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Graphical representation of circumplex model of effect from Posner et al. (2005) adapted to show impact of contrasting landscape stimuli. 

Graphical representation of circumplex model of effect from Posner et al. (2005) adapted to show impact of contrasting landscape stimuli. 

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Urban populations experience the multiple health and well-being benefits of nature predominantly via urban green infrastructure. If this is to be designed and managed optimally for both nature and people, there is an urgent need for greater understanding of the complex relationships between human aesthetic experience, well-being and actual or perce...

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... and perceived and actual biodiversity in relation to varying 'natural' environments need to be better under- stood. A useful concept to approach this by is the Circumplex Model of Affect (Russell, 1980). Originally used in psychology, and more recently applied to neuroscience (Posner, Russell, and Peterson, 2005) the Circumplex Model ( Fig. 1) can be used to understand human emotional (affective) reactions. It proposes that all human reactions or affective states arise from two overlapping systems; one related to valence, a pleasure-displeasure continuum, and the second related to a degree of arousal or alertness, i.e., 'activation' to 'deactivation' (Russell, 1980). Each ...

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... Recent Global North studies that compared native and non-native plantings in urban environments in terms of insect habitat show that native plants support greater abundance [38] and species richness [39]. Yet, both social and ecological studies agree that non-native plants offer ecological value in urban settings [38,40], for example, extended flowering periods [31]. A new emphasis on native species has resulted from a greater uptake of "wilder" urban spaces. ...
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Progress is required in response to how cities can support greater biodiversity. This calls for more research on how landscape designers can actively shape urban ecologies to deliver contextspecific empirical bases for green space intervention decisions. Design experiments offer opportunities for implemented projects within real-world settings to serve as learning sites. This paper explores preliminary ecological outcomes from a multidisciplinary team on whether purposefully engineered native grassland gardens provide more habitat functions for insects than mainstream gardens in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. Six different sites were sampled: two recently installed native grassland garden interventions (young native), two contemporary non-native control gardens (young non-native) on the same premises and of the same ages as the interventions, one remnant of a more pristine native grassland reference area (old native), and one long-established, non-native reference garden (old non-native). Plant and insect diversity were sampled over one year. The short-term findings suggest that higher plant beta diversity (species turnover indicating heterogeneity in a site) supports greater insect richness and evenness in richness. Garden size, age, and connectivity were not clear factors mediating urban habitat enhancement. Based on the preliminary results, the researchers recommend high native grassland species composition and diversity, avoiding individual species dominance, but increasing beta diversity and functional types when selecting garden plants for urban insect biodiversity conservation in grassland biomes.
... Urban greenspaces can provide refugia for species whose habitats have otherwise been destroyed (Beninde, Veith and Hochkirch, 2015;Theodorou et al., 2020;Knapp et al., 2021), as well as contributing to the liveability of cities with rapidly growing urban populations. Urban greenspaces provide space for recreation and relaxation, improve air quality (Haase et al., 2017;Fischer et al., 2018), and allow contact with nature, which has restorative effects (Hoyle, Hitchmough and Jorgensen, 2017;Fischer et al., 2018). The multifunctionality of urban greenspaces, however, can lead to competing interests within the space, as well as competing for land with other urban land uses, such as schools, health centres and housing (Smith et al., 2012;Mäntymaa et al., 2021). ...
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Urban greenspaces are multifunctional spaces, providing services to people and biodiversity. With space in urban areas being limited creation and maintenance of urban greenspaces relies on understanding the preferences of urban residents for their characteristics. Such preferences are expected to vary with current availability, and the availability of alternatives to greenspaces such as gardens or gyms. We carried out a nationwide discrete choice experiment with Scottish urban residents to estimate values associated with greenspace attributes of: recreational features; plants and natural features; trees; accessibility; time to walk from home and size, to test the hypotheses that: (i) people are willing to pay to maintain greenspace, (ii) people have willingness to pay for greenspaces with multiple functions, including features for direct use (e.g. play equipment) and biodiversity (e.g. wildflowers), (iii) willingness to pay for individual greenspace will vary according to socioeconomic characteristics and (iv) vary with the amount of greenspace or substitute facilities available. We find a positive willingness to pay to maintain greenspace in general, and higher willingness to pay for larger greenspaces closer to home, which are multifunctional and contain both direct use features (e.g. children’s play park) and biodiversity features. Although we find significant heterogeneity in willingness to pay for maintaining greenspace, this is not well explained by either socioeconomic characteristics or the availability of substitute facilities. Our results have relevance for urban natural capital accounting, and demonstrate to urban planners the importance of the design and maintenance of multi-functional greenspaces for urban populations and would benefit from future research that further explores heterogeneity, including perceptions of greenspace access and substitutes, and greenspace quality.
