Graphical synthesis of the essential components of the Intelligence and embodiment hypothesis [28]. This hypothesis postulates the existence of a common information-processing principle being exploited by the nervous systems that evolved from nature as the basis for the emergence of intelligence. The hypothesis subscribes to the idea of cognition as an evolutionary adaptational redeployment of movement control [31]. Specifically, discrete bodies of neuronal tissue specifically evolved to exploit the pre-existing neuronal muscle-control mechanism but instead of conferring motility, these new brain structures would carry out a type of information processing that is currently denoted as cognition. This information-processing principle common to the nervous systems that evolved in nature is postulated to be the basis for the emergence of intelligence. Furthermore, the hypothesis associates this information-processing principle to the cerebral cortex and its homologues (i.e., functionally similar cerebral structures in other species). A cognitive architecture is defined to capture the aforementioned principles, and also the structural (e.g., physiologic) and functional (e.g., dynamic) characteristics of these cerebral structures with a certain level of abstraction. The cognitive architecture consists of a hierarchical symbol-based architecture of varying size and complexity, where the symbols act as the embodiment of brain representations. These hierarchical symbol-based structures are used to model the fact that progressive functional abstraction over network depth is a fundamental feature of brains [35-37]. Brain representations are assumed to be physically encoded by neuron assemblies [38]. The interactions between symbols in the cognitive architecture are grounded in the concept of movement primitives. This qualifier is used to emphasize the fact that is inherited from primitive animals as a result of the phylogenetic conservation principle. This computational mechanism models the evolutionary adaptational redeployment of movement control. Furthermore, these movement primitives are postulated as the underlying substrate that is common to any cognitive function. The hypothesis is accompanied with a mathematical model grounded in statistical mechanics that is used to analyze the information-processing capacities of the described architecture. In summary, the hypothesis provides some answers to the efficiency of the brain's computations and to the quantitative discontinuities in the cognitive capacities across species, simultaneously explaining the similarities in the intelligence levels that are observed. 

Graphical synthesis of the essential components of the Intelligence and embodiment hypothesis [28]. This hypothesis postulates the existence of a common information-processing principle being exploited by the nervous systems that evolved from nature as the basis for the emergence of intelligence. The hypothesis subscribes to the idea of cognition as an evolutionary adaptational redeployment of movement control [31]. Specifically, discrete bodies of neuronal tissue specifically evolved to exploit the pre-existing neuronal muscle-control mechanism but instead of conferring motility, these new brain structures would carry out a type of information processing that is currently denoted as cognition. This information-processing principle common to the nervous systems that evolved in nature is postulated to be the basis for the emergence of intelligence. Furthermore, the hypothesis associates this information-processing principle to the cerebral cortex and its homologues (i.e., functionally similar cerebral structures in other species). A cognitive architecture is defined to capture the aforementioned principles, and also the structural (e.g., physiologic) and functional (e.g., dynamic) characteristics of these cerebral structures with a certain level of abstraction. The cognitive architecture consists of a hierarchical symbol-based architecture of varying size and complexity, where the symbols act as the embodiment of brain representations. These hierarchical symbol-based structures are used to model the fact that progressive functional abstraction over network depth is a fundamental feature of brains [35-37]. Brain representations are assumed to be physically encoded by neuron assemblies [38]. The interactions between symbols in the cognitive architecture are grounded in the concept of movement primitives. This qualifier is used to emphasize the fact that is inherited from primitive animals as a result of the phylogenetic conservation principle. This computational mechanism models the evolutionary adaptational redeployment of movement control. Furthermore, these movement primitives are postulated as the underlying substrate that is common to any cognitive function. The hypothesis is accompanied with a mathematical model grounded in statistical mechanics that is used to analyze the information-processing capacities of the described architecture. In summary, the hypothesis provides some answers to the efficiency of the brain's computations and to the quantitative discontinuities in the cognitive capacities across species, simultaneously explaining the similarities in the intelligence levels that are observed. 

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In recent years, the interpretation of our observations of animal behaviour, in particular that of cetaceans, has captured a substantial amount of attention in the scientific community. The traditional view that supports a special intellectual status for this mammalian order has fallen under significant scrutiny, in large part due to problems of ho...

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... intelligence and embodiment hypothesis [28] subscribes to the idea of cognition as an evolutionary adaptational redeployment of movement control [31]. This term is used to express, from an evolutionary perspective the idea that the extensive neuronal machinery developed to control animal movement was expanded to control new brain structures instead of muscles ( Figure 1). Specifically, discrete bodies of neuronal tissue specifically evolved to exploit the pre-existing neuronal muscle-control mechanism but instead of conferring motility, these new brain structures would carry out a type of information processing that is currently denoted as cognition. ...

