Figure - uploaded by Deniz Inci
Content may be subject to copyright.
Glyphosate, chlorsulfuron, and metribuzin: main characteristics, use rate, and application period.

Glyphosate, chlorsulfuron, and metribuzin: main characteristics, use rate, and application period.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Glyphosate has been widely used to control annual, perennial, and biennial weeds including Conyza species. Conyza sumatrensis (Sumatran fleabane) is considered a highly invasive and troublesome weed worldwide, including in European and Mediterranean regions. In Turkey, the use of glyphosate in orchards has recently increased; however, extensive use...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... EYSAL-2, EYYAP-3, and KEPKO-1 populations were treated with glyphosate at the rosette stage when plants had five or six true leaves and at the vegetative stage when plants were 20 to 22 cm in height. Glyphosate rates were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 times a typical use rate of 1,080 g a.e./ha (Table 2). Each population was separately treated with two formulations of glyphosate either isopropyl amine salt or potassium salt. ...
Context 2
... EYSAL-2, EYYAP-3, and KEPKO-1 populations were treated with glyphosate at the rosette stage when plants had five or six true leaves and at the vegetative stage when plants were 20 to 22 cm in height. Glyphosate rates were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 times a typical use rate of 1,080 g a.e./ha (Table 2). Each population was separately treated with two formulations of glyphosate either isopropyl amine salt or potassium salt. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Dicamba plus glyphosate tank mixture have been largely adopted for postemergence weed control after the development of dicamba-tolerant crops. Ammonium sulfate is commonly used as water conditioner (WC) to increase glyphosate efficacy, but its use is restricted for dicamba herbicides. The use of non-AMS water conditioner and other adjuvants could b...

Citations

... kat, vejetatif dönemde uygulandığında ise 5.3-7.8 dayanıklı olduğu olduğunu belirlemişlerdir [13]. Araştırmacılar dayanıklı popülasyonların chlorsulfuron'ada 2.4-3.8 ...
Article
Isparta is one of the most important apples producing areas of Turkey. Disease, pests, and weeds that result in problems in apple orchards may restrict apple production. Although the direct impact of the weeds on apples is limited, they can be significant, especially at an early stage due to competition for water, nutrients, and light. The most preferable method to prevent crop losses is herbicide use. If the herbicides were used in the same place without a rotation, herbicide resistant populations may become apparent. Implementation of resistance management following herbicide-resistant population covers more long-term and extensive studies. This study was conducted to determine Glyphosate resistance horseweed (Conyza canadensis) population in apple orchards of Isparta from 2015 to 2019. Bioassay techniques were employed to determine the resistance. In the screen test, the recommended rate of glyphosate was applied to the horseweed populations that were grown in the growth chamber and their resistances were determined. In the dose-response experiments, logarithmic rates of glyphosate were applied to horseweed populations and the impact was identified by non-linear regression analysis. I50 values of suspected glyphosate resistant populations were 96.087 and 83.126ml commercial ingredient/da and 106.48 and 98.82ml commercial ingredient/da for F1 and F2 populations, respectively. The populations separated as suspected glyphosate resistant horseweed have been considered as high-level herbicide tolerant.
... In the European Union, glyphosate has been approved until 2022, and reevaluation procedures are ongoing 8 . While glyphosate was 300 tons in Turkey in 2001, it is estimated to reach 8,000 tons in 2019 [9][10][11][12] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro effect of glyphosate on Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. Materials and Methods: In terms of G6PD enzyme deficiency, samples taken from healthy and enzyme deficient male individuals were studied. After the hemolysates were prepared from blood sample, G6PD enyzme activities were determined by the modified Beutler method. Then, the effects of different concentrations (5.3x10-3, 5.3x10-4, 5.3x10-5, 5.3x10-6 mmol/mL) of glyphosate on G6PD activity were evaluated in normal and mutant enzymes. In addition, the in vitro effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the enzyme was investigated in the presence of glyphosate and without glyphosate. Results: While the result of normal erythrocyte G6PD activity was 12U/g for the individual, the result for the individual with enzyme deficiency was 2.5U/g Hb. The glyphosate’s maximum activity loss in the G6PD enzyme was observed in the 60th minute incubation. The highest inhibition was observed at 5.3x10-3 mmol/mL glyphosate. 4.7x10-7 mmol/mL N-Acetylcysteine partially increased the inhibition of glyphosate in the G6PD enzyme in healthy individuals, but had no effect on mutant G6PD. Conclusion: In humans, it is predicted that glyphosate affects G6PD enzyme activity in vitro and is an interference agent in the experimental process. In case of contamination, studies on limits of glyphosate that will not cause harmful effects in humans should be continued.
