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Graph of the baseline physical fitness and mental health scores for the adolescents who were voluntarily registered vs nonregistered for the intervention.

Graph of the baseline physical fitness and mental health scores for the adolescents who were voluntarily registered vs nonregistered for the intervention.

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Article
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Noncommunicable diseases and mental health are growing problems in low-income countries,1 and are of particular concern for urbanized and postconflict populations living in these settings.1,2 Physical activity interventions that are locally adapted and directed toward adolescents may be an effective approach to addressing these health problems duri...

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Context 1
... it was not statistically significant. In both genders the nonreg- istered group performed significantly worse than the weighted global norms (boys: 11.20; girls: 10.25), but this was not the case for those who were reached by the intervention (Figure 1). ...
Context 2
... CI: 38.07-40.37) for the intervention (Figure 1). However, it is worth noting that the boys demonstrated significantly better mental health outcomes than the girls and were more likely to register for the intervention. ...
Context 3
... under-performance of the majority of the popula- tion in the MFT when compared with global normative values indicates relatively low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness ( Figure 1). This is consistent with the literature that reports declining levels of physical activity in urbanized low-income settings and suggests that there is a genu- ine need for intervention in Gulu. ...

Citations

... on youth programs (Akindes & Kirwin, 2009;Jeanes, 2013;Richards & Foster, 2013). Several sports programs for adolescent girls in Kenya have shown that team sports can have psychosocial benefits, offering both safe places in which girls can build greater confidence and self-efficacy as well as social spaces in which to form friendships and social networks (Brady, 2005;Brady & Khan, 2002;Forde, 2009;Uweza Foundation, n.d.). ...
Article
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This study examines the contribution of a recreational adult women's soccer league in rural Kenya to the development goals of enhancing social support, building community cohesion, and improving women's emotional health. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, 702 members of a women's health and literacy program, 229 of whom played in the program's soccer league, completed surveys about various aspects of their lives. A five-item scale, perceived support from friends (PSF), queried women's access to emotional and instrumental support; an exploratory factor analysis confirmed this scale's suitability as a single measure. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined attributes associated with PSF. Based on these findings, a purposive sample of 229 soccer league members participated in focus group discussions. Women's perceptions were examined using thematic analysis. Quantitative findings indicated that soccer league members had greater odds of reporting high social support than their non-soccer-playing peers. Qualitative findings from the final analysis sample of 201 women suggested that soccer provided a social space in which team members formed a network of friendships within and across villages, providing emotional and instrumental support they associated with decreased stress and improved well-being. Given the positive effects of soccer on adult women's lives, similar programs, particularly in rural settings with limited resources, should be considered as development strategies.
... It is possible that more intensive or alternative approaches may be needed to address barriers to netball participation prior to setting up future interventions comprising competitive leagues. Although these findings may be expected in a natural experiment and are consistent with a strengths-based approach to intervention delivery, the limited reach of voluntary physical activity programs to those most in need is often overlooked [24]. Specifically, sport-fordevelopment programs with voluntary registration processes often primarily reach the population groups that are already the most active [24], but that does not appear to be the case in this evaluation. ...
... Although these findings may be expected in a natural experiment and are consistent with a strengths-based approach to intervention delivery, the limited reach of voluntary physical activity programs to those most in need is often overlooked [24]. Specifically, sport-fordevelopment programs with voluntary registration processes often primarily reach the population groups that are already the most active [24], but that does not appear to be the case in this evaluation. ...
Article
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Sport-for-development programs claim to address key determinants of recreational physical activity participation and subsequent development outcomes in low-income settings. We conducted a natural experiment with pre–post measures taken from women in the 12 villages in Samoa, some of which voluntarily participated in the sport-for-development intervention. The intervention comprised a six-week netball league delivered by local volunteers who attended coaching workshops, received ongoing support from the national governing body and were provided with infrastructure and equipment to conduct local training sessions. Changes in netball participation, recreational physical activity, body composition, mental wellbeing and socio-ecological determinants of physical activity were compared between intervention and comparison villages using a univariate ANOVA. The intervention reached women who participated in little recreational physical activity and had poor physical and mental wellbeing. Program uptake was higher in villages with the strongest social support for netball participation. Local social support and capacity to independently organize netball activities increased. There were concurrent improvements in netball participation, physical activity levels, mental wellbeing and body weight in the intervention villages. Our findings support scaling-up of the intervention in similar settings but preceding this with formative evaluation to identify low active communities that are “primed” to participate in the proposed activity.