... Weil [61] considered complexity as the diversity of five attributes, and in a study of natural environments and artworks to measure complexity, color was one of the factors found to influence diversity. Many studies have suggested that the color diversity of plants affects individuals' aesthetic preferences [62][63][64] and that plants covered with colorful flowers are attractive and stimulating for most people and provide high levels of aesthetic preference [65]. In a study of regenerated industrial landscapes, the results showed that color diversity is an important factor in people's preferences [66]. ...
... Color diversity in vegetation and flowers is an important factor that affects the complexity of parks. Previous studies have shown that color diversity has significant relationships with preferences and aesthetic preferences [21,39,63,65], and the greater the color diversity the greater the preference [57,58]. Furthermore, researchers have stated that scenes with more color diversity improve psychological well-being and have restorative potential [39,64]. ...
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A significant majority of the literature on natural environments and urban green spaces justifies the preferences that people have for natural environments using four predictors defined by Kaplan’s preference matrix theory, namely coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery. However, there are no studies implicitly focusing on the visual attributes assigned to each of these four predictors. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of nine visual attributes derived from the four predictors of Kaplan’s matrix on people’s preferences in the context of urban parks. A discrete choice experiment was used to obtain responses from a sample of 396 students of Golestan University. Students randomly evaluated their preferences towards a set of potential scenarios with urban park images. The results of a random parameter logit analysis showed that all of the attributes of complexity (variety of elements, number of colors, and organization of elements) and one attribute each of coherence (uniformity), mystery (visual access), and legibility (distinctive elements) affect students’ choices for urban parks, while one attribute each of mystery (physical access) and legibility (wayfinding) did not affect the choices. Furthermore, the results indicated a preference for heterogeneity of the attributes. The findings of this study can provide instructions for designing parks.
... In foreign countries, research was actively conducted to secure green areas such as land and forests and to establish spaces for ecological diversity, and many studies were conducted on ecosystem services (ESs), ecosystem-based adaptations (EbAs), frameworks [15,[51][52][53][54][55][56][57], and nature-based solutions (NbSs) [58][59][60][61], plans for securing green space and ecological diversity and policies [62][63][64][65][66], street trees, agricultural environment, and the effects provided by natural capital [67,68]. In addition, plans and models for adaptation to climate change [69][70][71][72][73], urban heat island mitigation [74][75][76][77], and green infrastructure utilization plans for air pollution reduction [78][79][80] were studied. ...
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Government-level ESG (environmental, social, and governance) institutionalization and active ESG activation in the private sector are being discussed for the first time this year in Korea, spurred by increased national interest since the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the declaration of a carbon-neutral society by 2050, and ESG discussion in many fields is spreading rapidly. In addition, global awareness of the crisis caused by environmental pollution and natural disasters has highlighted the importance of green infrastructure (GI) as a new conceptual alternative to improve public value. Based on sustainability, which is a common goal of ESG and green infrastructure, this study aimed to examine the research targets and techniques of green infrastructure from the perspective of ESG. This study selected and analyzed 98 domestic and international academic journal papers published over the past 10 years in the Web of Science academic journal database literature collection. Focusing on the research subjects, the focus on green infrastructure, and research keywords, we examined the aspects of the green infrastructure plan that have been focused on from the ESG perspective and compared domestic and international research trends. In addition, implications for how each research topic is connected to the concept of ESG according to its function and purpose were derived. By examining the domestic and international research trends of green infrastructure from the ESG perspective, we identified the need for a wider range of research on the diversity and relationship between humans and the ecological environment; policies and systems; and technical research that does not focus only on a specific field. In this regard, we intend to increase the contribution to ESG management in the public sector through the establishment of green infrastructure plans and policies in the future, as they account for a large portion of public capital.