... The proper use of adjuvants is imperative in cases of glyphosate applications, since they reduce the surface tension of the spray liquid and may improve the efficacy of the treatments [32]. Sumatran fleabane has been reported to be more sensitive to glyphosate in earlier rather than more advanced growth stages, due to altered morphological characteristics of the leaf tissues and subsequently lower deposition of the herbicide [13,31,32]. The dose-response assays in the present study revealed that the susceptibility of C. sumatrensis to herbicidal treatments at the rosette stage (BBCH 16-18) varied among populations and depended on the glyphosate formulation and the addition of adjuvants. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we studied the effect of three glyphosate formulations (isopropylamine, ammonium and potassium salts) and two non-ionic adjuvants on the resistance response of two resistant (R1, R2) and one susceptible population of the highly invasive Asteraceae, Conyza sumatrensis, from Southern France vineyards. Only in R1, an amino acid substitution (Pro106Thr) was found in the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The two adjuvants, in a similar fashion, significantly reduced GR50 values for every population and glyphosate formulation. Without adjuvants, glyphosate as potassium salt was the only formulation able to significantly reduce the GR50 values of every population. For every population, the two adjuvants improved, indistinguishably, leaf retention of the herbicidal solution and the potassium salt formulation led to the highest retention, both with and without the adjuvant added. Uptake responses paralleled those of retention and adjuvant addition was more effective in increasing foliar uptake of the lower performing formulations (isopropylamine and ammonium salts). The allocation pattern of glyphosate among plant compartments was only dependent on population, with R2 retaining most glyphosate in the treated leaf, clearly suggesting the occurrence of a Non-Target Site Resistance (NTSR) mechanism. Results indicate that control of weed populations possessing NTSR mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate may be improved through adequate selection of formulation and adjuvant use.
Article
Full-text available
Tall fleabane is emerging as a problematic weed species in the eastern cropping region of Australia. Recently, growers indicated poor control of tall fleabane in fallow fields to the field rate of glyphosate. Pot studies were conducted in an open field at the Gatton farm of the University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia, to confirm the level of glyphosate resistance in a putative glyphosate-resistant (GR) tall fleabane population and to evaluate the performance of alternative postemergence (POST) herbicides to control GR tall fleabane. Compared with a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) population, the level of resistance in the GR population was 4- and 3.5-fold based on plant survival and biomass, respectively. The target-site resistance mechanism was not present as both the GR and GS populations had the same gene sequence. There were several effective alternative herbicides for the control of small (4-leaf stage) plants of tall fleabane, but to control large (12-14 leaf stage) plants, the sole application of saflufenacil + trifludimoxazin or its mixtures with glyphosate, glufosinate, or paraquat were the best herbicide treatments. This is the first published report on the occurrence of GR tall fleabane in Australia. Growers need to use integrated management strategies to mitigate the further spread of GR tall fleabane in fallow fields as well as glyphosate-resistant crops.
