. Oliveira (2009b) observed both G. vittata and G. cuja in Maranhão state, and proposed that the range of G. cuja was expanding due to the clearance of rainforest, which its conversion into open habitats. ...
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The state of Tocantins is located in Central Brazil. The northern extreme of this state corresponds to the southeastern portion of the Amazon biome, while it is covered primarily by Cerrado savanna, as well as the transition area between these two biomes. We provide a checklist of large- and medium-bodied mammals from four localities in Tocantins, update the list of species for the state, and compile the available information on their geographic distribution. We surveyed mammals at four sites during different periods (between 2010 and 2018), using camera traps and opportunistic observations. In spite of the differences in the sampling effort among the sites, we recorded 42 mammal species belonging to eight orders and 20 families. Our list includes rare and threatened species, such as the jaguar (Panthera onca), the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), and the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). One species (Galictis cuja) was recorded in the state for the first time and the known range distribution of two others (Speothos venaticus and Alouatta caraya) was updated.
... Records ( Comments: there is scarce information regarding this species in the literature, with only a few specimens known to exist worldwide, collected mainly in the early 20th century (Oliveira, T., 2009;Ramírez-Chaves et al., 2014). According to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, 2019), only 31 specimens are housed in mammals' collections from Europe, USA, and Brazil. ...
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The Mammal Collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP) is one of the largest collections of Neotropical mammals in Latin America, housing about 50,000 specimens. One of the most representative series in this collection comes from the Brazilian Amazon Biome. Among the Brazilian Amazon states, Pará was target of several scientific expeditions led by MZUSP researchers, becoming one of the most representative in terms of number of specimens and species richness in the collection. Here we present a list of the medium and large-sized mammal specimens from Pará state housed in the MZUSP, with comments about taxonomy, the conservation status of the species and other associated information. We found 1,910 specimens representing 79 species and nine orders of medium and large-sized mammals from Pará. Among these, 24 species are currently classified as threatened in Brazil. Furthermore, we found some areas with higher concentration of collection localities, such as at the banks of the lower Rio Tapajós and in the northeastern region of the state. The present catalog plays an important role in presenting the currently known biodiversity of medium and large-sized mammals of Pará, also acting as a primary source for systematics, ecological, conservation and biogeographic studies.
... In addition, all exhibit a preference for interconnected landscapes comprising a variety of forest types and seral stages that offer protection from predators and adverse environmental conditions (Proulx and Aubry 2017). Furthermore, all members of the Martes Complex are threatened by habitat loss or degradation, which could impact their daily activity patterns, food habits, movements, reproductive activities, and dispersal processes (Proulx et al. 2004;Ruggiero et al. 2007;de Oliveira 2009). ...
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The genera Martes, Pekania, Gulo, and Eira (the Martes Complex) share many life history traits and conservation challenges. In this paper, we discuss management and conservation strategies that can help address common concerns about the persistence of species in the Martes Complex in the face of increasing habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and other challenges to the sustainability of their populations and maintenance of their genetic diversity. We review management issues associated with the persistence of Martes populations, including productivity (e.g., management of natal and maternal dens, and resting sites), mortality factors (e.g., fur harvest, incidental trapping); refuges, and translocations. We also identify a series of measures to maintain vertical and horizontal structural complexity within forest stands, and mosaics of forest stands with varying ages and structures in forested landscapes. Additionally, we discuss various silvicultural approaches to managing cut blocks at stand and landscape scales. The strategies we recommend in this review can be successfully implemented for any species in the Martes Complex because they address common threats to their persistence. However, we need to learn much more about these species before we can develop comprehensive management programs, particularly for the subtropical martens (Martes spp.) and tayra (Eira barbara). Species in the Martes Complex play essential ecological roles that should be recognized in multi-species management and conservation efforts, and promoted in public education programs.
... The lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782), is one of the least known mustelids of the Americas, characterized by a thin and elongated body, short legs, and a short, bushy tail (Yensen & Tarifa, 2003;Oliveira, 2009). It is widely distributed across the Neotropical regions, including southern Peru, western Bolivia, central Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, north and southern Argentina, and east to southeastern Brazil. ...
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Background The lesser grison ( Galictis cuja ) is one of the least known carnivores in the Neotropical region. Its wide geographical occurrence and range of habitats could lead to morphological variations along its distribution. So, this study aimed to investigate the variation in skull shape and size of this species, by testing the existence of ecotypes adapted to their respective environments (Uruguayan savanna and Atlantic Forest), as well as its relationship with selected abiotic variables. Methods The skulls of 52 museum specimens were photographed in the ventral, dorsal, and lateral views, and were analyzed using geometric morphometric techniques. Results We found sexual size dimorphism, with males being larger than females. The shape variation between sexes, as well as between ecoregions, is mostly explained by the effect of allometry. The specimens from Uruguayan savanna are larger than the ones from the Atlantic Forest. Size variation was also significantly correlated to latitude, temperature and precipitation patterns. No correlation between skull shape with geographical distance was detected. Discussion Morphometric measurements and diet data of lesser grison in regions from higher latitudes than our sampling show a tendency to heavier individuals, and the consumption of bigger prey compared to Uruguayan savanna. The results indicated the smaller specimens associated to low variability in annual temperature, congruent to Atlantic Forest region. An explanation for observed variation may be related to the “resource rule” but, due the minimal natural history information regards this species, we can just speculate about this.
... Certain species that are most often associated with open habitats in the state, such as Cerdocyon thous (recorded at all sampling points), Lycalopex vetulus and Galictis cuja, showed that their actual distributions can extend beyond the proposed limits of savanna or grassland type environments. Nonetheless, these unusual occurrences may be best explained by the effects of expanding agro-pastoral environments on the displacement of both generalists and highly specialized species, which show some tendencies to disperse from disturbed areas through open habitat formations (Michalski & Peres 2005, Umetsu & Pardini 2007, Oliveira 2009). ...
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The state of Maranhão, located in the westernmost portion of the Northeast Region of Brazil, is characterized by a dynamic and unstable ecotone among the Amazon, Caatinga and Cerrado biomes that presents a high degree of biodiversity with high vulnerability to anthropogenic activities. Despite the enormous potential for sheltering high levels of species diversity and abundance, little is known about many aspects the state’s biodiversity, especially with regard to mammalian fauna. A capture-recapture methodology using live-traps was employed to inventory the non-volant, small mammal community. In addition, we recorded medium and large mammals based on direct and indirect observations, camera-trap surveys, and interviews. An extensive literature search of published research was also performed to maximize the elaboration of a complete mammal species checklist for Maranhão. A total of 89 non-volant mammal species, representing 9 orders and 27 families were recorded in the state of Maranhão. Of these taxa, 25.84% are included in the Brazilian Red List for endangered species, while 20 are considered as being endemic to Brazil. The preservation status of some areas, coupled with the strong presence of agro-pastoral environments, contributed to some unusual species occurrences, while the state’s ecotonal nature was noted by the numbers of species associated with the Amazon (N=65) and Cerrado (N=66) biomes.. Given the rapid development and effects of numerous anthropogenic impacts occurring in the state, it is a crucial time to quantify, even at specific scales, the environmental richness of Maranhão. The significant levels of biodiversity, high degree of endemism, and the presence of numerous rare and endangered species characterizes Maranhão as being among the most biologically important parts of Brazil. Nonetheless, many gaps in our basic knowledge regarding the biodiversity of this area remain, such that the execution of additional biological inventories is imperative, as are greater efforts to clarify certain species limits and necessary taxonomic revisions, most notably that for small mammals.