... Some studies find no relationship between reported species richness and psychological well-being, while others suggest that such a relation does exist and further argue that biodiversity and human values may coexist beneficially (Dallimer et al., 2012;Grilli et al., 2021;Gul et al., 2022). Several studies have found that the relationship between naturalness and wellbeing seems to be greater than previously believed (Dallimer et al., 2012;Boll et al., 2014;Hoyle et al., 2017). ...
Article
Nature-based tourism has an influence on ecosystem functioning around watercourses, but this influence lacks scientific evidence. Additionally, strategic and operational management of streams necessitates trade-offs between the recreational activities and values of tourists and riparian zone hospitality services. This paper aims to assist environmentalists and planners by exploring the effects of tourism-based recreational activities on ecosystem functioning along the drawdown zone. The study uses multivariate statistical techniques to delineate the relevant global tourism issues for planners. Kruskal-Wallis tests (p < 0.01) were conducted using quantitative data from 284 transects within the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir in China. The results revealed higher ecosystem function indices than tourism indices. Indicators of tourism contributed both positively and negatively to ecological indicators, with the Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from minor to moderate (r = ̶ 0.24 to 0.38, p < 0.05). Principal component analysis revealed that the critical variables of ecosystem functioning and tourism activities explained 72.26 % of the overall variance. Nevertheless, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that these indicators responded differently in the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections. Our findings suggest that policymakers should consider the different characteristics of riparian zones in future planning, as doing so will improve both national and global strategic and operational management.
... Despite the evidence that urban publics are becoming increasingly biocentric, social acceptance and social sustainability may largely depend on the clarity of the cues for ecological value (Lindemann-Matthies et al., 2010;Garbuzov et al., 2015;Hoyle et al., 2017aHoyle et al., , 2017b. To adequately deliver these essential cues (Nassauer, 1995;Hoyle et al., 2017a), a good level of forb species coexistence in the longer term is required in meadow communities. ...
... Despite the evidence that urban publics are becoming increasingly biocentric, social acceptance and social sustainability may largely depend on the clarity of the cues for ecological value (Lindemann-Matthies et al., 2010;Garbuzov et al., 2015;Hoyle et al., 2017aHoyle et al., , 2017b. To adequately deliver these essential cues (Nassauer, 1995;Hoyle et al., 2017a), a good level of forb species coexistence in the longer term is required in meadow communities. It also requires individuals of forb species to have sufficient biomass to have significant floral visual impact, rather than be present as subordinates. ...
... Research in rural herbaceous communities in British Colombia, shows that doubling sowing density shortens the time taken to reach a forb biomass ceiling (Burton et al., 2006). Higher cover values in spring reduce potential weed invasion and deliver visual evidence of 'ecological value' that is of both social and ecological importance (Bergelson et al., 1993;Hoyle et al., 2017a). Increasing sowing density is unlikely to affect grassland community biomass in the long term as it is not possible to override ecological processes such as self-thinning, by adding more seeds. ...
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Forb species abundance and richness determine both ecological and social values in naturalistic meadows in urban landscapes. However, species loss and dominance through competition are naturally part of meadow ecological processes often leading on productive soils to large grass biomass in the absence of appropriate management. Sowing density is a design tool to manipulate the initial number of emergents of each component species however high sowing densities may not benefit community performance in terms of species richness and diversity in the longer term. This study investigated the effect of sowing density on forb species abundance, biomass and richness. Two sowing densities approximating to 500 and 1,000 emerged seedlings/m² were employed with 29 forb and one grass species. The higher sowing density did not lead to a larger grass biomass that dominated the community, as the grass species used was ultimately less competitive than the forb dominants. Increasing sowing density increased the number of forb seedlings initially but this declined, as did species richness in the longer term. In terms of subordinate forb survival, ability to access light resources to survive intense competition from dominants was key. Tall, and native species were more likely to maintain higher seedling numbers in the longer term. The research suggest that lower sowing rates are likely to be most useful on soils which are either unproductive, do not contain a significant weed seed banks, where weed free sowing mulches are employed or in rural situations where there is less immediate political pressure for rapid development of forb rich meadows.