... Similarly, interventions that appear effective at increasing the proportion of people who are "sufficiently" active may unexpectedly exacerbate health inequities. Differential impacts of interventions according to baseline levels of physical activity have been observed in evaluations; some interventions reach those who are already more physically active and fit [23], whilst others appeal more [24] or would bestow greater benefit [25] for previously inactive individuals. From the small number of examples where differential impacts by baseline physical activity have been assessed, interventions that are noncompetitive and embedded in settings where inactive people are already present appear to better reach those who are not currently active. ...
Article
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Background The World Health Organization launched the Global Action Plan for Physical Activity (GAPPA) in 2018, which set a global target of a 15% relative reduction in the prevalence of physical inactivity by 2030. This target, however, could be acheived in various ways. Methods We use an established multi-state life table model to estimate the health and economic gains that would accrue over the lifetime of the 2011 New Zealand population if the GAPPA target was met under two different approaches: (1) an equal shift approach where physical activity increases by the same absolute amount for everyone; (2) a proportional shift approach where physical activity increases proportionally to current activity levels. Findings An equal shift approach to meeting the GAPPA target would result in 197,000 health-adjusted life-years (HALYs) gained (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 152,000–246,000) and healthcare system cost savings of US$1.57b (95%UI $1.16b–$2.03b; 0% discount rate). A proportional shift to the GAPPA target would result in 158,000 HALYs (95%UI 127,000–194,000) and US$1.29billion (95%UI $0.99b–$1.64b) savings to the healthcare system. Interpretation Achieving the GAPPA target would result in large health gains and savings to the healthcare system. However, not all population approaches to increasing physical activity are equal—some population shifts bring greater health benefits. Our results demonstrate the need to consider the entire population physical activity distribution in addition to evaluating progress towards a target.
... Within the "youth" category, five publications gave an age range for at least one SDP project's target demographic: 4-18 year olds [62], 5-17 year olds [51], [9][10][11][12][13] year olds [63], under-10s plus 10-12year olds [64], and 12-15 year olds [65]. Two referred to teenagers or adolescents [53,66]. ...
... There was also evidence of literature based/theoretical analysis (4) and analysis of policy (1). There was one health intervention (1), which featured a quantitative fitness testing element, although within a qualitative case study [66]. ...
Article
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The term peacebuilding has gained traction in academic works since introduction in the 1960s. In recent decades, sport for development and peace (SDP) has also captured the interest of the academic community, with a growing field of work. This scoping review identifies and considers the academic literature on SDP projects deployed as peacebuilding tools in post-conflict communities, to gain a greater understanding of those projects and draw inferences from them collectively. Using strict inclusion criteria, results of database searches were narrowed down to 30 publications, which the review explored through comparing the publications and their findings, to reveal the range of disciplines this research is emerging from, the countries projects are operating in, the demographics targeted, and other key data. The resulting conclusion is that there is scope for more targeted studies to clarify specific demographics to include, whether there is an ideal age to engage with youth, or an optimal timeframe for involvement. Many of the publications reference the importance of being part of broader initiatives, but the best context in which to utilise sport, and how much of an impact is being made on the wider communities, is yet to be determined.
... Hitherto, the evaluation of specific SfD programs and case studies has formed the foci of most peer reviewed literature in this research field . Scholars have provided valuable insights into the following issues: relationships between sport and the development of individuals or communities (Hasselgård, 2015;Schulenkorf et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2010;Sugden, 2008); gender equality and relations programs (Beutler, 2008;Coakley, 2011;Donnelly et al., 2011;Hayhurst et al., 2015); the theoretical and practical use of sport as a tool for impacting both physical and mental health prevention and awareness through advocacy and education (Darnell, 2010;Hasselgård, 2015;Richards & Foster, 2013); as well as sport's contributions to peaceful living through creating opportunities to break the ice, providing arenas for conflict resolution, and reducing tensions (Blom et al., 2015;Cardenas, 2013;Collison & Marchesseault, 2016;Cooper et al., 2016;Giulianotti, 2011;Giulianotti et al., 2016;Nygard & Gates, 2013;Parry, 2012;Webb & Richelieu, 2016). ...