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... After the Darwinian revolution, concepts such as intelligence, culture, purposefulness, intentional behavior, thinking, or language had to abandon the exclusive domain of the human being. First, those concepts were assimilated in primatology (Beran et al., 2016), cetaceans (Chinea, 2017;Marino, 2004), dogs (Byosiere et al., 2018;Clark et al., 2019), and birds (Güntürkün & Bugnyar, 2016;McMillan et al., 2015;Mettke-Hofmann, 2017;Pepperberg et al., 2019). Currently, something similar is happening with cognition in invertebrate species and it has been shown that, for instance, insects display a variety of phenomena involving simple forms of tool use, attention, social learning of nonnatural foraging routines, emotional states, and metacognition, all phenomena that were once thought to be the exclusive domain of much larger-brained animals (Perry et al., 2017). ...
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Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Minimal Cognition approach has emerged vigorously, focusing on the study of the adaptive behavior of the simplest organisms, including bacteria, assuming that they are sentient and information-processing entities. Although Minimal Cognition has occasionally used Pavlovian methods to try to demonstrate Associative Learning, neither the Psychology of Learning nor the Comparative Psychology traditions are prominent in the movement. However, the Psychology of Learning approach, with its highly sophisticated experimental designs, has done a great deal of research on Associative Learning in animals and carried out several studies on plants and unicellular organisms. The present work offers a comprehensive review of these experimental results, among invertebrates , plants and unicellular organisms (paramecia and the amoeba Physarum policephalum) showing that, while there are increasing instances of Associative Learning in many invertebrate phyla (and also many phyla with no data) there is no adequate evidence of it in unicellular protists (despite more than a century of experiments with paramecia and amoeba) or in plants (despite recent results that so claim). We then consider the alternative offered by Minimal Cognition and suggest some complementary ideas, from a Comparative Developmental Psychology approach, which we call "Minimal Development." Association between events can be considered a basic way to acquire knowledge (or cognition). Consequently, studying association in invertebrates and other kingdoms (protists, plants) can provide useful information about the origin and evolution of cognition, allowing us to know which organisms have shown evidence of learning by association. This review suggests that there is clear evidence of a wide array of associative phenomena in invertebrates , but this evidence is concentrated in a few species, since there is no conclusive evidence showing simple association in pro-tists and plants. As a conclusion, it is argued that association seems to show some limitations as a basic form of describing any behavioral change due to experience (learning) in simple organisms and that the psychology of learning can improve its scope by looking into the tradition of Comparative Psychology, which offers a framework based on phylogenetic and ontogenetic Developmental Psychology.
... After the Darwinian revolution, concepts such as intelligence, culture, purposefulness, intentional behavior, thinking, or language had to abandon the exclusive domain of the human being. First, those concepts were assimilated in primatology (Beran et al., 2016), cetaceans (Chinea, 2017;Marino, 2004), dogs (Byosiere et al., 2018;Clark et al., 2019), and birds (Güntürkün & Bugnyar, 2016;McMillan et al., 2015;Mettke-Hofmann, 2017;Pepperberg et al., 2019). Currently, something similar is happening with cognition in invertebrate species and it has been shown that, for instance, insects display a variety of phenomena involving simple forms of tool use, attention, social learning of nonnatural foraging routines, emotional states, and metacognition, all phenomena that were once thought to be the exclusive domain of much larger-brained animals (Perry et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Minimal Cognition approach has emerged vigorously, focusing on the study of the adaptive behavior of the simplest organisms, including bacteria, assuming that they are sentient and information-processing entities. Although Minimal Cognition has occasionally used Pavlovian methods to try to demonstrate Associative Learning, neither the Psychology of Learning nor the Comparative Psychology traditions are prominent in the movement. However, the Psychology of Learning approach, with its highly sophisticated experimental designs, has done a great deal of research on Associative Learning in animals and carried out several studies on plants and unicellular organisms. The present work offers a comprehensive review of these experimental results, among invertebrates, plants and unicellular organisms (paramecia and the amoeba Physarum policephalum) showing that, while there are increasing instances of Associative Learning in many invertebrate phyla (and also many phyla with no data) there is no adequate evidence of it in unicellular protists (despite more than a century of experiments with paramecia and amoeba) or in plants (despite recent results that so claim). We then consider the alternative offered by Minimal Cognition and suggest some complementary ideas, from a Comparative Developmental Psychology approach, which we call "Minimal Development." (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Let us review some basic facts. Recurrent connectivity is a fundamental aspect of brains, and the brain features that may explain the differences in cognitive powers among species do not seem to be the absolute or relative brain size, rather the number of cortical neurons and the connections among them [96], and especially connectivity patterns are viewed as essential in the emergence of cognitive powers [97]. It is thus conceivable that the addition of recurrent neural ensembles between the sensory (perception) and motor (action) systems will result in features of conscious awareness emerging. ...