Article
Full-text available
Conyza spp. are among the most problematic broadleaf weeds in citrus orchards and grape fields in Turkey. Glyphosate is used to control weeds, but Conyza spp. can escape the treatment and grow as a monoculture in these fields. To investigate whether glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp. exist in Turkey, seeds of Conyza spp. were collected from 131 citrus fields and 121 vineyards with heavy Conyza infestations in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions of the country. Seeds were classified by species, and initial susceptibility screenings were conducted by applying glyphosate potassium salt at 1.323 kg a.i. ha⁻¹ to seedlings at the five- to six-leaf stage. Forty-five biotypes showed less than 80% susceptibility in the screenings and were subsequently used in dose–response experiments. Assays were also conducted to measure shikimic acid accumulation in resistant and susceptible biotypes after glyphosate treatment, and molecular studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism of resistance. Among 252 populations collected from fields, 32 biotypes showed resistance to glyphosate. Molecular studies showed that target site mechanisms including mutations or expression of the EPSPS gene did not contribute to the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in Conyza biotypes from Turkey.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Olive has been considered a divine tree in the Mediterranean region since ancient times. The tree is vulnerable to weed presence on the early growth stage, and they cause many adverse impacts on the olive tree, including wildfire, but it was ignored by growers during the youth infertility in many times. Edremit district provides the most suitable growing conditions to olive tree; therefore, with 11 million olive trees the district is a prominent location in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the attitude of olive growers to the weeds in the Edremit district of the Balıkesir Province, Turkey. For this aim, a questionnaire form consisted of 29 questions was prepared and applied to 20 olive orchard growers in Edremit. The results showed that age of producers were 30 to 73. Interestingly, one-third of the growers was the only considered themselves farmers, and most farmers (%65) had less than 2 ha olive orchards. The weeds were Cynodon dactylon, Sorghum halepense, Tifolium pratense, Xanthium spinosum, Tribulus terrestris, Cyperus rotundus. The growers mainly controlled them with ploughing, cutting, and herbicides. One-quarter of them only used glyphosate in the spring months to control weeds, but most of these growers applied the herbicide using knapsack sprayer. Even if the growers have general information about the loss of herbicide efficacy, half of them had any info or no action if loss of herbicide efficacy occurred. There was no relationship between age, experience, occupation, education, and size of field and methods applied for olive cultivation. It was concluded that research, training and outreach activities are necessary to increase yield and quality of olive and olive oil.
Chapter
Full-text available
Amaçlar (i) İstilacı yabancı bitkiler konusunda temel kavramlar ve bu bitkilerin etkileri (Ör.; insan sağlığı, ekonomik kayıp vb.) konularında Türkiye’de sınırlı olan Türkçe kaynaklara bir katkı sunarak ilgili konuda çalışan, eğitim alan veya ilgilenen tüm paydaşların yararlanabileceği bir kaynak oluşturmak, (ii) İstilacı yabancı bitkilerin yayılımında antropojenik faktörler konusunda farkındalıkları arttırmak, (iii) İstilacı yabancı bitkilerin yönetimine yönelik ulusal çapta alınabilecek tedbirlerin ve kontrol müdahalelerinin planlanmasına katkı sağlamaktır. Kapsam (i) İstila kapsamındaki kavramların kullanımı konusunda öneriler, ilgili konuda rehberlik eden bazı literatürlerden (Ör.; Richardson ve ark., 2000, Pyšek ve ark., 2004) faydalanılarak sunulmuştur. (ii) yabancı bitki türlerinin yeni alanlara tanıtımı / giriş yolları ve bitki istilaları ile ilgili mekanizmalar konusu tartışılmıştır. (iii) Yabancı bitki taksonlarından kaynaklanabilecek etkiler çevresel ve sosyo-ekonomik boyutları ile ele alınmış ve istilacı yabancı bitkiler ile bu bitkilerin etkilerini önlemeye yönelik alınabilecek önlemler konusunda bazı temel öneriler paylaşılmıştır. Purposes (i) To create a resource that can be used by all stakeholders who work, receive training or are interested in the subject by contributing to the limited Turkish resources in Turkey on the basic concepts of invasive alien plants and their impacts (e.g. human health, economic loss, etc.). (ii) To raise awareness of anthropogenic factors in the spread of invasive alien plants. (iii) To contribute to the planning of national measures and control interventions for the management of invasive alien plants. Scope (i) Suggestions on the use of concepts within the scope of invasion were presented by making use of some guiding literature (e.g. Richardson et al., 2000, Pyšek et al., 2004). (ii) The introduction of alien plant species into new areas/entry routes and mechanisms for plant invasion was discussed. (iii) The impacts that may arise from alien plant taxa were discussed with their environmental and socio-economic dimensions, and some basic recommendations were shared about invasive alien plants and the measures that can be taken to prevent the impacts of these plants.