... Park characteristics are mainly divided into three categories: ecological characteristics, service characteristics, and aesthetic characteristics [21]. Usually, the diversity and spatial distribution of green plants have a greater impact on public behaviour and preferences [22]; therefore, this study analysed the characteristics of urban parks from the scale of the parks, their proportion of blue-green space [23], plant diversity [24], and degree of re-wilding [25]. This study used ArcGIS 10.8 software to obtain the total scale of the study area. ...
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Urban parks can offer a variety of ecosystem services such as beautifying the landscape, ecological regulation, leisure and recreation, and maintaining biodiversity. Understanding how urban parks affect people’s lives can help guide the construction and planning of parks in a direction that is more beneficial to the public. Therefore, it is worth studying the extent to which different urban parks with different characteristics affect public behaviour and preferences. This paper takes five typical urban parks in Chengdu and analyses the relationship between characteristics of the park ecosystem and public behaviour and preferences. The characteristics include the park scale, blue-green space ratio, plant diversity, and degree of re-wilding. Visit frequency, stay time, and park preference characterise public behaviour and preferences. The results show: (1) There are obvious differences in the ecosystem characteristics of the five parks: Qinglong Lake Wetland Park is the largest; the proportion of blue-green space in Jiangjiayiyuan Garden is the highest; the degree of re-wilding in Bailuwan Wetland Park is the highest; the proportion of green space and plant diversity in Guixi Ecological Park is the highest; and the proportion of blue space in Jincheng Lake Wetland Park is the highest. (2) There are differences in public behaviour and preferences for different parks. Tourists visit Qinglong Lake Wetland Park the most in spring and autumn and they choose Guixi Ecological Park instead in summer and winter. The public stays longer in Qinglong Lake Wetland Park and shorter in Jincheng Lake Wetland Park. (3) The scale of urban parks, the proportion of blue-green space, and the degree of re-wilding, especially the proportion of blue space, have a positive impact on the public’s evaluation and promote public visits. The results of the study could help improve public awareness of the relationship between park characteristics and ecological services and well-being.
... Women also perceive and value natural landscapes differently to men. UK research has shown that when walking through the same areas of designed urban woodland, shrub and herbaceous vegetation, women perceived higher levels of 'naturalness' and found the experience significantly more restorative than men (Hoyle et al., 2017a). The same pattern was identified in multicultural cities across Europe, where women valued all park scenes and medium and high forest plant species richness more highly than did men and were more supportive of the conversion of neat, short-mown lawns to tall meadows to support biodiversity conservation (Fischer et al. 2018). ...
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Designing healthy resilient places for people doesn't need to be too challenging or complicated. We might be best to remember that a landscape-led approach works best, where the landscape comes first, and provides the framework within the built environment is nurtured. We should also be aware that human reactions to places depend both on the aesthetics of the designed landscape itself and the people themselves (see Hoyle, 2020 for discussion). Because people's responses and perceptions are driven by values which vary at the individual and community level, working with local stakeholders including residents, site users, local schools and land-managers provides a positive way forward.
... Increasingly, researchers are beginning to investigate how biodiversity simultaneously influences the flow of cultural services such as aesthetic inspiration, opportunities for tourism and recreation, and education Hoyle et al., 2017;Lindemann-Matthies et al., 2010). ...
... Consequently, landscapes that are aesthetically appealing, subjectively interesting or providing a sense of calm are important motivators for humans to visit and interact with natural ecosystems, while also providing satisfying and engaging nature experiences (Kim et al., 2015;Pasanen et al., 2018). Yet, rather than simply exposure to nature, it is likely that more biodiverse and naturalistic scenes or landscapes provide greater aesthetic appeal (Gunnarsson et al., 2017;Hoyle et al., 2017;Palliwoda et al., 2017), and enhance well-being benefits by providing calming spaces for relaxation and rejuvenation (Fisher et al., 2021;Hoyle et al., 2017;Wood, Harsant, et al., 2018;Wood, Jones, et al., 2018). However, previous studies have often taken a broad comparative or correlational approach, with more diverse settlings covarying with other factors, such as organism abundance, habitat type and landscape setting, leaving the specific role of biodiversityand its multiple facets-poorly understood. ...