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In an analogous manner as occurred during the development of a connected metabolism that at some point reached characteristics associated with what is called “life”―due mainly to a catalytic closure phenomenon when chemicals started to autocatalyze themselves forming a closed web of chemical reactions―it is here proposed that cognition and consciousness (or features associated with them) arose as a consequence of another type of closure within the nervous system, the brain especially. Proper brain function requires an efficient web of connections and once certain complexity is attained due to the number and coordinated activities of the brain cell networks, the emergent properties of cognition and consciousness take place. Seeking to identify main features of the nervous system organization for optimal function, it is here proposed that while catalytic closure yielded life, neuroglial closure produced cognition/consciousness.
... En el caso de los cetáceos, dos especies pertenecientes a la familia Delphinidae (orcas y delfines mulares), destacan respecto a otros cetáceos por su elevada complejidad cognitiva. Dicha asunción está basada fundamentalmente en aspectos neuroanatómicos (Chinea, 2017;Marino, 2004;Ridgway y Brownson, 1984), en su diversidad cultural (Rendell y Whitehead, 2001) y en diferentes evidencias de inteligencia (Marino et al., 2007;Morisaka, 2007;Rendell y Whitehead, 2001), acumuladas en ambas especies. No obstante hay que tener en cuenta que el acúmulo de evidencias relacionadas con el desarrollo cognitivo en dichas especies puede deberse a que las orcas, pero especialmente los delfines mulares, son las especies de cetáceos más estudiadas (Rendell y Whitehead, 2001). ...
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La metodología rating se basa en los juicios de una serie de evaluadores respecto al comportamiento de los animales de estudio, usando para ello listas de ítems descriptivos recogidos en un cuestionario. Una serie de argumentos psicométricos y pragmáticos se han traducido en que un gran número de autores elijan el método rating para evaluar comportamientos en animales que pueden ser representados mediante ítems descriptivos. En la presente Tesis se evalúan una serie de constructos psicológicos mediante metodología rating en un número variable de chimpancés y orcas alojados en cautividad. En el caso de los chimpancés se evaluaron personalidad y psicopatologías, mientras que en el caso de las orcas personalidad, bienestar y bienestar subjetivo (o felicidad). En primer lugar, en el estudio de personalidad en chimpancés alojados en santuario (n=11) (Estudio 1) se aplicaron adaptaciones del modelo psicobiológico de Eysenck (PEN) y del Five Factor Model (FFM), con un total de 12 y 38 adjetivos respectivamente. La reducción de datos evidenció, 3 factores para PEN —Extraversión, Neuro-Psicoticismo y Dominancia— y 4 para FFM —Extraversión, Responsabilidad-amabilidad, Dominancia y Responsabilidad-apertura— con valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad. Los resultados obtenidos fueron altamente comparables a los esperados para humanos con dichas teorías, aunque con características idiosincráticas de la especie y el tipo de muestra. Por otra parte, en el estudio de trastornos mentales en chimpancés (Estudio 4) se presenta por primera vez una herramienta de diagnóstico de trastornos mentales para chimpancés basada en la herramienta de diagnóstico humana: el Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Para crear el Chimpanzee Psychopathology Questionnaire (CPQ), un total de 66 ítems del DSM fueron retenidos. El CPQ fue evaluado en 23 chimpancés utilizados previamente como mascotas y en el ámbito del espectáculo, que actualmente residen en un santuario y un zoológico. La reducción de datos evidenció 8 factores de diagnóstico — «Trastornos destructivos del control de los impulsos y de la conducta», «Trastornos de ansiedad», «Trastornos bipolares y trastornos relacionados», «Trastornos parafílicos», «Trastornos depresivos», «Trastornos relacionados con ansiedad, traumas y factores estresantes», «Trastornos derivados de traumas» y «Trastornos desinhibidos» — con valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad y altamente comparables con las categorías de diagnóstico humanas equivalentes. Por tanto, el presente estudio evidencia las consecuencias a nivel de trastornos mentales derivadas del uso de chimpancés como mascotas o en el ámbito del espectáculo. Así pues, este tipo de estudios aportan (Estudio 5) argumentos empíricos para promover: (a) la concienciación por parte del público y (b) un cambio en el marco legal en relación a los usos y tenencias que se les dan a esta especie. Además, este tipo de estudios, pueden contribuir a (c) aumentar los conocimientos sobre los orígenes evolutivos de la enfermedad humana desde una perspectiva filogenética y comparada, y (d) mejorar las terapias aplicadas a la especie y los individuos, tanto a nivel farmacológico como terapéutico. Por otra parte, en el estudio de