Article
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The purpose of this research project is to better understand how one global sport for development agency takes advantage of events to build partnerships. This study demonstrates how the current social context, as theorized in Guy Debord’s Society of the Spectacle, facilitates the implementation of what we label as a “seeing-is-believing” strategy. This strategy allows Special Olympics to capitalize on society’s fascination with events to activate partners. Accordingly, a conceptual model that synthesizes and contrasts the aims of commercial spectator sports and sport for development events is provided. This model demonstrates that events are effective partnership-building arenas because, on one hand, they offer opportunities to efficiently evaluate mission attainment. These opportunities exploit our familiarity with events and the unthreatening passivity of watching. On the other hand, events provide pretexts for getting over the initial awkwardness sometimes associated with interacting with athletes identifying with intellectual disabilities. Theoretical and practical implications of the concepts that make the seeing is believing strategy work will also be provided.
... Wang et al., in a meta-analysis across high-income countries, found similar results [9]. In subgrouping according to age, reductions in BMI and BMI-Z score were observed in children aged 5-10 years old; similarly, in one study conducted by Peirson This was interpreted to be because the intervention promoted PA in the form of playing may have been more attractive and suitable for the younger children [75], or maybe it is because of the ease of interventions in this age groups [76]. On the other hand, high schools and middle schools were more likely to sell competitive foods than were elementary schools [77], which can have a negative impact on the implementation of obesity prevention policies. ...
Article
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Background Childhood obesity persists as a serious public health problem. In the current meta-analysis, we summarized the results of controlled trials that evaluated the effect of obesity prevention policies in children and adolescents. Methods Three databases (SCOPUS, PubMed and Embase) were searched for studies published before the 6th April 2020, by reported outcome measures of body mass index (BMI) and BMI-Zscore. Forty-seven studies reported BMI, while 45 studies reported BMI-Zscore as final outcome. Results The results showed that the obesity-prevention policies had significant effect in reducing BMI (WMD: − 0.127; CI − 0.198, − 0.056; P < 0.001). These changes were not significant for BMI-Zscore (WMD: − 0.020; CI − 0.061, 0.021; P = 0.340). In dose–response meta-analysis, a non-linear association was reported between the duration of intervention and BMI (Pnonlinearity < 0.001) as well as BMI-Zscore (Pnonlinearity = 0.023). In subgroup analysis, the more favorite results were observed for 5–10 years old, with combination of physical activity and diet as intervention materials. Conclusion In conclusion, the obesity prevention policies in short-term periods of less than 2 years, in rather early age of school with approaches of change in both of diet and physical activity, could be more effective in prevention of childhood obesity. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019138359
... For instance, poorly designed physical education lessons may thwart student's needs satisfaction and lead to decreases in perceived competence and global selfesteem [65]. Moreover, some studies have suggested that physical activity interventions can have a negative effect on social inclusion [66,67], since social inequalities between players can actually be emphasised through the competitive component of sports [68]. It is important highlight that when young people do not experience increased physical competence or perceived appearance (e.g. by not gaining strength, not experiencing weight loss or losing games all the time), physical activity may actually have a negative influence on global self-concept [22]. ...
Chapter
Childhood and adolescence are particularly sensitive periods during which environmental factors may influence individuals’ present and future mental health. A large and increasing number of studies have demonstrated that engaging in physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour may enhance young people’s mental health. However, updating and quantifying the current evidence is needed. Thereby, this chapter systematically reviews the available literature in order to (1) provide an updated synthesis of the literature in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in young people, (2) identify gaps in knowledge and (3) suggest directions for future research. From our review, a small but significant positive effect of physical activity on mental health among youths emerged. Furthermore, increased levels of sedentary behaviour, particularly excessive screen time (i.e. beyond 2 h/day in recreational time), were associated with poor mental health among young people. However, more studies are needed to better understand the specific mechanisms responsible for the effect of physical activity and sedentary behaviour on mental health in young people. The output from this chapter may assist in the development of evidence-based physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and adolescents to enhance health and well-being.