... Consequently, landscapes that are aesthetically appealing, subjectively interesting or providing a sense of calm are important motivators for humans to visit and interact with natural ecosystems, while also providing satisfying and engaging nature experiences (Kim et al., 2015;Pasanen et al., 2018). Yet, rather than simply exposure to nature, it is likely that more biodiverse and naturalistic scenes or landscapes provide greater aesthetic appeal (Gunnarsson et al., 2017;Hoyle et al., 2017;Palliwoda et al., 2017), and enhance well-being benefits by providing calming spaces for relaxation and rejuvenation (Fisher et al., 2021;Hoyle et al., 2017;Wood, Harsant, et al., 2018;Wood, Jones, et al., 2018). However, previous studies have often taken a broad comparative or correlational approach, with more diverse settlings covarying with other factors, such as organism abundance, habitat type and landscape setting, leaving the specific role of biodiversityand its multiple facets-poorly understood. ...
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Biodiversity is increasingly understood as an important mediator of human aesthetic appreciation of scenes and landscapes, with implications for cultural services and well‐being. However, the generality of biodiversity effects across affective emotions, scales and habitats remains unclear. Urban coastal intertidal habitats on seawalls and other artificial structures are expanding worldwide. Despite growing calls to prioritise biodiversity in urban coastal planning and management, the potential co‐benefits determined by people's responses to biodiversity in these novel intertidal communities are unexplored. We investigated, using image‐based questionnaires, how several facets of biodiversity influence how people perceive urban coastal structures at both landscape and close‐up scales. Species richness strongly enhanced people's ratings of images for aesthetic appeal, interest and calming potential at both scales, but was more pronounced at the close‐up scale. Species evenness also increased ratings at the close‐up scale, while functional diversity (Rao's Q) was associated with a decline in aesthetic appeal and interest at the close‐up scale, indicating that people can disfavour scenes dominated by species with contrasting traits. Analysis of free‐text assessments showed that people strongly and positively valued scenes that were perceived to be ‘diverse’, a response that was much more common when viewing scenes with high species richness. The underlying structure type also clearly affected appraisals, with more obviously engineered structures being perceived to be less natural and thus less desirable. Our results show that biodiversity's effects on aesthetic appreciation extend to multiple affective emotions and to unfamiliar urban intertidal habitats, suggesting that managing these environments for biodiversity may simultaneously support aesthetic, educational and well‐being benefits. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of responses to the facet of biodiversity and viewing scale in our results underlines the context dependency and complexity of people's perceptions of urban environments. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.
... There is no notable correlation between author disciplines and the use of guiding theoretical frameworks. There are many studies with the perspective of environmental psychology without being guided by ART or other theory (e.g., Wheeler et al., 2015;Schebella et al., 2019), and conversely, there are numerous studies without this psychological perspective but which utilize a guiding psychological theory (e.g., Hoyle et al., 2017;Meyer-Grandbastien et al., 2020). ...
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Biodiversity conservation and mental health and wellbeing are of increasing global concern, with growing relevance to planning and policy. A growing body of literature exploring the relationships between biodiversity and mental health and wellbeing—based on early research conducted largely from social science perspectives—suggests that particular qualities within natural environments confer particular benefits. Results so far have been inconclusive and inconsistent, contributing to an incohesive body of evidence. While past reviews have focused on reporting variations in results, the present study builds on early reviews by exploring variations from the perspective of author disciplines and the use of different guiding theories, and variables used to measure biodiversity, mental health and wellbeing. This aims to address a research gap in understanding whether research in this topic has become more interdisciplinary or has employed more consistent study designs, which were highlighted as priorities in past reviews, but the progress of which has not yet been explored in depth. We found that research connecting biodiversity and mental health and wellbeing has become only marginally more interdisciplinary in recent years, and there is still a large inconsistency in the use of guiding theories, variables and overall study designs. The variation in disciplinary perspectives and methods reflects a growing interest in this field and the variety of ways researchers are trying to understand and test the complex relationships between biodiversity and mental health and wellbeing. Our study shows that there are unique perspectives that different disciplines can contribute to this body of research and continuing to increase collaboration between disciplines with the use of consistent mixed methods approaches in future may contribute to a more cohesive body of evidence. We provide a framework to conceptualize recommendations for future research, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration at multiple scales, and importantly focusing on more specific, mechanistic studies to inform decision-making that provides co-benefits for biodiversity and mental health and wellbeing.