personalidad de orcas (n=24) (Estudio 2) se evaluaron 38 adjetivos basados en la teoría de FFM. Tras la reducción de datos se obtuvieron cuatro factores de personalidad —Extraversión, Responsabilidad-amabilidad, Dominancia y Cuidado— con valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad. Los resultados obtenidos fueron muy similares a los obtenidos para chimpancés (Estudio 1) y humanos (Goldberg, 1990) según la misma teoría en la que estaba basada (FFM). Además, con parte de la muestra inicial (n=6) (Estudio 3), se obtuvieron correlaciones entre el factor de personalidad de Dominancia y los factores de bienestar «Bienestar general», «Sociabilidad», «Nerviosismo» y «Comunicativo», mientras que la felicidad apareció asociada a los factores de bienestar de «Bienestar general» y «Sociabilidad» y con el factor de personalidad de Dominancia. Los resultados fueron similares a lo obtenido para humanos (p.e., Diener, 2009; Steel, Schmidt, y Shultz, 2008) y a lo obtenido en nuestro estudio de coautoría de chimpancés (Robinson et al., 2017). Además, dichas correlaciones evidenciaron la validez de la herramienta novel de evaluación de bienestar en cetáceos, que sumada a los valores de fiabilidad, evidencian la utilidad de la misma. La presente Tesis presenta una serie de resultados principales. En primer lugar, cada uno de los constructos analizados tanto para orcas como para chimpancés en esta Tesis mostró niveles adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, evidenciando en última instancia la utilidad de las herramientas utilizadas, incluso de aquellas que eran utilizadas por primera vez —Chimpanzee Psychopathology Questionnaire, cuestionario de evaluación del bienestar en orcas y el modelo psicobiológico de Eysenck (PEN) para medir personalidad en chimpancés—. En segundo lugar, en el caso de los estudios con chimpancés (Estudios 1 y 4), se obtuvo tanto una estructura de personalidad, como de categorías diagnóstico de trastornos mentales, muy similares a la humana, evidenciando una posible continuidad evolutiva entre dichas especies. Por su parte, las similitudes encontradas en esta Tesis entre orcas y primates (Estudio 2 y Estudio 3) tanto en estructura de personalidad, como a nivel de correlaciones entre personalidad, bienestar y felicidad, podrían ser consideradas como convergencias evolutivas entre ambos Órdenes.
... In this paper, the focus is placed on the analysis of the high energy consumption of the brain at rest from the perspective of the intelligence and embodiment hypothesis [6,7] to reveal further insights that are of relevance to this intrinsic property of brain functional organization. The hypothesis postulates the existence of a common information-processing principle that is being exploited in naturally evolved nervous systems, and that this serves as the founding pillar of intelligence. ...
... The intelligence and embodiment hypothesis [6,7] subscribes to the idea of cognition as an evolutionary adaptational redeployment of movement control [12]. This term is used to express, from an evolutionary perspective the idea that the extensive neuronal machinery developed to control animal movement was expanded to control new brain structures instead of muscles. ...
... : Example of symbolic structure used to capture some of the information-processing characteristics of brain's cognitive functions. The most important aspects of the intelligence and embodiment hypothesis [6,7] are synthesized in a space of cognitive architecture complexity that is defined by the average number of information-processing levels and the average connectivity between symbols. The nodes of the structure are representing symbols, where the symbols act as the embodiment of brain representations. ...
Conference Paper
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The notion that the brain has a resting state mode of functioning has received increasing attention in recent years. The idea derives from experimental observations that showed a relatively spatially and temporally uniform high level of neuronal activity when no explicit task was being performed. Surprisingly, the total energy consumption supporting neuronal firing in this conscious awake baseline state is orders of magnitude larger than the energy changes during stimulation. This paper presents a novel and counterintuitive explanation of the high energy consumption of the brain at rest obtained using the recently developed intelligence and embodiment hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on evolutionary neuroscience and postulates the existence of a common information-processing principle associated with nervous systems that evolved naturally and serves as the foundation from which intelligence can emerge and to the efficiency of brain’s computations. The high energy consumption of the brain at rest is shown to be the result of the energetics associated to the most probable state of a statistical physics model aimed at capturing the behavior of a system constrained by power consumption and evolutionary designed to minimize metabolic demands.