... Only one intervention (HealthKick, tested in the Western Cape in South Africa) explicitly involved a process evaluation, and there are several published articles documenting everything from intervention development [32,33,50] to implementation [51] of the HealthKick intervention. Moreover, the authors of some of the other included studies provided useful insights about the interventions or the study context more generally either in the evaluation studies included in the systematic review [52][53][54][55][56], or in other publications [31,57,58]. pilot study with an intervention and an assessment before and after intervention (no control group). ...
... and this was interpreted to be because the intervention promoted physical activity in the form of playing that may have been more suitable for the younger children. Moreover, the Ugandan sports-for-development programme seemed to attract participants who were already physically fit, and thus failed to target those who would have benefitted most from the intervention [57]. ...
Article
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Childhood obesity is of increasing concern in many parts of Africa. We conducted a systematic search and review of published literature on behavioural childhood obesity prevention interventions. A literature search identified peer-reviewed literature from seven databases, and unindexed African journals, including experimental studies targeting children age 2–18 years in African countries, published in any language since 1990. All experimental designs were eligible; outcomes of interest were both behavioural (physical activity, dietary behaviours) and anthropometric (weight, body mass index, body composition). We also searched for process evaluations or other implementation observations. Methodological quality was assessed; evidence was synthesised narratively as a meta-analysis was not possible. Seventeen articles describing 14 interventions in three countries (South Africa, Tunisia and Uganda) were included. Effect scores indicated no overall effect on dietary behaviours, with some beneficial effects on physical activity and anthropometric outcomes. The quality of evidence was predominantly weak. We identified barriers and facilitators to successful interventions, and these were largely resource-related. Our systematic review highlights research gaps in targeting alternative settings to schools, and younger age groups, and a need for more rigorous designs for evaluating effectiveness. We also recommend process evaluations being used more widely.
... [25][26][27], in post-conflict contexts (e.g. 6,10, [28][29][30][31] and in refugee camps (e.g. 32,33). ...
Chapter
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While psychosocial interventions are underlined by most international models of refugee health care, few guidelines exist so far as to the implementation of specific programmes. In this chapter, a resource-oriented, trauma−sensitive approach to sport and physical activity is presented, aiming to promote health and psychosocial support among refugees. We first provide an overview of research on sport and physical activity with linguistically and culturally diverse migrants and with refugees from conflict regions in ‘new societies’ as well as in refugee camps. Furthermore, we outline some initiatives from the sport for development and peace field and different body- and movement-based approaches with people living with posttraumatic stress disorder. We then present some key issues relating to the implementation of sport and physical activity for promoting health and psychosocial support. Finally, we draw some conclusions regarding research needs and practical implications.
... It is also possible that PST is positively influencing adolescents who already practice physical activity regularly. A study carried out in Africa showed that the development of sports activities with voluntary participation reaches those adolescents with greater physical capacity, not reaching the young people who need them most, that is, those who are not active enough 36 . It is also worth mentioning that more studies are needed to assess the capillarity of these public policies in urban centers, as well as to point out the possible barriers that make it difficult to include young people who are insufficiently active in these programs. ...
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Objective: To compare the prevalence of physically active adolescents living in Brazilian capitals, using 2012 and 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey. Method: The sample consisted of 61,145 (2012) and 51,192 (2015) adolescents who were residents in 27 Brazilian capitals and were attending the 9th year of elementary school. The globally estimated physical activity indicator with the cutoff point of 300 minutes or more per week was used to determine the prevalence of physically active adolescents in both surveys. The prevalence rates were stratified by socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, maternal schooling and skin color) and by capital of residency. Descriptive statistics were used for comparisons considering 95% confidence intervals. Results: The respective prevalence rates of physically active adolescents observed in 2012 (21.0%; 95%CI 20.3-21.7) and 2015 (20.7%; 95%CI 20.1-21.3) were similar, independently of the sociodemographic characteristics. In considering the 27 capitals, a reduction in the prevalence of physically active adolescents from 2012 to 2015 was observed only in Belém. Conclusion: Overall, no changes in the prevalence of physically active adolescents residing in urban centers was observed from 2012 to 2015. These findings evidence the need for new public policies in order to enhance and promote the practice of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents, as well as the expansion of existing ones.